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Changing behavior can be at once a challenging, perplexing, and frustrating endeavor. The challenge lies in recognizing what to do and how to do it.
PART I. INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS
1. Definition and Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis
Some Basic Characteristics of Science.
Defining Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis.
A Brief Outline of the Development of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Definition of Applied Behavior Analysis.
2. Basic Concepts
Respondent Behavior and Respondent Conditioning.
Operant Behavior and Operant Conditioning.
Basic Principles and Applied Procedures.
Kinds of Stimuli That Reinforce and Punish.
The Three-Term Contingency.
The Complexity of Human Behavior.
Obstacles to Control of Behavior in Applied Settings.
PART II. SELECTION, DEFINITION, AND MEASUREMENT OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE TARGET
3. Selecting and Defining Target Behavior
Role of Assessment in Applied Behavior Analysis.
Methods and Issues in Gathering Behavioral Assessment Data.
Considerations in Selecting a Target Behavior.
Prioritizing Possible Target Behaviors.
Defining the Target Behavior.
Setting Criteria for Behavior Change.
4. Measuring and Recording Behavior
Direct Measurement of Permanent Products.
Direct Observation Recording.
Reporting Data Collected.
5. Planning and Directing Observational Procedures
Scheduling Continuous and Sample Observations.
Selecting Times for Observation.
Establishing the Duration of Observation Sessions.
Planning Sampling Procedures.
Establishing Interobserver Agreement.
Considerations in Using Interobserver Agreement.
Sources of Influence on the Agreement and Accuracy of Measurement.
PART III. EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE
6. Production and Interpretation of Graphic Data Displays
Benefits of Graphic Display of Behavioral Data.
Other Types of Graphs Used in Applied Behavior Analysis.
How to Construct Graphs.
How to Interpret Graphs.
7. Introduction to Analysis
The Scientific Examination of Behavior: Some Basic Conceptions and Assumptions.
Components of Experimental Design.
8. Reversal and Alternating Treatments Design
Alternating Treatment Design.
9. Multiple Baseline and Changing Criterion Designs
Multiple Baseline Design.
Changing Criterion Design.
10. Planning, Replicating, and Evaluating Research in Applied Behavior Analysis
Planning Research in Applied Behavior Analysis.
Internal Validity: Controlling Potential Sources of Confounding in an Experimental Design.
External Validity: The Role of Replication in Applied Behavior Analysis.
Evaluating Research in Applied Behavior.
PART IV. INCREASING EXISTING BEHAVIOR
11. Operant Reinforcement
The Role of Genetic Inheritance.
Definition of Operant Reinforcement.
Types of Potential Reinforcers.
Selecting Potential Reinforcers.
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Reinforcement.
Guidelines for Using Reinforcement.
12. Schedules of Reinforcement
Use of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement.
Basic Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement.
Complex Schedules of Reinforcement.
PART V. STIMULUS CONTROL
13. Stimulus Control
Development of Stimulus Control with Differential Reinforcement.
Factors Affecting the Development of Stimulus Control.
Response and Stimulus Prompts.
Transfer of Stimulus Control.
Discriminative and Motivational Functions of Stimuli.
PART VI. DEVELOPING NEW BEHAVIOR
14. Behavioral Shaping
Definition and Illustration of Behavior Shaping.
Behavioral Shaping Across and Within Different Response Topographies.
Increasing the Efficiency of Behavioral Shaping.
Guidelines for Selecting and Implementing Behavioral Shaping.
15. Behavioral Chains
Definition of a Behavior Chain.
Rationale for Using Chains.
Behavior Chaining Procedures.
Breaking an Inappropriate Behavior Change.
Factors Affecting the Performance of a Behavior Chain.
Definition of Imitation.
Imitation Training for Nonimitative Learners.
Guidelines for Imitation Training.
Effective Use of Imitation Training with Already-Existing Imitative Repertoires.
PART VII. DECREASING BEHAVIOR I: NONPUNISHMENT PROCEDURES
Definition of Extinction.
Maintenance of Behavior Change.
Misuse of Technical Term.
Variables Affecting Resistance to Extinction.
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Extinction.
18. Decreasing Behavior with Differential Reinforcement
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior and Alternative Behavior.
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior.
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding.
PART VIII. DECREASING BEHAVIOR II: PUNISHMENT PROCEDURES
19. Punishment by Contingent Presentation of a Stimulus
Definition of Punishment.
Rationale for Using Punishment.
Ethical and Legal Considerations.
A Decision-Making Model for Using Punishment.
Undesirable Aspects of Punishment.
Definition of Overcorrection.
Rationale and Assumptions for Overcorrection.
Distinguishing Overcorrection from Other Similar Reductive Approaches.
Types of Positive Practice Overcorrection.
Considerations with Overcorrection.
Guidelines for Using Overcorrection.
21. Time Out from Positive Reinforcement
Definition of Time Out.
Distinguishing Extinction and Response Cost from Time Out.
Nonexclusion Time Out.
Exclusion Time Out.
Desirable Aspects of Time Out.
Using Time Out Effectively in Applied Settings.
Legal and Ethical Issues of Time Out.
22. Response Cost
Definition of Response Cost.
Desirable Aspects of Response Cost.
Implementing a Response Cost Contingency.
Criteria for Using Response Cost or Bonus Response Cost.
Considerations in the Use of Response Cost in Applied Settings.
PART IX. SPECIAL APPLICATIONS
23. Contingency Contracting
Definition and Components of a Contingency Contract.
Applications of Contingency Contracting.
Developing Behavioral Contracts.
Desirable Aspects of Contingency Contracting.
Considerations in Implementing Contingency Contracts.
Guidelines for Effective Contracting.
24. Token Economy
Definition of Token Economy.
Procedures for Implementing a Token Economy.
25. Group-Oriented Contingencies
Definition of a Group-Oriented Contingency.
Classification Schemes for Group-Oriented Contingencies.
Implementing a Group-Oriented Contingency.
What is Self-Management and Why is it Important?
Teaching Self-Management to Students.
Theoretical Concerns with Self-Control.
Guidelines for More Effective Self-Management.
PART X. GENERALITY OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE
27. Promoting the Generality of Behavior Change
Generality and the Development of Behavior Change Technology.
Planning for the Generality of Behavior Change.
Strategies for Promoting the Generality of Behavior Change.
Modifying and Terminating a Successful Intervention to Facilitate Generality.
PART XI. COMMUNICATION
28. Communicating the Results of Behavior Change Efforts
Sharing Data with Learners.
Sharing Data with Parents and Guardians.
Sharing Data with Practitioners.
Sharing Data with Administrators.
Sharing Data with the Behavior Analysis Community.
Criteria for Sharing Data with Others.
Index to Key Terms.
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