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Summary: Offers an overall introduction to the field of chemical hydrology, useful to professionals from a wide variety of training backgrounds. Provides working professionals with an all-in-one source of reference to hydrogeological literature. Brings together basic concepts from organic chemistry and microbiology to support their applications to hydrogeology and presents examples from the literature that use these concepts. The emphasis is on practical, real-world problems, ...show more with coverage of the theoretical basics but a focus on applications. For hydrogeologists, environmental scientists, environmental specialists, soil scientists, and hydrologists.
This text is intended to serve as a practical introduction to hydrogeochemistry, especially for students who plan to work as consultants or regulators in the environmental field. Hopefully, there is enough theory to provide a foundation for understanding and applying the examples and case histories that follow and to give students the tools they need in hydrogeochemistry to begin an applied career in hydrogeology. For those instructors who prefer a more theoretical treatment of aqueous geochemistry, there are several excellent books available.
I had several goals in mind when I began this project more than five years ago. The first was to introduce and tie together the several diverse disciplines that must be brought to bear on hydrogeochemical problems today. This entailed substantial reading to replace my lack of a formal background in essential topics including organic chemistry and microbiology. I leaned heavily on several specialized books in these areas. When I began to study ground water, Freeze and Cherry's book, Groundwater, was just coming out. That book expanded my horizons tremendously into areas that were only briefly mentioned in the hydrogeology courses I had taken, among those being the chemical aspects of ground water. If this book is even a fraction as useful in illustrating the interdisciplinary aspects of this field my goals will have been met.
The second objective for writing this book was to bring to the attention of students some of the best examples and case histories from the explosion in hydrogeological literature over the past several decades. I was particularly interested in including examples with practical applications, the types of problems that professional hydrogeologists deal with on a regular basis. The text hopefully will serve as a window into this vast literature that will stimulate students to explore more deeply on their own. To those whose work I did not include because of space limitations or my lack of awareness of it, I apologize. There is so much excellent basic and applied research being done that it is difficult, if not impossible, to keep up with it all.
A number of people have been instrumental in helping me through the countless times I just wanted to give up. Bob McConnin, who took over as geology editor after the merger of Prentice Hall and Macmillan, was a pleasure to work with. Patrick Lynch has proved to be an able replacement. The reviewers, Robert G. Corbett of Illinois State University, Phil Gerla of the University of North Dakota, and Seth Rose of Georgia State University provided invaluable help in pointing out errors, inconsistencies, poor writing style, and in suggesting improvements. Several of these reviewers went well beyond the call of duty in their thoroughness. Their efforts are greatly appreciated.
Bonny True, a graduate student at Western Michigan University who took the course recently, read the entire copy-edited text and page proofs. Her careful reading caught many errors that eluded me, and I am very grateful for her help. Special thanks are due to Mick Lynch, who has allowed me to consult at his company, American Hydrogeology Inc. for the past ten years, with total flexibility in scheduling. This gave me an essential exposure to real-world problems that helped me decide what I wanted to include in a book for future hydrogeologists. I owe the greatest debt of gratitude to my wife Kay and my daughter Liz, who have tolerated six years of evenings and weekends when I was working on this book or stressed out because I should have been working on it.
Alan E. Kehew
Kehew, Alan E. : Western Michigan University
Alan E. Kehew was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. After graduation from Bucknell University in 1969, he received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Montana State University and the University of Idaho, respectively. He spent three years as an environmental geologist with the North Dakota Geological Survey and six years in the Department of Geology and Geological Engineering at the University of North Dakota. For the past fourteen years he has been in the Department of Geosciences at Western Michigan University, where he currently serves as chair. His major research interests have been ground water quality and glacial deposits and processes. He is married and has three daughters.
(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Problems.)
1. Chemical Principles.
Aqueous Solutions and the Properties of Water.
Concentration and Unit Conversions.
Composition of Ground Water.
Graphical Displays of Ground Water Chemistry.
2. Chemical Equilibrium and Kinetics.
The Meaning of Equilibrium.
Thermodynamics and Chemical Equilibrium.
3. Acid-Base Reactions and the Carbonate System.
Strength of Acids and Bases.
Natural Weak Acid-Strong Base Systems--The Carbonate System.
Carbonate Mineral Equilibria.
Ground Water Chemistry in Carbonate-Rock Aquifers.
4. Mineral Weathering and Mineral Surface Processes.
Primary Minerals and Weathering Products.
Dissolution Processes and Equilibria.
Sorption and Ion Exchange.
5. Redox Reactions and Processes.
Electron Transfer Reactions.
Field Measurement of Eh. PE-PH Diagrams.
Natural Redox Conditions in Aquifers.
6. Structures, Properties, and Occurrence of Organic Compounds in Ground Water.
Properties That Influence Phase Partitioning of Organic Compounds.
Classes of Organic Compounds and Their Occurrence in Ground Water.
7. Biotransformation of Organic Compounds.
Characteristics, Growth, and Metabolism of Subsurface.
Heterotrophic Microbial Metabolism and Ground Water.
Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Subsurface.
Biodegradation of Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface.
8. Applications of Isotopes in Hydrogeology.
9. Chemical Changes in Ground Water Flow Systems.
Ground Water Flow Systems and Water Chemistry.
10. Hydrogeochemistry of Contaminants.
Municipal Solid Waste Landfills.
Industrial Landfills and Liquid Waste Disposal.
Contamination of Ground Water by Agriculture and Other Nonpoint Sources.
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