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Engineering Materials Textbooks

by Bhagwan D. Agarwal, Lawrence J. Broutman and K. Chandrashekhara

Edition: 3RD 06Copyright: 2006

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Published: 2006

International: No

Bhagwan D. Agarwal, Lawrence J. Broutman and K. Chandrashekhara

Edition: 3RD 06
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The updated edition of the cornerstone introduction to analyzing composite materials.

Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Third Edition is a revision of the classic fundamentals book on composite materials. It provides a complete, up-to-date treatment of the mechanics, materials, analysis, fabrication, characterization, and performance of composite materials, complete with numerous worked examples and exercise problems. The book features new material on such cutting-edge topics as analyzing structures, smart composite structures, and computer software for composite structure analysis.

This Third Edition of the classic text includes greater coverage of composites technology and presents new material on:

- Analysis of laminated plates and beams
- Emerging composite materials
- Measurement of physical properties
- Analysis of orthotropic lamina
- Thermal stresses
- Free-edge effects joints
- Fracture mechanics

Complete with guidance for using the latest MATLAB software for analysis, Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Third Edition is a must-have for every engineer, scientist, and student in the field.

Preface.

**1 Introduction.**

1.1 Definition.

1.2 Characteristics.

1.3 Classification.

1.4 Particulate Composites.

1.5 Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

1.6 Applications of Fiber Composites.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**2 Fibers, Matrices, and Fabrication of Composites.**

2.1 Advanced Fibers.

2.1.1 Glass Fibers.

2.1.2 Carbon and Graphite Fibers.

2.1.3 Aramid Fibers.

2.1.4 Boron Fibers.

2.1.5 Other Fibers.

2.2 Matrix Materials.

2.2.1 Polymers.

2.2.2 Metals.

2.3 Fabrication of Composites.

2.3.1 Fabrication of Thermosetting Resin Matrix Composites.

2.3.2 Fabrication of Thermoplastic-Resin Matrix Composites (Short-Fiber Composites).

2.3.3 Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites.

2.3.4 Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composites.

Suggested Reading.

**3 Behavior of Unidirectional Composites.**

3.1 Introduction.

3.1.1 Nomenclature.

3.1.2 Volume and Weight Fractions.

3.2 Longitudinal Behavior of Unidirectional Composites.

3.2.1 Initial Stiffness.

3.2.2 Load Sharing.

3.2.3 Behavior beyond Initial Deformation.

3.2.4 Failure Mechanism and Strength.

3.2.5 Factors Influencing Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness.

3.3 Transverse Stiffness and Strength.

3.3.1 Constant-Stress Model.

3.3.2 Elasticity Methods of Stiffness Prediction.

3.3.3 Halpin-Tsai Equations for Transverse Modulus.

3.3.4 Transverse Strength.

3.4 Prediction of Shear Modulus.

3.5 Prediction of Poisson's Ratio.

3.6 Failure Modes.

3.6.1 Failure under Longitudinal Tensile Loads.

3.6.2 Failure under Longitudinal Compressive Loads.

3.6.3 Failure under Transverse Tensile Loads.

3.6.4 Failure under Transverse Compressive Loads.

3.6.5 Failure under In-Plane Shear Loads.

3.7 Expansion Coefficients and Transport Properties.

3.7.1 Thermal Expansion Coefficients.

3.7.2 Moisture Expansion Coefficients.

3.7.3 Transport Properties.

3.7.4 Mass Diffusion.

3.8 Typical Unidirectional Fiber Composite Properties.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**4 Short-Fiber Composites.**

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Theories of Stress Transfer.

4.2.1 Approximate Analysis of Stress Transfer.

4.2.2 Stress Distributions from Finite-Element Analysis.

4.2.3 Average Fiber Stress.

4.3 Modulus and Strength of Short-Fiber Composites.

4.3.1 Prediction of Modulus.

4.3.2 Prediction of Strength.

4.3.3 Effect of Matrix Ductility.

4.4 Ribbon-Reinforced Composites.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**5 Analysis of an Orthotropic Lamina.**

5.1 Introduction.

5.1.1 Orthotropic Materials.

5.2 Stress-Strain Relations and Engineering Constants.

5.2.1 Stress-Strain Relations for Specially Orthotropic Lamina.

5.2.2 Stress-Strain Relations for Generally Orthotropic Lamina.

5.2.3 Transformation of Engineering Constants.

5.3 Hooke's Law and Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.3.1 General Anisotropic Material.

5.3.2 Specially Orthotropic Material.

5.3.3 Transversely Isotropic Material.

5.3.4 Isotropic Material.

5.3.5 Specially Orthotropic Material under Plane Stress.

5.3.6 Compliance Tensor and Compliance Matrix.

5.3.7 Relations between Engineering Constants and Elements of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.3.8 Restrictions on Elastic Constants.

5.3.9 Transformation of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.3.10 Invariant Forms of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.4 Strengths of an Orthotropic Lamina.

5.4.1 Maximum-Stress Theory.

5.4.2 Maximum-Strain Theory.

5.4.3 Maximum-Work Theory.

5.4.4 Importance of Sign of Shear Stress on Strength of Composites.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**6 Analysis of Laminated Composites.**

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Laminate Strains.

6.3 Variation of Stresses in a Laminate.

6.4 Resultant Forces and Moments: Synthesis of Stiffness Matrix.

6.5 Laminate Description System.

6.6 Construction and Properties of Special Laminates.

6.6.1 Symmetric Laminates.

6.6.2 Unidirectional, Cross-Ply, and Angle-Ply Laminates.

6.6.3 Quasi-isotropic Laminates.

6.7 Determination of Laminae Stresses and Strains.

6.8 Analysis of Laminates after Initial Failure.

6.9 Hygrothermal Stresses in Laminates.

6.9.1 Concepts of Thermal Stresses.

6.9.2 Hygrothermal Stress Calculations.

6.10 Laminate Analysis Through Computers.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**7 Analysis of Laminated Plates and Beams.**

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Governing Equations for Plates.

7.2.1 Equilibrium Equations.

7.2.2 Equilibrium Equations in Terms of Displacements.

7.3 Application of Plate Theory.

7.3.1 Bending.

7.3.2 Buckling.

7.3.3 Free Vibrations.

7.4 Deformations Due to Transverse Shear.

7.4.1 First-Order Shear Deformation Theory.

7.4.2 Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory.

7.5 Analysis of Laminated Beams.

7.5.1 Governing Equations for Laminated Beams.

7.5.2 Application of Beam Theory.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**8 Advanced Topics in Fiber Composites.**

8.1 Interlaminar Stresses and Free-Edge Effects.

8.1.1 Concepts of Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.2 Determination of Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.3 Effect of Stacking Sequence on Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.4 Approximate Solutions for Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.5 Summary.

8.2 Fracture Mechanics of Fiber Composites.

8.2.1 Introduction.

8.2.2 Fracture Mechanics Concepts and Measures of Fracture Toughness.

8.2.3 Fracture Toughness of Composite Laminates.

8.2.4 Whitney-Nuismer Failure Criteria for Notched Composites.

8.3 Joints for Composite Structures.

8.3.1 Adhesively Bonded Joints.

8.3.2 Mechanically Fastened Joints.

8.3.3 Bonded-Fastened Joints.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**9 Performance of Fiber Composites: Fatigue, Impact, and Environmental Effects.**

9.1 Fatigue.

9.1.1 Introduction.

9.1.2 Fatigue Damage.

9.1.3 Factors Influencing Fatigue Behavior of Composites.

9.1.4 Empirical Relations for Fatigue Damage and Fatigue Life.

9.1.5 Fatigue of High-Modulus Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

9.1.6 Fatigue of Short-Fiber Composites.

9.2 Impact.

9.2.1 Introduction and Fracture Process.

9.2.2 Energy-Absorbing Mechanisms and Failure Models.

9.2.3 Effect of Materials and Testing Variables on Impact Properties.

9.2.4 Hybrid Composites and Their Impact Strength.

9.2.5 Damage Due to Low-Velocity Impact.

9.3 Environmental-Interaction Effects.

9.3.1 Fiber Strength.

9.3.2 Matrix Effects.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**10 Experimental Characterization of Composites.**

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Measurement of Physical Properties.

10.2.1 Density.

10.2.2 Constituent Weight and Volume Fractions.

10.2.3 Void Volume Fraction.

10.2.4 Thermal Expansion Coefficients.

10.2.5 Moisture Absorption and Diffusivity.

10.2.6 Moisture Expansion Coefficients.

10.3 Measurement of Mechanical Properties.

10.3.1 Properties in Tension.

10.3.2 Properties in Compression.

10.3.3 In-Place Shear Properties.

10.3.4 Flexural Properties.

10.3.5 Measures of In-Plane Fracture Toughness.

10.3.6 Interlaminar Shear Strength and Fracture Toughness.

10.3.7 Impact Properties.

10.4 Damage Identification Using Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques.

10.4.1 Ultrasonics.

10.4.2 Acoustic Emission.

10.4.3 x-Radiography.

10.4.4 Thermography.

10.4.5 Laser Shearography.

10.5 General Remarks on Characterization.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**11 Emerging Composite Materials.**

11.1 Nanocomposites.

11.2 Carbon-Carbon Composites.

11.3 Biocomposites.

11.3.1 Biofibers.

11.3.2 Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCs).

11.3.3 Biopolymers.

11.4 Composites in ''Smart'' Structures.

Suggested Reading.

Appendix 1: Matrices and Tensors.

Appendix 2: Equations of Theory of Elasticity.

Appendix 3: Laminate Orientation Code.

Appendix 4: Properties of Fiber Composites.

Appendix 5: Computer Programs for Laminate Analysis.

Index.

Summary

The updated edition of the cornerstone introduction to analyzing composite materials.

Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Third Edition is a revision of the classic fundamentals book on composite materials. It provides a complete, up-to-date treatment of the mechanics, materials, analysis, fabrication, characterization, and performance of composite materials, complete with numerous worked examples and exercise problems. The book features new material on such cutting-edge topics as analyzing structures, smart composite structures, and computer software for composite structure analysis.

This Third Edition of the classic text includes greater coverage of composites technology and presents new material on:

- Analysis of laminated plates and beams
- Emerging composite materials
- Measurement of physical properties
- Analysis of orthotropic lamina
- Thermal stresses
- Free-edge effects joints
- Fracture mechanics

Complete with guidance for using the latest MATLAB software for analysis, Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Third Edition is a must-have for every engineer, scientist, and student in the field.

Table of Contents

Preface.

**1 Introduction.**

1.1 Definition.

1.2 Characteristics.

1.3 Classification.

1.4 Particulate Composites.

1.5 Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

1.6 Applications of Fiber Composites.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**2 Fibers, Matrices, and Fabrication of Composites.**

2.1 Advanced Fibers.

2.1.1 Glass Fibers.

2.1.2 Carbon and Graphite Fibers.

2.1.3 Aramid Fibers.

2.1.4 Boron Fibers.

2.1.5 Other Fibers.

2.2 Matrix Materials.

2.2.1 Polymers.

2.2.2 Metals.

2.3 Fabrication of Composites.

2.3.1 Fabrication of Thermosetting Resin Matrix Composites.

2.3.2 Fabrication of Thermoplastic-Resin Matrix Composites (Short-Fiber Composites).

2.3.3 Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites.

2.3.4 Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composites.

Suggested Reading.

**3 Behavior of Unidirectional Composites.**

3.1 Introduction.

3.1.1 Nomenclature.

3.1.2 Volume and Weight Fractions.

3.2 Longitudinal Behavior of Unidirectional Composites.

3.2.1 Initial Stiffness.

3.2.2 Load Sharing.

3.2.3 Behavior beyond Initial Deformation.

3.2.4 Failure Mechanism and Strength.

3.2.5 Factors Influencing Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness.

3.3 Transverse Stiffness and Strength.

3.3.1 Constant-Stress Model.

3.3.2 Elasticity Methods of Stiffness Prediction.

3.3.3 Halpin-Tsai Equations for Transverse Modulus.

3.3.4 Transverse Strength.

3.4 Prediction of Shear Modulus.

3.5 Prediction of Poisson's Ratio.

3.6 Failure Modes.

3.6.1 Failure under Longitudinal Tensile Loads.

3.6.2 Failure under Longitudinal Compressive Loads.

3.6.3 Failure under Transverse Tensile Loads.

3.6.4 Failure under Transverse Compressive Loads.

3.6.5 Failure under In-Plane Shear Loads.

3.7 Expansion Coefficients and Transport Properties.

3.7.1 Thermal Expansion Coefficients.

3.7.2 Moisture Expansion Coefficients.

3.7.3 Transport Properties.

3.7.4 Mass Diffusion.

3.8 Typical Unidirectional Fiber Composite Properties.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**4 Short-Fiber Composites.**

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Theories of Stress Transfer.

4.2.1 Approximate Analysis of Stress Transfer.

4.2.2 Stress Distributions from Finite-Element Analysis.

4.2.3 Average Fiber Stress.

4.3 Modulus and Strength of Short-Fiber Composites.

4.3.1 Prediction of Modulus.

4.3.2 Prediction of Strength.

4.3.3 Effect of Matrix Ductility.

4.4 Ribbon-Reinforced Composites.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**5 Analysis of an Orthotropic Lamina.**

5.1 Introduction.

5.1.1 Orthotropic Materials.

5.2 Stress-Strain Relations and Engineering Constants.

5.2.1 Stress-Strain Relations for Specially Orthotropic Lamina.

5.2.2 Stress-Strain Relations for Generally Orthotropic Lamina.

5.2.3 Transformation of Engineering Constants.

5.3 Hooke's Law and Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.3.1 General Anisotropic Material.

5.3.2 Specially Orthotropic Material.

5.3.3 Transversely Isotropic Material.

5.3.4 Isotropic Material.

5.3.5 Specially Orthotropic Material under Plane Stress.

5.3.6 Compliance Tensor and Compliance Matrix.

5.3.7 Relations between Engineering Constants and Elements of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.3.8 Restrictions on Elastic Constants.

5.3.9 Transformation of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.3.10 Invariant Forms of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.4 Strengths of an Orthotropic Lamina.

5.4.1 Maximum-Stress Theory.

5.4.2 Maximum-Strain Theory.

5.4.3 Maximum-Work Theory.

5.4.4 Importance of Sign of Shear Stress on Strength of Composites.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**6 Analysis of Laminated Composites.**

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Laminate Strains.

6.3 Variation of Stresses in a Laminate.

6.4 Resultant Forces and Moments: Synthesis of Stiffness Matrix.

6.5 Laminate Description System.

6.6 Construction and Properties of Special Laminates.

6.6.1 Symmetric Laminates.

6.6.2 Unidirectional, Cross-Ply, and Angle-Ply Laminates.

6.6.3 Quasi-isotropic Laminates.

6.7 Determination of Laminae Stresses and Strains.

6.8 Analysis of Laminates after Initial Failure.

6.9 Hygrothermal Stresses in Laminates.

6.9.1 Concepts of Thermal Stresses.

6.9.2 Hygrothermal Stress Calculations.

6.10 Laminate Analysis Through Computers.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**7 Analysis of Laminated Plates and Beams.**

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Governing Equations for Plates.

7.2.1 Equilibrium Equations.

7.2.2 Equilibrium Equations in Terms of Displacements.

7.3 Application of Plate Theory.

7.3.1 Bending.

7.3.2 Buckling.

7.3.3 Free Vibrations.

7.4 Deformations Due to Transverse Shear.

7.4.1 First-Order Shear Deformation Theory.

7.4.2 Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory.

7.5 Analysis of Laminated Beams.

7.5.1 Governing Equations for Laminated Beams.

7.5.2 Application of Beam Theory.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**8 Advanced Topics in Fiber Composites.**

8.1 Interlaminar Stresses and Free-Edge Effects.

8.1.1 Concepts of Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.2 Determination of Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.3 Effect of Stacking Sequence on Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.4 Approximate Solutions for Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.5 Summary.

8.2 Fracture Mechanics of Fiber Composites.

8.2.1 Introduction.

8.2.2 Fracture Mechanics Concepts and Measures of Fracture Toughness.

8.2.3 Fracture Toughness of Composite Laminates.

8.2.4 Whitney-Nuismer Failure Criteria for Notched Composites.

8.3 Joints for Composite Structures.

8.3.1 Adhesively Bonded Joints.

8.3.2 Mechanically Fastened Joints.

8.3.3 Bonded-Fastened Joints.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**9 Performance of Fiber Composites: Fatigue, Impact, and Environmental Effects.**

9.1 Fatigue.

9.1.1 Introduction.

9.1.2 Fatigue Damage.

9.1.3 Factors Influencing Fatigue Behavior of Composites.

9.1.4 Empirical Relations for Fatigue Damage and Fatigue Life.

9.1.5 Fatigue of High-Modulus Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

9.1.6 Fatigue of Short-Fiber Composites.

9.2 Impact.

9.2.1 Introduction and Fracture Process.

9.2.2 Energy-Absorbing Mechanisms and Failure Models.

9.2.3 Effect of Materials and Testing Variables on Impact Properties.

9.2.4 Hybrid Composites and Their Impact Strength.

9.2.5 Damage Due to Low-Velocity Impact.

9.3 Environmental-Interaction Effects.

9.3.1 Fiber Strength.

9.3.2 Matrix Effects.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**10 Experimental Characterization of Composites.**

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Measurement of Physical Properties.

10.2.1 Density.

10.2.2 Constituent Weight and Volume Fractions.

10.2.3 Void Volume Fraction.

10.2.4 Thermal Expansion Coefficients.

10.2.5 Moisture Absorption and Diffusivity.

10.2.6 Moisture Expansion Coefficients.

10.3 Measurement of Mechanical Properties.

10.3.1 Properties in Tension.

10.3.2 Properties in Compression.

10.3.3 In-Place Shear Properties.

10.3.4 Flexural Properties.

10.3.5 Measures of In-Plane Fracture Toughness.

10.3.6 Interlaminar Shear Strength and Fracture Toughness.

10.3.7 Impact Properties.

10.4 Damage Identification Using Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques.

10.4.1 Ultrasonics.

10.4.2 Acoustic Emission.

10.4.3 x-Radiography.

10.4.4 Thermography.

10.4.5 Laser Shearography.

10.5 General Remarks on Characterization.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**11 Emerging Composite Materials.**

11.1 Nanocomposites.

11.2 Carbon-Carbon Composites.

11.3 Biocomposites.

11.3.1 Biofibers.

11.3.2 Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCs).

11.3.3 Biopolymers.

11.4 Composites in ''Smart'' Structures.

Suggested Reading.

Appendix 1: Matrices and Tensors.

Appendix 2: Equations of Theory of Elasticity.

Appendix 3: Laminate Orientation Code.

Appendix 4: Properties of Fiber Composites.

Appendix 5: Computer Programs for Laminate Analysis.

Index.

Publisher Info

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Published: 2006

International: No

Published: 2006

International: No

The updated edition of the cornerstone introduction to analyzing composite materials.

Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Third Edition is a revision of the classic fundamentals book on composite materials. It provides a complete, up-to-date treatment of the mechanics, materials, analysis, fabrication, characterization, and performance of composite materials, complete with numerous worked examples and exercise problems. The book features new material on such cutting-edge topics as analyzing structures, smart composite structures, and computer software for composite structure analysis.

This Third Edition of the classic text includes greater coverage of composites technology and presents new material on:

- Analysis of laminated plates and beams
- Emerging composite materials
- Measurement of physical properties
- Analysis of orthotropic lamina
- Thermal stresses
- Free-edge effects joints
- Fracture mechanics

Complete with guidance for using the latest MATLAB software for analysis, Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Third Edition is a must-have for every engineer, scientist, and student in the field.

Preface.

**1 Introduction.**

1.1 Definition.

1.2 Characteristics.

1.3 Classification.

1.4 Particulate Composites.

1.5 Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

1.6 Applications of Fiber Composites.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**2 Fibers, Matrices, and Fabrication of Composites.**

2.1 Advanced Fibers.

2.1.1 Glass Fibers.

2.1.2 Carbon and Graphite Fibers.

2.1.3 Aramid Fibers.

2.1.4 Boron Fibers.

2.1.5 Other Fibers.

2.2 Matrix Materials.

2.2.1 Polymers.

2.2.2 Metals.

2.3 Fabrication of Composites.

2.3.1 Fabrication of Thermosetting Resin Matrix Composites.

2.3.2 Fabrication of Thermoplastic-Resin Matrix Composites (Short-Fiber Composites).

2.3.3 Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites.

2.3.4 Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composites.

Suggested Reading.

**3 Behavior of Unidirectional Composites.**

3.1 Introduction.

3.1.1 Nomenclature.

3.1.2 Volume and Weight Fractions.

3.2 Longitudinal Behavior of Unidirectional Composites.

3.2.1 Initial Stiffness.

3.2.2 Load Sharing.

3.2.3 Behavior beyond Initial Deformation.

3.2.4 Failure Mechanism and Strength.

3.2.5 Factors Influencing Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness.

3.3 Transverse Stiffness and Strength.

3.3.1 Constant-Stress Model.

3.3.2 Elasticity Methods of Stiffness Prediction.

3.3.3 Halpin-Tsai Equations for Transverse Modulus.

3.3.4 Transverse Strength.

3.4 Prediction of Shear Modulus.

3.5 Prediction of Poisson's Ratio.

3.6 Failure Modes.

3.6.1 Failure under Longitudinal Tensile Loads.

3.6.2 Failure under Longitudinal Compressive Loads.

3.6.3 Failure under Transverse Tensile Loads.

3.6.4 Failure under Transverse Compressive Loads.

3.6.5 Failure under In-Plane Shear Loads.

3.7 Expansion Coefficients and Transport Properties.

3.7.1 Thermal Expansion Coefficients.

3.7.2 Moisture Expansion Coefficients.

3.7.3 Transport Properties.

3.7.4 Mass Diffusion.

3.8 Typical Unidirectional Fiber Composite Properties.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**4 Short-Fiber Composites.**

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Theories of Stress Transfer.

4.2.1 Approximate Analysis of Stress Transfer.

4.2.2 Stress Distributions from Finite-Element Analysis.

4.2.3 Average Fiber Stress.

4.3 Modulus and Strength of Short-Fiber Composites.

4.3.1 Prediction of Modulus.

4.3.2 Prediction of Strength.

4.3.3 Effect of Matrix Ductility.

4.4 Ribbon-Reinforced Composites.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**5 Analysis of an Orthotropic Lamina.**

5.1 Introduction.

5.1.1 Orthotropic Materials.

5.2 Stress-Strain Relations and Engineering Constants.

5.2.1 Stress-Strain Relations for Specially Orthotropic Lamina.

5.2.2 Stress-Strain Relations for Generally Orthotropic Lamina.

5.2.3 Transformation of Engineering Constants.

5.3 Hooke's Law and Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.3.1 General Anisotropic Material.

5.3.2 Specially Orthotropic Material.

5.3.3 Transversely Isotropic Material.

5.3.4 Isotropic Material.

5.3.5 Specially Orthotropic Material under Plane Stress.

5.3.6 Compliance Tensor and Compliance Matrix.

5.3.7 Relations between Engineering Constants and Elements of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.3.8 Restrictions on Elastic Constants.

5.3.9 Transformation of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.3.10 Invariant Forms of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices.

5.4 Strengths of an Orthotropic Lamina.

5.4.1 Maximum-Stress Theory.

5.4.2 Maximum-Strain Theory.

5.4.3 Maximum-Work Theory.

5.4.4 Importance of Sign of Shear Stress on Strength of Composites.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**6 Analysis of Laminated Composites.**

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Laminate Strains.

6.3 Variation of Stresses in a Laminate.

6.4 Resultant Forces and Moments: Synthesis of Stiffness Matrix.

6.5 Laminate Description System.

6.6 Construction and Properties of Special Laminates.

6.6.1 Symmetric Laminates.

6.6.2 Unidirectional, Cross-Ply, and Angle-Ply Laminates.

6.6.3 Quasi-isotropic Laminates.

6.7 Determination of Laminae Stresses and Strains.

6.8 Analysis of Laminates after Initial Failure.

6.9 Hygrothermal Stresses in Laminates.

6.9.1 Concepts of Thermal Stresses.

6.9.2 Hygrothermal Stress Calculations.

6.10 Laminate Analysis Through Computers.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**7 Analysis of Laminated Plates and Beams.**

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Governing Equations for Plates.

7.2.1 Equilibrium Equations.

7.2.2 Equilibrium Equations in Terms of Displacements.

7.3 Application of Plate Theory.

7.3.1 Bending.

7.3.2 Buckling.

7.3.3 Free Vibrations.

7.4 Deformations Due to Transverse Shear.

7.4.1 First-Order Shear Deformation Theory.

7.4.2 Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory.

7.5 Analysis of Laminated Beams.

7.5.1 Governing Equations for Laminated Beams.

7.5.2 Application of Beam Theory.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**8 Advanced Topics in Fiber Composites.**

8.1 Interlaminar Stresses and Free-Edge Effects.

8.1.1 Concepts of Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.2 Determination of Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.3 Effect of Stacking Sequence on Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.4 Approximate Solutions for Interlaminar Stresses.

8.1.5 Summary.

8.2 Fracture Mechanics of Fiber Composites.

8.2.1 Introduction.

8.2.2 Fracture Mechanics Concepts and Measures of Fracture Toughness.

8.2.3 Fracture Toughness of Composite Laminates.

8.2.4 Whitney-Nuismer Failure Criteria for Notched Composites.

8.3 Joints for Composite Structures.

8.3.1 Adhesively Bonded Joints.

8.3.2 Mechanically Fastened Joints.

8.3.3 Bonded-Fastened Joints.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**9 Performance of Fiber Composites: Fatigue, Impact, and Environmental Effects.**

9.1 Fatigue.

9.1.1 Introduction.

9.1.2 Fatigue Damage.

9.1.3 Factors Influencing Fatigue Behavior of Composites.

9.1.4 Empirical Relations for Fatigue Damage and Fatigue Life.

9.1.5 Fatigue of High-Modulus Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

9.1.6 Fatigue of Short-Fiber Composites.

9.2 Impact.

9.2.1 Introduction and Fracture Process.

9.2.2 Energy-Absorbing Mechanisms and Failure Models.

9.2.3 Effect of Materials and Testing Variables on Impact Properties.

9.2.4 Hybrid Composites and Their Impact Strength.

9.2.5 Damage Due to Low-Velocity Impact.

9.3 Environmental-Interaction Effects.

9.3.1 Fiber Strength.

9.3.2 Matrix Effects.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**10 Experimental Characterization of Composites.**

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Measurement of Physical Properties.

10.2.1 Density.

10.2.2 Constituent Weight and Volume Fractions.

10.2.3 Void Volume Fraction.

10.2.4 Thermal Expansion Coefficients.

10.2.5 Moisture Absorption and Diffusivity.

10.2.6 Moisture Expansion Coefficients.

10.3 Measurement of Mechanical Properties.

10.3.1 Properties in Tension.

10.3.2 Properties in Compression.

10.3.3 In-Place Shear Properties.

10.3.4 Flexural Properties.

10.3.5 Measures of In-Plane Fracture Toughness.

10.3.6 Interlaminar Shear Strength and Fracture Toughness.

10.3.7 Impact Properties.

10.4 Damage Identification Using Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques.

10.4.1 Ultrasonics.

10.4.2 Acoustic Emission.

10.4.3 x-Radiography.

10.4.4 Thermography.

10.4.5 Laser Shearography.

10.5 General Remarks on Characterization.

Exercise Problems.

References.

**11 Emerging Composite Materials.**

11.1 Nanocomposites.

11.2 Carbon-Carbon Composites.

11.3 Biocomposites.

11.3.1 Biofibers.

11.3.2 Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCs).

11.3.3 Biopolymers.

11.4 Composites in ''Smart'' Structures.

Suggested Reading.

Appendix 1: Matrices and Tensors.

Appendix 2: Equations of Theory of Elasticity.

Appendix 3: Laminate Orientation Code.

Appendix 4: Properties of Fiber Composites.

Appendix 5: Computer Programs for Laminate Analysis.

Index.