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Edition/Copyright: 7TH 05
1. Animal Agriculture.
Global Trends in Animal Product Consumption. Changes in American Farm Population, Numbers, and Size. U.S. Land Resources. Why Are American Farmers So Productive? Animal Agriculture: The Role of Animals. The Gene Pool and Animal Classification. Animal Adaptation. Essential Factors of All Animal Enterprises. Characteristics of Specific Enterprises. Animal Agriculture, Animal Welfare, and Companion Animals. The Environment and Animal Waste Management. Questions for Study and Discussion.
2. The Animal Industry.
Livestock and Poultry Density. The Animal Genetics Industry. The Feed Industry. Veterinarians and Animal Health. Facilities and Equipment. Markets. Processors. Restaurants and Food Retailers. The Animal Sciences. Government Agencies and Private Organizations. Questions for Study and Discussion.
3. Nutrients and Their Sources.
Classes of Nutrients. How Nutrients May Be Used. Carbohydrates. Lipids: Fats and Oils. Proteins (Amino Acids). Water. Minerals. Vitamins. Nutrient Absorption and Formation by Plants. Feeds and Their Nutrient Content. Questions for Study and Discussion.
4. The Digestive and Metabolic Systems.
Nonruminant Digestive System. Prehension, Mastication, and Salivation. Enzymatic Digestion. Absorption. Digestive System of the Horse. Ruminant Digestive System. Nutrient Transport. Nutrient Storage. Nutrient Utilization in the Cell. Questions for Study and Discussion.
5. Nutrition of Nonruminants.
Nutrient Requirements. Recommended Nutrient Levels. Formulating Rations. Feeds and Their Effect on Consumption. Feed Additives. Nutritional Imbalances and Deficiencies. Other Species. Nutrition and the Newborn. Questions for Study and Discussion.
6. Nutrition of Ruminants.
Nutrient Requirements. Factors Affecting Feed Intake. Formulating Daily Rations for Cows and Ewes. Rations for Finishing Cattle and Lambs. Dairy Calves and Growing Heifers (Herd Replacements). Dairy Cows. Questions for Study and Discussion.
7. Nutrition of Horses and Ponies.
Nutrient Requirements. Feeds. Consumption and Influences. Nutrition and Performance. Pregnancy and the Foal. Other Feeding Management Precautions. Nutritional Deficiencies and Imbalances. Questions for Study and Discussion.
8. Evaluation of Feeder Animals.
Inheritance and Range in Performing Ability. Feeder Cattle. Feeder Lambs. Feeder Pigs. Questions for Study and Discussion.
9. Animal Growth and Carcass Composition.
Chronological Versus Physiological Growth. Measures of Growth. The Growth Curve and Its Phases. Hormonal Control of Growth. Factors Affecting Growth. Carcass Composition. Questions for Study and Discussion.
10. The Feeding Enterprise.
Geographic Concentration. Feedlot Management. Capital and Costs. Influences on Animal Performance and Feedlot Profit. Profit Margin. Price Protection. Tax Considerations. Questions for Study and Discussion.
11. Animal Environment and Adaptation.
Heat Loss and Heat Production. The Comfort Zone and Critical Temperature. Physiological Acclimatization to Temperature Stress. Controlling Heat Stress. Controlling Cold Stress. Ration Adjustments During Heat or Cold Stress. Other Environmental Factors. Ventilation. Flooring or Lot Surface. Space Requirements. Animal Waste Management. Questions for Study and Discussion.
12. Animal Health.
Economic and Human Safety Concerns. Disease Defined and Classified. Predators and Injuries. Nutritional Deficiencies. Metabolic Disorders. Toxins and Poisons. Parasites and Protozoa. Types of Infectious Agents. Immunity and Vaccination. Reproductive and Respiratory Problems. Eradication and Repopulation Programs. Typical Herd Health Programs. Role of the Veterinarian. Diagnostic Services. Biosecurity. Questions for Study and Discussion.
13. Animal Behavior.
Animal Behavior as a Science. Domestication and Genetic Influences on Behavior. Environmental Influences on Behavior. Physiology. Perception and the Sensory Systems. Learning and Training. Animal Communication. Understanding Animal Behavior. Group Behavior and Social Order. Grazing and Feeding Behavior. Sleeping and Resting Behavior. Sexual and Reproductive Behavior. Behavioral Problems and Abnormalities. Questions for Study and Discussion.
14. Physiology of Reproduction.
Reproductive Performance and Profitability. The Male Reproductive System. The Female Reproductive System. Pregnancy. The Reproductive System in Domesticated Fowl. Artificial Insemination. Estrus Synchronization. Multiple Ovulation. Embryo Transplanting. Questions for Study and Discussion.
15. Management Regime and Reproductive Efficiency
Critical Nutrients for Reproduction. Growth and Development of Breeding Stock. Flushing and Other Nutritional Considerations. Other Influences on Conception. Nutritional Management During Pregnancy. Reproductive Efficiency in Poultry. Questions for Study and Discussion.
Importance of Milk Production in Various Species. Hormonal Influences in Mammary Development and Lactation. Location, Number, and Appearance of Mammary Glands. Anatomy of the Udder. Milk Synthesis--Components of Milk. Rate of Milk Synthesis. Milk Let-Down. Nutrition and Milk Composition. Colostrum. Flavors and Odors. Appearance and Other Milk
Quality Factors. Udder Health, Mastitis, and Mammary Gland Injuries. Questions for Study and Discussion.
Genes and Chromosomes. Transmission of Genes. Single Gene Effects. Inheritance of Sex. Multiple Gene Effects. Cytoplasmic Inheritance. Genotype and Phenotype. Rules for Improvement by Selection. Genetic Variation. Examples of Genetic Improvement. Influence of Prolificacy and Generation Interval on Improvement Rate. Questions for Study Discussion.
18. Heritability and Genetic Improvement.
Heredity Versus Environmental Influences. The Meaning of Heritability. Heritability of Individual Traits. Level of Heritability
and Selection Effort. Methods to Improve Selection Accuracy. Predicting Rate of Improvement. Multiple-Trait Selection and Rate of Improvement. Questions for Study and Discussion.
19. Evaluation of Breeding Animals.
Desirable Traits. Identification Systems. Recording Birth Dates. Importance of Records. Growth and Feed Efficiency Performance Records. Measuring Meatiness or Muscling. Reproduction Efficiency. Conformation Traits. Other Production Traits. Using Selection Indexes. Using Relative to Appraise Merit--Progeny Testing. Culling From the Breeding Herd or Flock. Questions for Study and Discussion.
20. Mating Systems.
Random Mating. Inbreeding. Outbreeding. Crossbreeding. Crossing Lines or Strains. Rotational Crossbreeding Programs. The Future--Heterosis Versus Selection. The Animal Improvement Industry--Livestock and Poultry Breeders. Questions for Study and Discussion.
Why Breeds Have Developed. Chronology of Breed Development. Variation Within Breeds. Cattle Breeds. Swine Breeds. Sheep Breeds. Goat Breeds. Poultry Breeds and Varieties. Key Points in Breed Selection. Questions for Study and Discussion.
22. Marketing Meat Animals.
Supply, Demand, and Price. Long-Term Cycles in Livestock Numbers. Seasonal Patterns. Direct Marketing. Auctions. Terminal Markets. Dealers and Order Buyers. Market Pools and Group Marketing. Marketing Costs. Regulatory Agencies. Market News. Questions for Study and Discussion.
23. Evaluating Slaughter Animals.
Age and Weight. Influence of Sex and Sex Condition. Meatiness. Finish. Dressing Percent and Cutability. Grade. Byproducts. Injuries and Health. Questions for Study and Discussion.
24. Live Animal Market Classes and Grades.
Development of Classes and Grades. Cattle Classes. Sheep Classes. Swine Classes. Poultry Classes. USDA Grades for Slaughter Animals and Carcasses. Grades for Slaughter Cattle and Beef Carcasses. Grades for Slaughter Lambs and Sheep and Their Carcasses. Grades for Slaughter Hogs and Pork Carcasses. Grades for Poultry. Private Meat Pricing and Grading. Questions for Study and Discussion.
25. Processing Meat Animals.
Slaughter Procedures. Inspection. Additional Food Safety Measures. Cooling. Meat Grading. Other Regulations of Meat Processing. Fabrication--Wholesale and Retail Cuts. Aging and Tenderizing. Curing and Smoking. Specialty Meat Items. Meat Distribution Systems. Byproducts. Questions for Study and Discussion.
26. Meat as a Food.
Trends in Meat Consumption. Elasticity of Demand. Geographic and Other Influences on Meat Consumption. Holidays and Religious Beliefs. Promotion of Meat and Meat Products. Nutritive Value. Tenderness. Flavor and Aroma. Marbling. Color. Preservation. Questions for Study and Discussion.
27. Wool and Mohair.
Characteristics of Wool. Wool Quality and Grades. Wool Processing. Global and U.S. Production of Wool. Wool Marketing. Merchandising and Promotion. Mohair. Other Fibers and Furs. Questions for Study and Discussion.
28. The Business of Producing Pork.
Geographic and Seasonal Distribution. Swine Business Structures and Ownership. Farrow-to-Finish Operations. Feeder Pig Production Enterprises. Pig Finishing Operations. Investment. Labor and Management. Feed. Genetic Sources and Breeding
Systems. Manure and Odor Management. Marketing. Pork Industry Organization. Questions for Study and Discussion.
29. The Cow Herd and Ewe Flock.
Feeder Calf Production. Geographic Distribution of Cow Herds. Types and Sizes of Cow-Calf Herds. Feed and Other Cow-Calf Herd Costs. Weaning and Management of Feeder Calves for Sale. Feeder Cattle Marketing. Cow-Calf Herd Mating Systems. Distribution and Types of Ewe Flocks. Ewe Flock Investment and Labor. Feed and Other Ewe Flock Costs. Sheep
Breeding Systems. Sheep Management Problems. Lamb Marketing. Questions for Study and Discussion.
30. The Business of Dairying.
Characteristics and Trends. Geographic Distribution, Size, and Types of Units. Labor. Feed and Other Costs. Handling Male Calves. Sound Dairy Herd Management Practices. Marketing Animals Culled from the Herd. Dairy Goat Management. Questions for Study and Discussion.
31. Milk Handling and Marketing.
Facilities for the Dairy Herd. Milking Machines and Procedures. Cooling and Holding Milk at the Production Unit. Milk Marketing. Milk Pricing Systems. Processing and Manufacturing. Consumption Trends. Promotion of Dairy Products. Questions for Study and Discussion.
32. Horses and Ponies.
Size and Scope of the Industry. Types, Colors, and Breeds. Conformation and Body Parts. Teeth and Age Determination. Unsoundnesses. Gaits. Housing and Fencing for the Horse. Feeding Guidelines. Health Management. Feet and Dental Care. Breeding Management of the Mare and Stallion. Brood Mare and Foal Management. Training. Equitation. Questions for Study and Discussion.
33. The Business of Producing Eggs.
Geographic Distribution of Egg Production. Types and Sizes of Production Units. Growing Replacement Pullets. Managing the Layer Flock. Induced Molting. Handlling Manure and Unit Emissions. Egg Marketing. Questions for Study and Discussion.
34. The Egg as a Product.
Characteristics and Attributes. Classes and Grades. Inheritance and Egg Quality. Effect of Season and Age of Hen on Egg Quality. Effect of Health and Nutrition of the Hen on Egg Quality. Shell Egg Handling and Packaging. Shell Egg Distribution and Merchandising. Egg Processing and Products. Consumption Trends. Questions for Study and Discussion.
35. The Business of Commercial Poultry Meat Production.
Geographic Distribution and Specialization. Broiler Units: Types and Sizes. Broiler Management. Contract Growing. From Growing House to Processor. Turkey Production. Other Meat-Producing Fowl. Questions for Study and Discussion.
Global Aquaculture. U.S. Aquaculture Food Production. Water Sources and Factors Affecting Water Quality. Methods of Fish Culture. Fish Culture Management Practices. Fish Health Management. Harvesting of Food Fish. Marketing. Processing into a Consumer-Ready Product. The Attributes of Fish as a Food. Questions for Study and Discussion.
37. Companion Animals.
What Is a Companion Animal? Humans and Companion Animals. Animals and Human Society. Dog and Cat Nutrition. Breeds and Characteristics. Questions for Study and Discussion.
Appendix A: Grade Photos.
Appendix B: Illustration of Animal Parts and Terms.
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