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Applied Behavior Analysis

Applied Behavior Analysis - 87 edition

ISBN13: 978-0675202237

Cover of Applied Behavior Analysis 87 (ISBN 978-0675202237)
ISBN13: 978-0675202237
ISBN10: 067520223X
Cover type:
Edition: 87
Copyright: 1987
Publisher: Merrill Education/Prentice Hall
Published: 1987
International: No

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Applied Behavior Analysis - 87 edition

ISBN13: 978-0675202237

John O. Cooper

ISBN13: 978-0675202237
ISBN10: 067520223X
Cover type:
Edition: 87
Copyright: 1987
Publisher: Merrill Education/Prentice Hall
Published: 1987
International: No
Summary

Changing behavior can be at once a challenging, perplexing, and frustrating endeavor. The challenge lies in recognizing what to do and how to do it.



Table of Contents

PART I. INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

1. Definition and Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis

Some Basic Characteristics of Science.
Defining Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis.
A Brief Outline of the Development of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Definition of Applied Behavior Analysis.

Summary.

2. Basic Concepts

Behavior.
Environment.
Respondent Behavior and Respondent Conditioning.
Operant Behavior and Operant Conditioning.
Basic Principles and Applied Procedures.
Kinds of Stimuli That Reinforce and Punish.
The Three-Term Contingency.
The Complexity of Human Behavior.
Obstacles to Control of Behavior in Applied Settings.

Summary.

PART II. SELECTION, DEFINITION, AND MEASUREMENT OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE TARGET

3. Selecting and Defining Target Behavior

Role of Assessment in Applied Behavior Analysis.
Methods and Issues in Gathering Behavioral Assessment Data.
Considerations in Selecting a Target Behavior.
Prioritizing Possible Target Behaviors.
Defining the Target Behavior.
Setting Criteria for Behavior Change.

Summary.

4. Measuring and Recording Behavior

Direct Measurement of Permanent Products.
Direct Observation Recording.
Reporting Data Collected.

Summary.

5. Planning and Directing Observational Procedures

Scheduling Continuous and Sample Observations.
Selecting Times for Observation.
Establishing the Duration of Observation Sessions.
Planning Sampling Procedures.
Observation Codes.
Interobserver Agreement.
Establishing Interobserver Agreement.
Considerations in Using Interobserver Agreement.
Sources of Influence on the Agreement and Accuracy of Measurement.

Summary.

PART III. EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE

6. Production and Interpretation of Graphic Data Displays

Benefits of Graphic Display of Behavioral Data.
Line Graphs.
Other Types of Graphs Used in Applied Behavior Analysis.
How to Construct Graphs.
How to Interpret Graphs.

Summary.

7. Introduction to Analysis

The Scientific Examination of Behavior: Some Basic Conceptions and Assumptions.
Components of Experimental Design.
Baseline Data.
Baseline Logic.

Summary.

8. Reversal and Alternating Treatments Design

Reversal Designs.
Alternating Treatment Design.

Summary.

9. Multiple Baseline and Changing Criterion Designs

Multiple Baseline Design.
Changing Criterion Design.

Summary.

10. Planning, Replicating, and Evaluating Research in Applied Behavior Analysis

Planning Research in Applied Behavior Analysis.
Internal Validity: Controlling Potential Sources of Confounding in an Experimental Design.
External Validity: The Role of Replication in Applied Behavior Analysis.
Evaluating Research in Applied Behavior.
Analysis.

Summary.

PART IV. INCREASING EXISTING BEHAVIOR

11. Operant Reinforcement

The Role of Genetic Inheritance.
Definition of Operant Reinforcement.
Positive Reinforcement.
Negative Reinforcement.
Types of Potential Reinforcers.
Selecting Potential Reinforcers.
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Reinforcement.
Guidelines for Using Reinforcement.

Summary.

12. Schedules of Reinforcement

Use of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement.
Basic Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement.
Ratio Schedules.
Interval Schedules.
Complex Schedules of Reinforcement.
Adjunctive Behavior.

Summary.

PART V. STIMULUS CONTROL

13. Stimulus Control

Antecedent Stimuli.
Stimulus Generalization.
Development of Stimulus Control with Differential Reinforcement.
Concept Formation.
Factors Affecting the Development of Stimulus Control.
Response and Stimulus Prompts.
Transfer of Stimulus Control.
Discriminative and Motivational Functions of Stimuli.

Summary.

PART VI. DEVELOPING NEW BEHAVIOR

14. Behavioral Shaping

Definition and Illustration of Behavior Shaping.
Behavioral Shaping Across and Within Different Response Topographies.
Increasing the Efficiency of Behavioral Shaping.
Guidelines for Selecting and Implementing Behavioral Shaping.

Summary.

15. Behavioral Chains

Definition of a Behavior Chain.
Rationale for Using Chains.
Task Analysis.
Behavior Chaining Procedures.
Breaking an Inappropriate Behavior Change.
Factors Affecting the Performance of a Behavior Chain.

Summary.

16. Imitation

Definition of Imitation.
Imitation Training for Nonimitative Learners.
Guidelines for Imitation Training.
Effective Use of Imitation Training with Already-Existing Imitative Repertoires.
Considerations.

Summary.

PART VII. DECREASING BEHAVIOR I: NONPUNISHMENT PROCEDURES

17. Extinction

Definition of Extinction.
Maintenance of Behavior Change.
Misuse of Technical Term.
Extinction Behavior.
Variables Affecting Resistance to Extinction.
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Extinction.

Summary.

18. Decreasing Behavior with Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior and Alternative Behavior.
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior.
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding.
Considerations.

Summary.

PART VIII. DECREASING BEHAVIOR II: PUNISHMENT PROCEDURES

19. Punishment by Contingent Presentation of a Stimulus

Definition of Punishment.
Rationale for Using Punishment.
Ethical and Legal Considerations.
A Decision-Making Model for Using Punishment.
Methodological Guidelines.
Undesirable Aspects of Punishment.

Summary.

20. Overcorrection

Definition of Overcorrection.
Rationale and Assumptions for Overcorrection.
Distinguishing Overcorrection from Other Similar Reductive Approaches.
Types of Positive Practice Overcorrection.
Considerations with Overcorrection.
Guidelines for Using Overcorrection.

Summary.

21. Time Out from Positive Reinforcement

Definition of Time Out.
Distinguishing Extinction and Response Cost from Time Out.
Nonexclusion Time Out.
Exclusion Time Out.
Desirable Aspects of Time Out.
Using Time Out Effectively in Applied Settings.
Legal and Ethical Issues of Time Out.

Summary.

22. Response Cost

Definition of Response Cost.
Desirable Aspects of Response Cost.
Implementing a Response Cost Contingency.
Criteria for Using Response Cost or Bonus Response Cost.
Considerations in the Use of Response Cost in Applied Settings.
Guidelines.

Summary.

PART IX. SPECIAL APPLICATIONS

23. Contingency Contracting

Definition and Components of a Contingency Contract.
Applications of Contingency Contracting.
Developing Behavioral Contracts.
Evaluating Contracts.
Desirable Aspects of Contingency Contracting.
Considerations in Implementing Contingency Contracts.
Guidelines for Effective Contracting.

Summary.

24. Token Economy

Definition of Token Economy.
Procedures for Implementing a Token Economy.

Summary.

25. Group-Oriented Contingencies

Definition of a Group-Oriented Contingency.
Rationale.
Ethical Considerations.
Classification Schemes for Group-Oriented Contingencies.
Implementing a Group-Oriented Contingency.

Summary.

26. Self-Management

What is Self-Management and Why is it Important?
Self-Management Strategies.
Teaching Self-Management to Students.
Theoretical Concerns with Self-Control.
Guidelines for More Effective Self-Management.

Summary.

PART X. GENERALITY OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE

27. Promoting the Generality of Behavior Change

Generality and the Development of Behavior Change Technology.
Terminology.
Planning for the Generality of Behavior Change.
Strategies for Promoting the Generality of Behavior Change.
Modifying and Terminating a Successful Intervention to Facilitate Generality.

Summary.

PART XI. COMMUNICATION

28. Communicating the Results of Behavior Change Efforts

Sharing Data with Learners.
Sharing Data with Parents and Guardians.
Sharing Data with Practitioners.
Sharing Data with Administrators.
Sharing Data with the Behavior Analysis Community.
Criteria for Sharing Data with Others.

Summary.


References.
Index to Key Terms.
Name Index.
Subject Index.

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