Summary: Revised and updated in its fifth edition, Approaches to Social Research is a rigorous yet clear and engaging introduction to research methods. Covering all of the fundamentals in a straightforward, student-friendly manner, it is ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses across the social sciences and also serves as an indispensable guide for researchers. Striking a balance between specific techniques and the underlying logic of scientific inquiry, this book provides a lucid
treatment of the four major approaches to research: experimentation, survey research, field research, and the use of available data. Richly developed examples of empirical research and an emphasis on the research process enable students to better understand the real-world application of research methods. The authors also offer a unique chapter (13) advocating a multiple-methods strategy. New to this Edition: * Many updated examples that are current and relevant to students' daily lives * New examples from an array of disciplines, including the use of experimental design in political science and economics * A revised chapter on ethics, which now appears earlier in the book (Chapter 3) * Extensively revised and updated chapters on survey research (9-10) and writing research reports (17) that incorporate new developments in methodology and technology * A new series of more than 100 key points, set off throughout the text * A more visually appealing interior design featuring tables, large text boxes, figures, and charts * New exercises in every chapter * Updated Instructor's Resource CD including ideas for lecture, discussion, and exercises; review questions; and test items * Companion Website (maintained by the authors) offering a glossary and the following material for each chapter: answers to selected text exercises, true/false and matching quizzes, suggested readings, and web resources
Summary: Revised and updated in its fifth edition, Approaches to Social Research is a rigorous yet clear and engaging introduction to research methods. Covering all of the fundamentals in a straightforward, student-friendly manner, it is ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses across the social sciences and also serves as an indispensable guide for researchers. Striking a balance between specific techniques and the underlying logic of scientific inquiry, this book provides a lucid treatment of the four major approaches to research: experimentation, survey research, field research, and the use of available data. Richly developed examples of empirical research and an emphasis on the research process enable students to better understand the real-world application of research methods. The authors also offer a unique chapter (13) advocating a multiple-methods strategy. New to this Edition: * Many updated examples that are current and relevant to students' daily lives * New examples from an array of disciplines, including the use of experimental design in political science and economics * A revised chapter on ethics, which now appears earlier in the book (Chapter 3) * Extensively revised and updated chapters on survey research (9-10) and writing research reports (17) that incorporate new developments in methodology and technology * A new series of more than 100 key points, set off throughout the text * A more visually appealing interior design featuring tables, large text boxes, figures, and charts * New exercises in every chapter * Updated Instructor's Resource CD including ideas for lecture, discussion, and exercises; review questions; and test items * Companion Website (maintained by the authors) offering a glossary and the following material for each chapter: answers to selected text exercises, true/false and matching quizzes, suggested readings, and web resources ...show less
Edition/Copyright:5TH 10 Cover: Hardback Publisher:Oxford University Press Published: 08/06/2009 International: No
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Table of Contents Chapters 2-17 end with a Summary. Preface Chapter 1. Introduction Why Study Research Methods? Consuming Research Evidence Producing Research Evidence Methodological Approaches to the Social World Some Preliminary Research Questions An Experimental Answer An Answer from Survey Research An Answer from Field Research An Answer from Available Data Conclusions An Overview of the Book I. THE SCIENTIFIC AND ETHICAL CONTEXTS OF SOCIAL RESEARCH Chapter 2. The Nature of Science The Aim of Science Science as Product Scientific versus Nonscientific Questions Knowledge as Description Knowledge as Explanation and Prediction Knowledge as Understanding Tentative Knowledge Science as Process Durkheim's Study of Suicide Logical Reasoning Empiricism Objectivity Control Science: Ideal versus Reality Chapter 3. Research Ethics Data Collection and Analysis Treatment of Human Subjects Harm Informed Consent Deception Privacy Making Ethical Decisions The Uses of Research: Science and Society The Issue of Value Neutrality The Application of Research Findings II. RESEARCH DESIGN Chapter 4. Elements of Research Design Origins of Research Topics Units of Analysis Aggregate Data Ecological Fallacy Variables Types of Variables Relationships Relationships among Qualitative Variables Relationships among Quantitative Variables Relationships between a Qualitative and a Quantitative Variable Statistically Significant Relationships The Nature of Causal Relationships Formulating Questions and Hypotheses Research Purposes and Research Design Stages of Social Research Stage 1: Formulation of the Research Question Stage 2: Preparation of the Research Design Stage 3: Measurement Stage 4: Sampling Stage 5: Data Collection Stage 6: Data Processing Stage 7: Data Analysis and Interpretation Chapter 5. Measurement The Measurement Process Conceptualization Operationalization Operational Definitions in Social Research Verbal Reports Observation Archival Records Selection of Operational Definitions Operational Definitions in Social Research Verbal Reports Observation Archival Records Selection of Operational Definitions Levels of Measurement Nominal Measurement Ordinal Measurement Interval Measurement Ratio Measurement Discussion Reliability and Validity Sources of Error Reliability Assessment Test-Retest Reliability Split-Half and Internal Consistency Reliability Intercoder Reliability Improving Reliability Validity Assessment Subjective Validation Criterion-Related Validation Construct Validation A Final Note on Reliability and Validity Chapter 6. Sampling Why Sample? Population Definition Sampling Designs Probability Sampling Random Selection Simple Random Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Cluster Sampling Systematic Sampling Nonprobability Sampling Convenience Sampling Purposive Sampling Quota Sampling Other Sampling Designs Combined Probability and Nonprobability Sampling Referral Sampling Factors Affecting Choice of Sampling Design Stage of Research and Data Use Available Resources Method of Data Collection Factors Determining Sample Size Population Heterogeneity Desired Precision Sampling Design Available Resources Number of Breakdowns Planned Final Notes on Sampling Errors and Generalizability III. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Chapter 7. Experimentation The Logic of Experimentation Testing Causal Relationships Matching and Random Assignment Internal and External Validity Sampling in Experiments Staging Experiments An Example: Who Will Intervene? Subject Recruitment and Acquisition of Informed Consent Introduction to the Experiment The Experimental Manipulation Manipulation Checks Measurement of the Dependent Variable Debriefing Pretesting Experimental and Mundane Realism The Experiment as a Social Occasion Demand Characteristics Evaluation Apprehension Other Motives of Experimental Subjects Experimenter Effects Minimizing Bias Due to the Social Nature of Experimentation Experimentation Outside the Laboratory Field Experiments Experimental Designs in Survey Research Units of Analysis Other than Individuals Chapter 8. Experimental Designs Threats to Internal Validity Pre-experimental Designs Design 1: The One-Shot Case Study Design 2: The One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design Design 3: The Static-Group Comparison True Experimental Designs Design 4: The Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design Design 5: The Posttest-Only Control Group Design Design 6: The Solomon Four-Group Design Within-Subjects Designs Overview of True Experimental Designs Factorial Experimental Designs Interaction Effects Quasi-experimental Designs Example 1: Interracial Attitudes and Behavior at a Summer Camp Example 2: The Connecticut Crackdown on Speeding Chapter 9. Survey Research General Features of Survey Research Large-Scale Probability Sampling Systematic Procedures: Interviews and Questionnaires Quantitative Data Analysis Secondary Analysis of Surveys The Uses and Limitations of Surveys Survey Research Designs Cross-Sectional Designs Longitudinal Designs Steps in Survey Research: Planning Face-to-Face and Telephone Interviewing Face-to-Face Interviewing Telephone Interviewing Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews Mixed-Mode Surveys Field Administration Interviewer Selection Interviewer Training Pretesting Gaining Access Interviewing Supervision and Quality Control Follow-Up Efforts Chapter 10. Survey Instrumentation The Survey as a Social Occasion Materials Available to the Survey Designer Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questions Direct and Indirect Questions Response Formats Visual and Media Aids Existing Questions ''Sketches'' or Preliminaries The Opening The Placement of Sensitive and Routine Questions Order, Flow, and Transition Filling in the Sketch: Writing the Items Using Language Effectively The ''Frame of Reference'' Problem Reason Analysis Memory Problems Response Bias Problems Format Considerations Mixed-Mode Instrument Designs Pretesting Cognitive Laboratory Interviews Field Pretesting Chapter 11. Field Research The Potentials and Limitations of Field Research Research Design and Sampling Sampling in Field Research Field Observation Nonparticipant Observation Participant Observation Field Interviewing Stages of Field Research A Field Study of the Homeless Selecting a Research Setting Gaining Access Presenting Oneself Gathering Information Analyzing the Data Chapter 12. Research Using Available Data Sources of Available Data Public Documents and Official Records Private Documents Mass Media Physical, Nonverbal Evidence Social Science Data Archives Advantages of Research Using Available Data Nonreactive Measurement Analyzing Social Structure Studying and Understanding the Past Understanding Social Change Studying Problems Cross-Culturally Improving Knowledge through Replication and Increased Sample Size Savings on Research Costs General Methodological Issues in Available-Data Research Searching for and Procuring Available Data Measurement of Key Concepts Evaluation and Adjustment of Data Assessment of Data Completeness Historical Analysis Descriptive and Analytical History Handling Documentary Evidence Historical Interpretation Content Analysis Selecting and Defining Content Categories Defining the Unit of Analysis Deciding on a System of Enumeration Carrying Out the Analysis Chapter 13. Multiple Methods Triangulation Multiple Measures of Concepts within the Same Study Composite Measures: Indexes and Scales Structural Equation Modeling Multiple Tests of Hypotheses across Different Studies Replications Using the Same Research Strategy: Social Exclusion and Helping Replications Using Different Research Strategies A Comparison of the Four Basic Approaches to Social Research Meta-Analysis Problem Formulation Data Collection Data Evaluation Analysis and Interpretation Public Presentation Chapter 14. Evaluation Research Framework and Sample Studies Example 1: Feeding the Homeless Example 2: Aid to Released Prisoners Example 3: Curbing Drunk Driving Types of Evaluation Research Problem Identification: Conceptualization and Diagnosis Policy Planning: Needs and Social Impact Assessments Program Development: Formative Evaluation Program Implementation: Program Monitoring Program Evaluation: Effect and Efficiency Assessment Methodological Issues in Evaluation Research Theory as a Guide to Research Research Design and Internal Validity Measurement Validity External Validity The Social and Political Context of Evaluation Research IV. DATA PROCESSING, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION Chapter 15. Data Processing and Elementary Data Analysis Preview of Analysis Steps Data Processing Editing Coding Entering the Data Cleaning Data Matrices and Documentation The Functions of Statistics in Social Research Inspecting and Modifying the Data Nominal- and Ordinal-Scale Variables Interval- and Ratio-Scale Variables Preliminary Hypothesis Testing Nominal- and Ordinal-Scale Variables Interval- and Ratio-Scale Variables Chapter 16. Multivariate Analysis Modeling Relationships Arrow Diagrams Stochastic and Systematic Components The Process of Modeling Elaboration: Tables and Beyond Multiple-Regression Analysis Example 1: The Moral Integration of American Cities Example 2: Interscholastic Sports and Academic Achievement Example 3: Textile Workers and Union Sentiment Other Modeling Techniques Chapter 17. Writing Research Reports Searching the Literature Using the Internet Using the Library Outlining and Preparing to Write Major Headings The Abstract Introduction Literature Review Methods Findings Discussion References Other Considerations The Writing-Reading Interface Avoiding Plagiarism Revisions Length Glossary References Name Index Subject Index
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