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Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students

Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students - 5th edition

ISBN13: 978-0205175505

Cover of Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students 5TH 12 (ISBN 978-0205175505)
ISBN13: 978-0205175505
ISBN10: 0205175503
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 5TH 12
Publisher: Longman, Inc.
Published: 2012
International: No
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Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students - 5TH 12 edition

ISBN13: 978-0205175505

Sharon Crowley

ISBN13: 978-0205175505
ISBN10: 0205175503
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 5TH 12
Publisher: Longman, Inc.

Published: 2012
International: No
Summary

Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students revives the classical strategies of ancient Greek and Roman rhetoricians and adapts them to the needs of contemporary writers and speakers.

This fresh interpretation of the ancient canons of composing--invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery--shows that rhetoric, as it was practiced and taught by the ancients, was an intrinsic part of daily life and of communal discourse about current events. The book presents stasis theory, common and special topics, formal topics, ethos, pathos, extrinsic proofs, and Aristotelian means of reasoning, and it places particular emphasis on the classic balance between principles and practice by offering ample opportunities for students to develop habits of rhetorical thinking and composing. The authors' engaging discussion and their many contemporary examples of ancient rhetorical principles present rhetoric as a set of flexible, situational practices. This practical history draws the most relevant and useful concepts from ancient rhetorics and discusses, updates, and offers them for use in the contemporary composition classroom.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preface

Part One: Invention

Chapter 1: Ancient Rhetorics: Their Differences and the Differences They Make

Ancient Rhetorics: The Beginnings

Comparing Ancient and Contemporary Rhetorics

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Proofs

That's Just Your Opinion

On Ideology and the Commonplaces

Language as Power; Language as Action

Practice, Practice, Practice

Progymnasmata

Progymnasmata I: Fable

Composing Fables

Progymnasmata II: Tale

Composing Tales

Notes

Works Cited

Chapter 2: Kairos and the Rhetorical Situation: Seizing the Moment

Ancient Depictions of Kairos

Kairos, Change, and Rhetorical Situations

Kairos as a Means of Invention

How Urgent or Immediate is the Issue?

Arguments and Interests

The trigger and the damage done

Freedom, yes, but which one?

Power Dynamics in a Rhetorical Situation

A Web of Related Issues

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata II: Chreia

Progymnasmata: Chreia

Works Cited

Chapter 3: Achieving Stasis by Asking the Right Questions

On Inventing: How to Proceed

The Importance of Achieving Stasis

Theoretical Versus Practical Questions

The Four Questions

A Simple Example

Expanding the Questions

Questions of Quality: Simple or Complex

Questions of Policy

Using the Stases

Rhetorical Activities

Pro-life Arguments

Pro-choice Arguments

Progymnasmata III: Proverb

Proverb

Rhetorical Exercises: Proverb

Notes

Works Cited

Chapter 4: The Common Topics and the Commonplaces: Finding the Available Means

Aristotle's Topical System

The Common Topics

The Common Topic of Past and Future Fact (Conjecture)

The Common Topic of Greater/Lesser (Degree)

The Common Topic of Possible/Impossible

Commonplaces and Ideology

Commonplaces in American Political Rhetoric

Using Common Topics and Commonplaces to Invent Arguments

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata IV: Common-place

Rhetorical Activities for Progymnasmata: Common-place

Notes

Works Cited

Chapter 5: Logical Proof: Reasoning in Rhetoric

Probabilities

Aristotle on Reasoning in Rhetoric

Deduction

Induction

Enthymemes

Rhetorical Examples

Historical Examples - Brief and Extended

Fictional Example

Analogy

Similar and Contrary Examples

Using Examples

Maxims

Signs

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata V: Confirmation and Refutation

Exercises in Progymnasmata: Confirmation and Refutation

Works Cited

Chapter 6: Ethical Proof: Arguments from Character

Ethos in Ancient Rhetorics

Invented Ethos

Demonstrating Intelligence by Doing the Homework

Establishing Good Character

Securing Good Will

Situated Ethos

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata VI: Character

Progymnasmata: Character

Works Cited

Chapter 7: Pathetic Proof: Passionate Appeals

Ancient Teachers on the Emotions

Emotions as Rhetorical Proofs

The Characters of Audiences and Rhetors

Composing Passionate Proofs

Enargeia

Honorific and Pejorative Language

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata VII: Encomium and Invective, Description

Exercises: Encomium and Invective

Description

Exercises: Description

Works Cited

Chapter 8: Extrinsic Proofs: Arguments Waiting to Be Used

Extrinsic Proofs in Ancient Rhetorics

Testimony

Community Authorities

Evaluating Community Authorities

Proximate Authorities

Data

Evaluating Data

Rhetorical Activities

Notes

Progymnasmata VIII: Introduction of Law

An Opposition of a Law That Permits Assault Weapons

Rhetorical Activities: Introduction of Law

Works Cited

Part Two: Arrangement

Chapter 9: Arrangement: Getting It Together

Ancient Teachings about Arrangement

The Exordium, or Beginning

Introductions

Topics for Making Audiences Attentive and Receptive

Insinuations

The Narrative (Statement of the Case)

The Partition

The Arguments: Confirmation and Refutation

The Peroration (Conclusion)

Composing a Summary

Exciting Indignation Toward an Opponent Or the Opposing Position

Enhancing Ethos

An Extended Example

Rhetorical Activities

Progymnasmata IX: Thesis

Rhetorical Activities: Thesis

Notes

Works Cited

Part Three: Style, Memory, and Delivery

Chapter 10: Style: Composition and Ornament

Correctness

Clarity

Appropriateness: Kairos and Style

Ornament

Sentence Composition

Paratactic and Periodic Styles

Figurative Language

Figures that Interrupt Normal Word Order

Figures of Repetition

Figures of Thought

Figures of Thought That Enhance Ethos

Figures of Thought That Involve Audience

Figures of Thought That Arouse Emotion

Figures of Thought Borrowed from Invention and Arrangement

Onomatopoeia

Antonomasia

Metonomy

Periphrasis

Hyperbaton

Hyperbole

Synecdoche

Catachresis

Metaphor

Allegory

Voice and Rhetorical Distance

Rhetorical Exercises

Notes

Works Cited

Chapter 11: Imitation

Imitation I: Reading Aloud and Copying

Imitation Exercise I: Reading Aloud and Copying

Imitation II: Inhabiting through Practice

Imitation Exercises II: Imitation

Imitation III: Translation and Paraphrase

Translation

Paraphrase

Paraphrasing Poetry

Examples of Paraphrase

Paraphrase Exercises

Works Cited

Chapter 12: Delivery and Memory: Attending to Eyes and Ears

Ancient Commentary on Delivery

Delivery of Oral Discourse

Ancient Memory

Ancient Memory Systems

Delivery of Written Discourse

Correctness

Correctness: Traditional Grammar and Usage

Visual Rhetoric

Ocular Demonstration

Textual Presentation

Klavika: A sans for the 21st century

Picture Theory

Digital Rhetors

Rhetorical Activities

Notes

Works Cited

Glossary

Appendix: Signposts in Ancient Rhetorics

Bibliography

Suggestions for Further Readings

Credits

Index

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