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Animal Physiology

Animal Physiology - 04 edition

ISBN13: 978-0878933150

Cover of Animal Physiology 04 (ISBN 978-0878933150)
ISBN13: 978-0878933150
ISBN10: 0878933158
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 04
Publisher: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
Published: 2004
International: No

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Animal Physiology - 04 edition

ISBN13: 978-0878933150

Richard W. Hill, Gordon A. Wyse and Margaret Anderson

ISBN13: 978-0878933150
ISBN10: 0878933158
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 04
Publisher: Sinauer Associates, Inc.

Published: 2004
International: No
Summary

Animal Physiology presents all the branches of modern animal physiology with a strong emphasis on integration among physiological disciplines, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The book takes an entirely fresh approach to each topic. Its full-color illustrations include many novel, visually effective features to help students learn. Each of the 28 chapters starts with a brief animal example to engage student interest and demonstrate the value of the material that will be learned. The book includes five entire chapters that apply students' newfound physiological knowledge to curiosity-provoking and important topics, including diving by marine mammals, the mechanisms of navigation, and use/disuse effects in muscle.

The book is committed to a comparative approach throughout. While mammalian physiology is consistently treated in depth, emphasis is also given to the other vertebrate groups, arthropods, molluscs, and-as appropriate-additional invertebrates. Concepts and integrative themes are emphasized while giving students the specifics they need.

The whole animal is the principal focus of this book. The pages are filled with information on everything from knockout mice and enzyme chemistry to traditional organ physiology, phylogenetic analysis, and applications to human affairs. Always, the central organizing principle for the array of topics presented is to understand whole animals in the environments where they live. Concepts from chemistry, physics, and mathematics are explained so the book will be accessible to science students at the sophomore or higher level. Neurophysiological and other complex principles are developed clearly and carefully, to help students understand important concepts in sufficient depth without being overwhelmed. Pedagogical aids include embedded summaries throughout chapters, study questions, partially annotated reference lists, an extensive glossary, and appendices. For all three authors, teaching physiology to undergraduate students has been a lifelong priority.

The opening three chapters provide background material on physiological basics, cell-molecular concepts, transport of solutes and water, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The remaining chapters are organized into five sections:

  • Food, Energy, and Temperature
  • Integrating Systems
  • Muscle and Movement
  • Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport
  • Water, Salts, and Excretion

Table of Contents

I. Fundamentals of Physiology

Animals and Environments: Function on the Ecological Stage
The Importance of Physiology
Mechanism and Origin: Physiology's Two Central Questions
This Book's Approach to Physiology
Animals
Environments
Evolutionary Processes

Box 1.1. Negative Feedback
Box 1.2. The Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity

Molecules and Cells in Animal Physiology
Cell Membranes and Intracellular Membranes
Epithelia
Elements of Metabolism
Enzyme Fundamentals
Regulation of Cell Function by Enzymes
Evolution of Enzymes
Enzymes Are Instruments of Change in All Time Frames
Cell Signaling: Signal Reception and Cell-Signal Transduction

Box 2.1. Protein Structure and the Bonds That Maintain It
Box 2.2. Gene-Expression Studies Using DNA Microarrays

Transport of Solutes and Water
Passive Solute Transport by Simple Diffusion
Passive Solute Transport by Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
Modulation of Channels and Transporters
Osmotic Pressure and Other Colligative Properties of Aqueous Solutions
Osmosis
Looking Forward

Box 3.1. Cellular Mechanisms of Ion Pumping in Freshwater Fish Gills

II. Food, Energy, and Temperature

Nutrition, Feeding, and Digestion
Nutrition
Feeding
Digestion and Absorption
Responses to Eating
Changes in Digestion and Absorption in Additional Time Frames

Box 4.1. Pythons: Extreme Examples of Feast and Famine

Energy Metabolism
Why Animals Need Energy: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Fundamentals of Animal Energetics
Metabolic Rate: Meaning and Measurement
Factors That Affect Metabolic Rates
Basal Metabolic Rate and Standard Metabolic Rate
The Relation between Metabolic Rate and Body Size
Energetics of Food and Growth
Conclusion: Energy as the Common Currency of Life

Box 5.1. Views on Animal Heat Production
Box 5.2. Units of Measure for Energy and Metabolic Rates
Box 5.3. Direct Measurement versus Indirect Measurement
Box 5.4. Respirometry

Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism
Mechanisms of ATP Production and Their Implications
Comparative Properties of Mechanisms of ATP Production
Two Themes in Exercise Physiology: Fatigue and Muscle Fiber Types
The Interplay of Aerobic and Anaerobic Catabolism during Exercise
Responses to Impaired O2 Influx from the Environment

Box 6.1. The Biochemistry of Coupling and Uncoupling of Oxidative Phosphorylation: The Chemiosmotic Theory
Box 6.2. Genetic Engineering as a Tool to Test Physiological Hypotheses
Box 6.3. Human Peak O2 Consumption and Physical Performance at High Altitudes

The Energetics of Aerobic Activity
How Active Animals Are Studied
The Energy Costs of Defined Exercise
The Maximal Rate of Oxygen Consumption
The Energetics of Routine and Extreme Daily Life
Ecological Energetics

Box 7.1. Finding Power for Human-Powered Aircraft

Thermal Relations
Temperature and Heat
Heat Transfer between Animals and Their Environments
Poikilothermy (Ectothermy)
Homeothermy in Mammals and Birds
Warm-Bodied Fish
Endothermy and Homeothermy in Insects

Box 8.1. Thermoregulatory Control, Fever, and Behavioral Fever

Food, Energy, and Temperature at Work: The Lives of Mammals in Frigid Places
Food, Nutrition, Energy Metabolism, and Thermoregulation in the Lives of Adult Reindeer
The Role of Effective Insulation and Brown Fat in the Survival of Newborn Reindeer
Lifetime Patterns of Thermoregulation and Thermogenesis in Small Mammals
The Effect of Body Size on Mammals' Lives in Cold Environments
Hibernation as a Winter Strategy: New Directions and Discoveries

Box 9.1. Knockout Mice Clarify the Function of Brown Fat

III. Integrating Systems

Neural and Endocrine Control, Nervous Systems, and Biological Clocks
The Physiology of Control: Neurons and Endocrine Cells Compared
The Organization and Evolution of Nervous Systems
The Vertebrate Nervous System: A Guide to the General Organizational Features of Nervous Systems
Biological Clocks
Neurons
The Cellular Organization of Nervous Systems
The Ionic Basis of Membrane Potentials
The Action Potential
Propagation of Action Potentials

Box 11.1. The Evolution of Voltage-Gated Channels
Box 11.2. Giant Axons

Synapses
Synaptic Transmission Is Usually Chemical but Can Be Electrical
Synaptic Potentials Control Neuronal Excitability
Fast Chemical Synaptic Actions Depend on Increases in Permeability to Ions
Presynaptic Neurons Release Neurotransmitter Molecules in Quantal Packets
Neurotransmitters Are of Two General Kinds
Postsynaptic Receptors: Ligand-Gated Channels Mediate Fast, Ionotropic Actions
Postsynaptic Receptors: G Protein-Coupled Receptors Mediate Slow, Metabotropic Actions
Synaptic Plasticity: Synapses Change Properties with Time and Activity

Box 12.1. Neuropeptides and Pain: The Nervous System Produces Natural Opiates

Sensory Processes
Organization of Sensory Systems
Receptor Functions and Their Control
Photoreception
Visual Sensory Processing
Arthropod Visual Systems
Mechanoreception
Chemoreception
Electroreception

Box 13.1. Echolocation

Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Physiology
Introduction to Endocrine Principles
Synthesis, Storage, and Release of Hormones
Types of Endocrine Glands and Cells
Control of Endocrine Systems: The Vertebrate Pituitary Gland
The Mammalian Stress Response
Endocrine Control of Nutrient Metabolism in Mammals
Endocrine Control of Salt and Water Balance in Vertebrates
Hormones and Other Chemical Signals
Insect Metamorphosis

Box 14.1. Can Mating Cause True Commitment?
Box 14.2. Insects in Forensics and Medicine

Reproduction
Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
Mammalian Reproduction
Hormonal Control of Female Reproduction
Hormonal Control of Male Reproduction
Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Birth in Eutherian Mammals
Lactation
Maximizing Reproductive Success

Box 15.1. "Male Menopause" in a Marsupial Mouse
Box 15.2. Sex Determination in Mammals

Integrating Systems at Work: Animal Navigation
The Adaptive Significance of Animal Navigation
Navigational Strategies
Innate and Learned Components of Navigation

IV. Muscle and Movement

Muscle
Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle
Excitation-Contraction Coupling
Whole Skeletal Muscles
Muscle Energetics
Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle
Vertebrate Smooth Muscle
Vertebrate Cardiac Muscle

Box 17.1. Electrifying Fishes: Electric Fish Exploit Modified Skeletal Muscles to Generate Electric Shocks
Box 17.2. Insect Flight

Control of Movement: The Motor Bases of Animal Behavior
Behavioral Background: Reflexes and Fixed Action Patterns
Neural Circuits Mediating Reflexes and Fixed Acts
Action Patterns: Neural Generation of Rhythmic Behavior
Control and Coordination of Vertebrate Movement
Muscle and Movement at Work: Muscle in Human Health and Disease
Exercise
Atrophy
Muscle Disease

Box 19.1. No Time to Lose

V. Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport

Introduction to Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Physiology
The Properties of Gases in Gas Phases and Aqueous Solutions
Diffusion of Gases
Convective Transport of Gases
The Oxygen Cascade
Expressing the Amounts and Partial Pressures of Gases in Other Units
The Contrasting Physical Properties of Air and Water
Respiratory Environments

Box 20.1. Over What Distance Can Diffusion Meet the O2 Requirements of Tissues?
Box 20.2. Induction of Internal Flow by Ambient Currents

External Respiration: The Physiology of Breathing
Fundamental Concepts of External Respiration
Principles of Gas Exchange by Active Ventilation
Introduction to Vertebrate Breathing
Breathing by Fish
Breathing by Amphibians
Breathing by Reptiles
Breathing by Mammals
Breathing by Birds
Breathing by Aquatic Invertebrates and Allied Groups
Breathing by Insects and Other Tracheate Arthropods

Box 21.1. Mammals at High Altitude
Box 21.2. Filling the Lungs with Air for Hatching or Birth
Box 21.3. The Book Lungs of Arachnids

Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Body Fluids: With an Introduction to Acid-Base Physiology
The Chemical Properties and Distributions of the Respiratory Pigments
The O2-Binding Characteristics of Respiratory Pigments
The Functions of Respiratory Pigments in Animals
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Acid-Base Physiology

Box 22.1. Absorption Spectra of Respiratory Pigments
Box 22.2. Red Blood Cells and Their Production
Box 22.3. Blood and Circulation in Mammals at High Altitude

Circulation
Hearts
Principles of Pressure, Resistance, and Flow in Vascular Systems
Circulation in Mammals and Birds
Circulation in Fish
Circulation in Amphibians and Reptiles
Concluding Comments on Vertebrates
Invertebrates with Closed Circulatory Systems
Invertebrates with Open Circulatory Systems

Box 23.1. An Incompletely Divided Central Circulation Can Be An Advantage for Intermittent Breathers
Box 23.2. Bearing the Burden of Athleticism, Sort of: A Synthesis of Cephalopod O2 Transport
Box 23.3. Circulation and O2: Lessons from the Insect World

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport at Work: Diving by Marine Mammals
Diving Feats and Behavior
Types of Dives and the Importance of Method
Physiology: The Big Picture
The Oxygen Stores of Divers
Circulatory Adjustments during Dives
Metabolism during Dives
The Aerobic Dive Limit: Physiology's Benchmark for Understanding Diving Behavior
Decompression Sickness
A Possible Advantage for Pulmonary O2 Sequestration in Deep Dives

Box 24.1. The Evolution of Vertebrate Cardiac and Vascular Responses to Asphyxia

VI. Water, Salts, and Excretion

Water and Salt Physiology: Introduction and Mechanisms
The Importance of Animal Body Fluids
The Relations among Body Fluids
The Types of Regulation and Conformity
Natural Aquatic Environments
Natural Terrestrial Environments
Organs of Blood Regulation
Food and Drinking Water
Metabolic Water
The Water and Salt Physiology of Tissue Cells
From Osmolytes to Compatible Solutes: Terms and Concepts

Box 25.1. Net Metabolic Water Gain in Kangaroo Rats

Water and Salt Physiology of Animals in Their Environments
Animals in Fresh Water
Animals in the Ocean
Animals That Face Changes in Salinity
Responses to Drying of the Habitat in Aquatic Animals
Animals on Land: Fundamental Physiological Principles
Animals on Land: Case Studies
Control of Water and Salt Balance in Terrestrial Animals

Box 26.1. Where Were Vertebrates at Their Start?
Box 26.2. Epithelial NaCl Secretion
Box 26.3. The Evolution of Urea Synthesis in Vertebrates
Box 26.4. Life as Nothing More than a Morphological State
Box 26.5. The Study of Physiological Evolution by Artificial Selection

Kidneys and Excretion: With Notes on Nitrogen Excretion
Basic Mechanisms of Kidney Function
Urine Formation in Amphibians
Urine Formation in Mammals
Urine Formation in Other Vertebrates
Urine Formation in Decapod Crustaceans
Urine Formation in Molluscs
Urine Formation in Insects
Nitrogen Disposition and Excretion

Box 27.1. Quantity versus Concentration
Box 27.2. Renal Clearance and Other Methods of Study
Box 27.3 Countercurrent Multipliers versus Countercurrent Exchangers
Box 27.4. Why Are Mammals Not Uricotelic?

Water, Salts, and Excretion at Work: Mammals of the Deserts and Dry Savannahs
Desert and Dry Savanna Environments
Water Balance in Deserts and Dry Savannas
Adaptations of Large Mammals to Arid Environments

Appendices
References
The Systeme International and Other Units of Measure
Prefixes Indicating Orders of Magnitude
Gases at Standard Temperature and Pressure
Fitting Lines to Data
Logarithms
Exponential and Allometric Equations
Mitosis and Meiosis
Abbreviations for the Standard Amino Acids
Basic Physics Terms

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