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Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students

Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students - 4th edition

ISBN13: 978-0205574438

Cover of Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students 4TH 09 (ISBN 978-0205574438)
ISBN13: 978-0205574438
ISBN10: 0205574432
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 4TH 09
Publisher: Longman, Inc.
Published: 2009
International: No

List price: $100.75

Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students - 4TH 09 edition

ISBN13: 978-0205574438

Sharon Crowley and Debra Hawhee

ISBN13: 978-0205574438
ISBN10: 0205574432
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 4TH 09
Publisher: Longman, Inc.

Published: 2009
International: No
Summary

The very utterance of the word "rhetoric" conjures images ofancient history -- of Plato or Socrates engaged in some argumentative discourse, or ofsome austere philosopher preaching about abstract ideas that have no practical relevance toeveryday life. But the art of rhetoric is not so ancient nor so abstract -- in fact, it has neverbeen so alive as it is today; in a world saturated with advertisements, media reports, andtelevised trials -- in which every citizen has a soapbox -- personal rhetoric remains a vitaltool of expressive survival. This book revives the classical strategies of ancient Greek andRoman rhetoricians and adapts them to the needs of contemporary writers and speakerswho want to improve their persuasive skills. It shows that rhetoric, as it was practiced andtaught by the ancients, was an intrinsic part of daily life and communal discourse aboutcurrent events. This is a fresh interpretation of the ancient canon of composing: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. The authors'engaging discussion and their many contemporary examples of ancient rhetorical principlespresent rhetoric as a set of flexible, situational practices. The new edition discusses morethoroughly the relevance of classical commonplaces to American political ideologies. Abrief history of ancient rhetorics provides an interesting background for readers. A chapteron memory includes advice for strengthening memory, and a chapter on delivery addressespage design and layout as well as electronic delivery systems such as e-mail and websites. A bibliography and glossary of terms provide additional resources and furtherexplanations. Educators, writers, speakers, and anyone interested in acontemporary translation of ancient rhetorics.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1: Ancient Rhetorics: Their Differences and the Differences They Make

Some Differences Between Ancient and Modern Thought Just the Facts, Please

That's Just Your Opinion

On Ideology and the Commonplaces

Rhetorical Situations

Language as Power

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata I: Fable and Tale

Notes

Works Cited

Chapter 2: Kairos and the Rhetorical Situation: Seizing the Moment

Ancient Depictions of Kairos

Kairos As a Means of Invention

An Example of Kairos at Work

How Urgent or Immediate is the Issue?

Arguments and Interests

Power Dynamics in a Rhetorical Situation

A Web of Related Issues

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata II: Chreia and Proverb

Chapter 3: Stasis Theory: Asking the Right Questions

The Stases and Contrary Arguments

Theoretical Versus Practical Questions

Putting These Distinctions to Work

What Happens When Stasis Is Not Achieved?

The Four Questions

Elaborating the Questions

Using the Stases

The First Example: Abortion

A Second Example: Hateful Speech

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata III: Confirmation and Refutation

Chapter 4: The Common Topics and the Commonplaces: Finding the Available Means

Ancient Topical Traditions

Aristotle's Topical System

The Topic of Past and Future Fact (Conjecture)

The Common Topic of Greater / Lesser (Degree)

The Common Topic of Possible / Impossible (Possibility)

Commonplaces and Ideology

Commonplaces in American Political Rhetoric

Using Common Topics and Commonplaces to Invent Arguments

The Common Topic of Conjecture

The Common Topic of Degree

The Common Topic of Possibility

An Extended Example

The Example Embedded in a Rhetorical Situation

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata IV: Common-place

Notes

Works Cited

Chapter Five: Logical Proof: Reasoning in Rhetoric

Probabilities

Aristotle on Reasoning in Rhetoric

Deduction

Induction

Enthymemes

Rhetorical Examples

Rhetorical Examples - Brief and Extended

Fictional Example

Analogy

Similar and Contrary Examples

Using Examples

Maxims

Signs

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata V: Encomium and Invective

Works Cited

Chapter 6: Ethical Proof: Arguments from Character

Ethos in Ancient Rhetorics

Invented Ethos

Demonstrating Intelligence by Doing the Homework

Establishing Good Character

Securing Good Will

Voice and Rhetorical Distance

Grammatical Person

Verb Tense and Voice

Word Size

Qualifiers

Punctuation

Situated Ethos

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata VI: Comparison and Character

Note

Works Cited

Chapter 7: Pathetic Proof: Passionate Appeals

Ancient Teachers on the Emotions

Emotions as Rhetorical Proofs

The Characters of Audiences

Composing Passionate Proofs

Enargeia

Honorific and Pejorative Language

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata VII: Description

Note

Works Cited

Chapter 8: Extrinsic Proofs: Arguments Waiting to Be Used

Extrinsic Proofs in Ancient Rhetorics

Testimony

Community Authorities

Evaluating Community Authorities

Proximate Authorities

Data

Evaluating Data

Some Examples

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata VIII: Thesis

Progymnasmata IX: Introduction of Law

Works Cited

Part Two: Arrangement

Chapter 9: Arrangement: Getting It Together

Ancient Teachings about Arrangement

The Exordium

Introductions

Topics for Making Audiences Attentive and Receptive

Insinuations

The Narrative (Statement of the Case)

The Partition

The Arguments: Confirmation and Refutation

The Peroration (Conclusion)

Composing a Summary

Composing Appeals to the Emotions

Enhancing Ethos

An Example

Rhetorical Activities

Imitation I: On the Usefulness of Copying

Works Cited

Part Three: Style, Memory, and Delivery

Chapter 10: Style: Composition and Ornament

Correctness

Clarity

Appopriateness: Kairos and Style

Ornament

Sentence Composition

Figurative Language

Figures of Thought

Tropes

Rhetorical Activities

Imitation II: Inhabiting Through Practice

Notes

Works Cited

Chapter 11: Memory: The Treasure-House of Invention

Memory and Kairos

Memory in Ancient Rhetorics

Ancient Memory Systems

Modern Versions of Ancient Memory Systems

Cultural Memory

Organizational Memory

Literate Memory Systems

Electronic Memory Systems

Imitation III: Translation and Paraphrase

Works Cited

Chapter 12: Delivery: Attending to Eyes and Ears

Ancient Commentary on Delivery

Delivery of Ancient Discourse

Delivery of Written Discourse

Spelling and Punctuation

Traditional Grammar and Usage

Visual Rhetoric

Ocular Demonstration

Textual Presentation

Picture Theory

Webrhetors

Rhetorical Activities

Works Cited

Glossary

Appendix: Signposts in Ancient Rhetorics

Bibliography

Suggestions for Further Readings

Credits

Index

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