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Summary: This text addresses a variety of timely and interesting moral issues, providing background information and primary source selections for each issue presented. It includes a chapter on ethical theory and covers a broad range of ethical perspectives--among them virtue ethics (Aristotelian and Confucian), Buddhist and feminist care ethics, and the Rawlsian and communitarian approaches. This extensive revision updates much of the background information and many of the ca ...show moreses included. ...show lessEdition/Copyright: 3RD 05
1. Moral Theory
Moral Philosophy / What Is the Purpose of Moral Theories? / The Types of Moral Theories / Relativism in Ethics / Moving Beyond Ethical Relativism / Morality and Religion / Universality and Religious Ethics / Universal Moral Theories / Utilitarianism / Deontology: The Ethics of Duty / Rights-Based Ethics / Virtue Ethics / Conclusion / Aristotle, from Nicomachean Ethics / John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism / Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Ethics / John Rawls, from A Theory of Justice / John Locke, from Two Treatises of Civil Government / Ayn Rand, "Man's Rights" / Nel Noddings, from Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education / Confucius, from The Analects / P. Don Premasiri, "The Relevance of the Noble Eightfold Path to Contemporary Society"
Background / The History of Abortion in the United States / The U.S. Supreme Court Roe v. Wade Decision / Abortion and Religion / Stages of Fetal Development / Methods of Abortion / The Moral Issues / Conclusion / Judith Jarvis Thomson, "A Defense of Abortion" / John T. Noonan Jr., "An Almost Absolute Value in History" / Mary Anne Warren, "The Moral Significance of Birth" / Don Marquis, "Why Abortion Is Immoral" / Steven D. Hales, "Abortion and Fathers' Rights" / Case Studies
3. Genetic Engineering and Cloning
The History of Genetic Engineering / The Human Genome Project / Genetic Engineering / Cloning / Moral Issues of Genetic Engineering and Cloning / Conclusion / Matt Ridley, "The New Eugenics" / W. French Anderson, "Genetics and Human Malleability" / John A. Robertson, "The Question of Human Cloning" / Leon Kass, "The Wisdom of Repugnance: Why We Should Ban the Cloning of Humans" / Lori Andrews and Dorothy Nelkin, "Whose Body Is It Anyway? Dispute over Body Tissue in a Biotechnology Age" / Case Studies
4. Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide
What Is Euthanasia? / The Philosophers on Euthanasia / The Contemporary Debate over Euthanasia / Euthanasia Legislation / Physician-Assisted Suicide / The Hospice Movement / The Moral Issues / Conclusion / James Rachels, "Active and Passive Euthanasia" / Margaret Pabst Battin, "The Case for Euthanasia" / Daniel Callahan, "'Aid-in-Dying': The Social Dimensions" / John Hardwig, "Is There a Duty to Die?" / Susan M. Wolf, "A Feminist Critique of Physician-Assisted Suicide" / Case Studies
5. Punishment and the Death Penalty
History of the Death Penalty / The Death Penalty Today / The Death Penalty: Juvenile and Mentally Retarded Offenders / The Medicalization of Executions / The Philosophers on the Death Penalty / Moral Issues / Conclusion / Ernest Van Den Haag, "The Ultimate Punishment: A Defense of Capital Punishment" / Christopher W. Morris, "Punishment and Loss of Moral Standing" / Hugo Adam Bedau, "Capital Punishment" / Jeffrey Reiman, "Why the Death Penalty Should Be Abolished in the United States" / Helen Prejean, from Dead Man Walking / Case Studies
6. Drug and Alcohol Use
What Is a Drug? / The History of Drug and Alcohol Use / Legal and Illegal Drugs / Drug and Alcohol Use Today / Drug and Alcohol Use among College Students / Drugs in Sports / The Disease Model of Addiction / The Moral Model of Addiction / The Philosophers on Drug and Alcohol Abuse / Moral Issues / Conclusion / Thomas Szasz, "The Ethics of Addiction" / James Q. Wilson, "Against the Legalization of Drugs" / Douglas N. Husak, "A Moral Right to Use Drugs" / Thomas H. Murray, "Drugs, Sports, and Ethics" / Case Studies
7. Sexual Intimacy and Marriage
Religious and Cultural Attitudes toward Sexuality and Marriage/ Sexual Intimacy and Love / Marriage / Homosexuality and Same-Sex Marriages / Cohabitation and Premarital Sex / The Philosophers on Sexuality and Marriage / Adultery and Infidelity / Sex and Violence / Prostitution / Moral Issues / Conclusion / The Vatican, from Declaration on Sexual Ethics / Sara Ruddick, "Better Sex" / Michael Ruse, "Is Homosexuality Bad Sexuality?" / John M. Finnis, "Law, Morality, and 'Sexual Orientation'" / Michael Nava and Robert Dawidoff, "The Case for Gay Marriage" / Cheshire Calhoun, "Family's Outlaws: Rethinking the Connections between Feminism, Lesbianism, and the Family" / Richard Wasserstrom, "Is Adultery Immoral?" / Lois Pineau, "Date Rape: A Feminist Analysis" / Case Studies
8. Freedom of Speech
What Is "Freedom of Speech"? / Limitations on Freedom of Speech / The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution / Freedom of Speech in Cyberspace and Telemarketing / Pornography / Hate Speech as Protected Speech / Speech Codes on College Campuses / The Philosophers on Freedom of Speech / Moral Issues / Conclusion / John Stuart Mill, from On Liberty / Catharine A. MacKinnon, "Pornography, Civil Rights, and Speech" / Charles R. Lawrence III, "If He Hollers Let Him Go: Regulating Racist Speech on Campus" / Jonathan Rauch, "In Defense of Prejudice: Why Incendiary Speech Must Be Protected" / John Taylor, "Are You Politically Correct?" / Alan M. Dershowitz, "Political Correctness, Speech Codes, and Diversity" / Cass R. Sunstein, "The First Amendment in Cyberspace" / Case Studies
9. Racism and Affirmative Action
Defining the Key Terms / The Philosophers on Racism / The Roots of American Racism / Racism Today / Moral Issues / Conclusion / Lyndon B. Johnson, "To Fulfill These Rights" / Shelby Steele, "I'm Black, You're White, Who's Innocent?" / Jorge Garcia, "The Heart of Racism" / Bernard R. Boxill, "The Color-Blind Principle" / Michael Levin, "Race, Biology, and Justice" / Uma Narayan, "Colonialism and Its Others: Considerations on Rights and Care Discourses" / Case Studies
10. Feminism, Motherhood, and the Workplace
Feminism / The Philosophers on Women / Pornography / Motherhood / Women in the Workplace / Sexual Harassment / Moral Issues / Conclusion / Simone de Beauvoir, "The Second Sex" / Ruth Groenhout, "Essentialist Challenges to Liberal Feminism" / Christina Hoff Sommers, "Philosophers against the Family" / Nancy E. Dowd, "Work and Family: The Gender Paradox and the Limitations of Discrimination Analysis in Restructuring the Workplace" / Katie Roiphe, "Reckless Eyeballing: Sexual Harassment on Campus" / Steven Goldberg, "Male Aggression and the Attainment of Power, Authority, and Status" / Case Studies
11. War and Terrorism
Background / The Philosophers on War and Terrorism / The Just-War Tradition / Weapons of Mass Destruction / Pacifism and Conscription / Moral Issues / Conclusion / Elizabeth Anscombe, "War and Murder" / C.A.J. Coady, "War and Terrorism" / Sohail H. Hashmi, "Interpreting the Islamic Ethics of War and Peace" / Robinson A. Grover, "The New State of Nature and the New Terrorism" / Jonathan Granoff, "Nuclear Weapons, Ethics, Morals and Law" / David Luban, "The War on Terrorism and the End of Human Rights" / Sara Ruddick, "Mothers and Men's Wars" / Jonathan Granoff, "Peace and Security" / Case Studies
12. Nonhuman Animals and the Environment
The Legal and Moral Status of Nonhuman Animals / The Legal and Moral Status of the Environment / The Philosophers on the Moral Value of Nonhuman Animals and the Environment / Animal Farming, Environmental Degradation, and Vegetarianism / Pollution and Global Warming / Animal Experimentation / Moral Issues / Conclusion / Tom Regan, "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism" / Jan Narveson, "Animal Rights Revisited" / Peter Singer, from Animal Liberation / Carl Cohen, "Do Animals Have Rights?" / Aldo Leopold, "The Land Ethic" / Bill Devall and George Sessions, "Deep Ecology" / Richard Watson, "A Critique of Anti-Anthropocentric Ethics" / Karen J. Warren, "The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism" / Case Studies
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