Summary: The new edition of Kottak's best selling text continues to offer a holistic introduction to anthropology that approaches the course from a four-field perspective. To emphasize anthropology's integrated and comparative nature, "Bringing It All Together" essays show how anthropology's sub-fields and dimensions combine to interpret and explain a common topic. Another distinctive feature, "Understanding Ourselves," illustrates the relevance of anthropolo
gical facts and theories to students' everyday lives.
Summary: The new edition of Kottak's best selling text continues to offer a holistic introduction to anthropology that approaches the course from a four-field perspective. To emphasize anthropology's integrated and comparative nature, "Bringing It All Together" essays show how anthropology's sub-fields and dimensions combine to interpret and explain a common topic. Another distinctive feature, "Understanding Ourselves," illustrates the relevance of anthropological facts and theories to students' everyday lives. ...show less
Edition/Copyright:12TH 08 Cover: Paperback Publisher:McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Published: 11/27/2006 International: No
View Table of Contents
About the Author Preface Walkthrough
Part One: The Dimensions of Anthropology
Chapter 1: What is Anthropology?
Overview Human Adaptability Adaptation, Variation, and Change General Anthropology Cultural Forces Shape Human Biology The Subdisciplines of Anthropology Cultural Anthropology Archaeological Anthropology Interesting Issues: Even Anthropologists Get Culture Shock Biological, or Physical Anthropology Linguistic Anthropology Beyond the Classroom: The Unity of Hand and Foot Bones for Problems in Biological Anthropology Applied Anthropology Anthropology and Other Academic Fields Cultural Anthropology and Sociology Anthropology and Psychology Science, Explanation, and Hypothesis Testing
Chapter 2: Applying Anthropology
What is Applied Anthropology? Academic and Applied Anthropology Theory and Practice Anthropology and Education Urban Anthropology Urban versus Rural Medical Anthropology Beyond the Classroom: New Life, Good Health Anthropology and Business Interesting Issues: Hot Asset in Corporate: Anthropology Degrees Careers and Anthropology
Part Two: Physical Anthropology and Archaeology
Chapter 3: Ethics and Methods in Physical Anthropology and Archaeology
Overview Ethics Methods Multidisciplinary Approaches Primatology Anthropometry Bone Biology Molecular Anthropology Interesting Issues: A Novel Method of Assessing Why People Cooperate Paleoanthropology Survey and Excavation Systematic Survey Excavation Kinds of Archaeology Dating the Past Relative Dating Absolute Dating: Radiometric Techniques Absolute Dating: Dendrochronology Molecular Dating
Chapter 4: Evolution and Genetics
Overview Evolution Genetics Mendel's Experiments Independent Assortment and Recombination Biochemical, or Molecular Genetics Cell Division Crossing Over Mutation Interesting Issues: Genetic Politics Population Genetics and Mechanisms of Genetic Evolution Natural Selection Mutations and Variety Random Genetic Drift Gene Flow The Modern Synthesis Gradual or Rapid Change
Chapter 5: Human Variation and Adaptation
Overview Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology Races are Not Biologically Distinct Interesting Issues: American Anthropological Association (AAA) Statement on "Race" Explaining Skin Color Beyond the Classroom: Skin Pigmentation in Papua New Guinea Human Biological Adaptation Genes and Disease Facial Features Size and Body Build Lactose Tolerance
Chapter 6: The Primates
Overview Our Place among Primates Homologies and Analogies Primate Tendencies Prosimians Anthropoids Beyond the Classroom: Providing Apes Refuge: A Cultural Study of the Great Ape Sanctuary Community Monkeys New World Monkeys Old World Monkeys Apes Gibbons Orangutans Gorillas Chimpanzees Interesting Issues: Saving the Orangutan Bonobos Endangered Primates Human-Primate Similarities Learning Tools Predation and Hunting Aggression and Resources Human-Primate Differences Sharing and Cooperation Mating and Kinship Behavioral Ecology and Fitness Bringing it All Together: Saving the Forests
Chapter 7: Primate Evolution
Overview Fossils and Chronology Early Primates Early Cenozoic Primates Beyond the Classroom: A Behavioral Ecology Study of Two Lemur Species Oligocene Anthropoids Miocene Hominoids Proconsul Afropithecus and Kenyapithecus Sivapithecus Ginantopithecus Dryopithecus Oreopithecus A Missing Link? "Toumai" Orrorin tugenensis Beyond the Classroom: Maceration of a Canadian Lynx
Chapter 8: Early Hominids
Overview Chronology of Hominid Evolution The Earliest Hominids Ardipithecus and KenyanThropus The Varied Australopithecines Australopiethecus afarensis Gracile and Robust Australopithecines The Australopithecines and Early Homo H. rudolfensis and H. habilis Oldowan Tools A. garhi and Early Stone Tools Beyond the Classroom: Hydrodynamic Sorting of Avian Skeletal Remains
Chapter 9: The Genus Homo
Early Homo Interesting Issues: Headstrong Hominids Out of Africa: Homo erectus Paleolithic Tools Adaptive Strategies of Homo erectus The Evolution and Expansion of Homo erectus Archaic Homo sapiens The Neandertals Cold-Apapted Neandertals The Neandertals and Modern People Homo sapiens sapiens (AMHs) Out of Africa II Multiregional Evolution Advances in Technology Glacial Retreat Cave Art Interesting Issues: Prehistoric Art Treasure Is Found in French Cave The Mesolithic Beyond the Classroom: Paleolithic Butchering at Verberie Bringing it All Together: When Did Humans Start Acting Like Humans?
Chapter 10: The First Farmers
The Neolithic The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East Genetic Changes and Domestication Food Production and the State Other Old World Food Producers The African Neolithic: Nabta Playa The Neolithic in Europe and Asia The First American Farmers America's First Immigrants The Foundations of Food Production Early Farming in the Mexican Highlands From Early Farming to the State Explaining the Neolithic Geography and the Spread of Food Production Costs and Benefits Beyond the Classroom: House Construction and Destruction Patterns of the Early Copper Age on the Great Hungarian Plain
Chapter 11: The First Cities and States
The Origin of the State Hydraulic Systems Long-Distance Trade Routes Population, War, and Circumscription Attributes of States State Formation in the Middle East Urban Life The Elite Level Social Ranking and Chiefdoms How Ethnography Helps in Interpreting the Archaeological Record Advanced Chiefdoms The Rise of the State Beyond the Classroom: The Akhenaten Temple Project Other Early States State Formation in Mesoamerica Early Chiefdoms and Elites States in the Valley of Mexico Why States Collapse The Mayan Decline Interesting Issues: Pseudo-Archaeology Bringing It All Together: The Peopling of the Pacific
Part Three: Cultural Diversity
Chapter 12: Methods in Cultural Anthropology
Ethics Methods--Ethnography Ethnographic Techniques Observation and Participant Observations Conversation, Interviewing, and Interview Schedules The Genealogical Method Key Cultural Consultants Life Histories Local Beliefs and Perceptions, and the Ethnographer's The Evolution of Ethnography Problem-Oriented Ethnography Longitudinal Research Team Research Culture, Space, and Scale Survey Research Beyond the Classroom: Stories from the Women Domestics of the Yucatan
Chapter 13: Culture
What is Culture? Culture Is Learned Culture Is Shared Culture Is Symbolic Interesting Issues: Touching, Affection, Love, and Sex Culture and Nature Culture Is All-Encompassing Culture Is Integrated Culture Can Be Adaptive and Maladaptive Culture and the Individual: Agency and Practice Levels of Culture Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, and Human Rights Universality, Generality, and Particularity Universality Generality Particularity: Patterns of Culture Beyond the Classroom: Folklore Reveals Ethos of Heating Plant Workers Mechanisms of Cultural Change Globalization
Chapter 14: Ethnicity and Race
Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity Status Shifting Race Social Race Beyond the Classroom: Perceptions of Race and Skin Color on an American College Campus Hypodescent: Race in the United States Race in the Census Not Us: Race in Japan Phenotype and Fluidity: Race in Brazil Stratification and "Intelligence" Ethnic Groups, Nations, and Nationalities Nationalities and Imagined Communities Peaceful Coexistence Assimilation The Plural Society Interesting Issues: Ethnic Nationalism Runs Wild Multiculturalism and Ethnic Identity Roots of Ethnic Conflict Prejudice and Discrimination Chips in the Mosaic Aftermaths of Oppression
Chapter 15: Language and Communication
What Is Language? Animal Communication Call Systems Sign Language The Origin of Language Nonverbal Communication The Structure of Language Speech Sounds Language, Thought, and Culture Interesting Issues: Do Midwesterners Have Accents? The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Focal Vocabulary Meaning Sociolinguistics Linguistic Diversity Gender Speech Contrasts Language and Status Position Stratification Black English Vernacular (BEV), a.k.a. "Ebonics" Historical Linguistics Beyond the Classroom: Cybercommunication in Collegespace Bringing It All Together: Canada: Unity and Diversity in Culture and Language
Chapter 16: Making a Living
Adaptive Strategies Foraging Beyond the Classroom: Integrating Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Analytic Subsistence Data: A Case Study from Patagonia, South America Correlates of Foraging Cultivation Horticulture Agriculture The Cultivation Continuum Intensification: People and the Environment Pastoralism Modes of Production Production in Nonindustrial Societies Means of Production Alienation in Industrial Economies Economizing and Maximization Interesting Issues: Scarcity and the Betsileo Alternative Ends Distribution, Exchange The Market Principle Redistribution Reciprocity Coexistence of Exchange Principles Potlatching
Chapter 17: Political Systems
What Is "the Political?" Types and Trends Bands and Tribes Foraging Bands Tribal Cultivators The Village Head The "Big Man" Pantribal Sodalities and Age Grades Nomadic Politics Beyond the Classroom: Perspectives on Group Membership Chiefdoms Political and Economic Systems in Chiefdoms Social Status in Chiefdoms Status Systems in Chiefdoms and States States Population Control Judiciary Enforcement Fiscal Systems Social Control: Politics, Shame, and Sorcery
Chapter 18: Families, Kinship, and Descent
Families Nuclear and Extended Families Industrialism and Family Organization Changes in North American Kinship The Family among Foragers Descent Descent Groups Interesting Issues: Social Security, Kinship Style Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules Ambilineal Descent Family versus Descent Kinship Calculation Genealogical Kin Types and Kin Terms Kinship Terminology Lineal Terminology Bifurcate Merging Terminology Generational Terminology Bifurcate Collateral Terminology Chapter 19: Marriage Incest and Exogamy Explaining the Taboo Instinctive Horror Biological Degeneration Attempt and Contempt Marry Out or Die Out Endogamy Caste Beyond the Classroom: Human Mate Preference in Matrimonial Advertisements from Gujarat, India Royal Incest Marital Rights and Same-Sex Marriage Marriage as Group Alliance Bridewealth and Dowry Interesting Issues: Love and Marriage Durable Alliances Divorce Plural Marriages Polygyny Polyandry
Chapter 20: Gender
Sex and Gender Recurrent Gender Patterns Gender among Foragers Gender among Horticulturalists Reduced Gender Stratification--Matrilineal, Matrilocal Societies Reduced Gender Stratification--Matrifocal Societies Increased Gender Stratification--Patrilineal-Patrilocal Societies Gender among Agriculturalists Patriarchy and Violence Gender and Industrialism The Feminization of Poverty Sexual Orientation Interesting Issues: Hidden Women, Public Men--Public Women, Hidden Men Bringing It All Together: The Basques
Chapter 21: Religion
What Is Religion? Origins, Functions, and Expressions of Religion Animism Mana and Taboo Magic and Religion Anxiety, Control, Solace Rituals Rites of Passage Totemism Religion and Cultural Ecology Sacred Cattle in India Social Control Beyond the Classroom: Ewe Traditional and Biomedical Healing Practices in Ghana's Volta Region Kinds of Religion Religion in States Christian Values World Religions Religion and Change Revitalization Movements Syncretisms Antimodernism and Fundamentalism A New Age Secular Rituals
Chapter 22: The Arts
What Is Art? Art and Religion Locating Art Art and Individuality The Work of Art Art, Society, and Culture The Cultural Transmission of the Arts Interesting Issues: I'll Get You, My Pretty, and Your Little R2 The Artistic Career Beyond the Classroom: Capoeira: The Afro-Brazilian Art of Unity and Survival Continuity and Change
Part Four: The Changing World
Chapter 23: The Modern World System
The Emergence of the World System Industrialization Causes of the Industrial Revolution Stratification Industrial Stratification Asian Factory Women Open and Closed Class System Beyond the Classroom: The Residue of Apartheid in Southern Africa The World System Today Interesting Issues: The American Periphery Industrial Degradation
Chapter 24: Colonialism and Development
Colonialism Imperialism British Colonialism French Colonialism Colonialism and Identity Postcolonial Studies Development Neoliberalism The Second World Communism Postsocialist Transitions Development Anthropology The Greening of Java Equity Strategies for Innovation Overinnovation Underdifferentitation Third World Models
Chapter 25: Cultural Exchange and Survival
Acculturation Contact and Domination Development and Environmentalism Interesting Issues: Voices of the Rainforest Religious Change Resistance and Survival Beyond the Classroom: Forging Activist Identities in the Kalaupapa Community of Leprosy Patients Weapons of the Weak Cultural Imperialism Interesting Issues: Using Modern Technology to Preserve Linguistic and Cultural Diversity Making and Remaking Culture Popular Culture Indigenizing Popular Culture A World System of Images A Transnational Culture of Consumption People in Motion The Continuance of Diversity
Bringing It All Together: The Biology and Culture of Overconsumption Appendix 1: A History of Theories in Anthropology Appendix 2: Ethics and Anthropology Appendix 3: American Popular Culture Bibliography Glossary Credits Name Index Subject Index
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