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Stats & Probability for Science & Medicine Textbooks

by Beth Dawson and Robert Trapp

ISBN13: 978-0071410182

ISBN10: 007141018X

Cover type:

Edition/Copyright: 4TH 04

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company

Published: 2004

International: No

ISBN10: 007141018X

Cover type:

Edition/Copyright: 4TH 04

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company

Published: 2004

International: No

A comprehensive user-friendly introduction to biostatistics and epidemiology applied to medicine, clinical practice, and research. Features "Presenting Problems" (case studies) drawn from studies published in the medical literature

**1. Introduction to Medical Research **

The Scope of Biostatistics & Epidemiology

Biostatistics in Medicine

The Design of This Book

The Organization of This Book

Additional Resources

**2. Study Designs in Medical Research **

Classification of Study Designs

Observational Studies

Experimental Studies or Clinical Trials

Meta-Analysis & Review Papers

Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Study Designs

Summary

**3. Summarizing Data & Presenting Data in Tables & Graphs **

Purpose of the Chapter

Scales of Measurement

Summarizing Numerical Data with Numbers

Displaying Numerical Data in Tables & Graphs

Summarizing Nominal & Ordinal Data with Numbers

Tables & Graphs for Nominal & Ordinal Data

Describing Relationships Between Two Characteristics

Graphs for Two Characteristics

Examples of Misleading Charts & Graphs

Computer Programs

Summary

**4. Probability & Related Topics for Making Inferences About Data **

Purpose of the Chapter

The Meaning of the Term "Probability"

Populations & Samples

Random Variables & Probability Distributions

Sampling Distributions

Estimation & Hypothesis Testing

Summary

**5. Research Questions About One Group**

Purpose of the Chapter

Mean in One Group When the Observations Are Normally Distributed

Hypothesis Testing

Research Questions About a Proportion in One Group

Means When the Same Group Is Measured Twice

Proportions When the Same Group Is Measured Twice

What to Do When Observations Are Not Normally Distributed

Mean Differences When Observations Are Not Normally Distributed

Finding the Appropriate Sample Size for Research

Summary

**6. Research Questions About Two Separate or Independent Groups **

Purpose of the Chapter

Decisions About Means in Two Independent Groups

Decisions About Proportions in Two Independent Groups

Finding Sample Sizes for Means and Proportions in Two Groups

Summary

**7. Research Questions About Means in Three or More Groups **

Purpose of the Chapter

Intuitive Overview of ANOVA

Traditional Approach to ANOVA

Multiple-Comparison Procedures

Additional Illustrations of the Use of ANOVA

Nonparametric ANOVA

Comparing Frequencies or Proportions in More than Two Groups

Sample Sizes for ANOVA

Summary

**8. Research Questions About Relationships Among Variables **

An Overview of Correlation & Regression

Correlation

Comparing Two Correlation Coefficients

Other Measures of Correlation

Linear Regression

Use of Correlation & Regression

Sample Sizes for Correlation & Regression

Summary

**9. Analyzing Research Questions About Survival **

Purpose of the Chapter

Why Specialized Methods Are Needed to Analyze Survival Data

Actuarial, or Life Table, Analysis

Kaplan--Meier Product Limit Method

Comparing Two Survival Curves

The Hazard Function in Survival Analysis

Interpreting Survival Curves from the Literature

The Intention-to-Treat Principle

Summary

**10. Statistical Methods for Multiple Variables **

Purpose of the Chapter

Multiple Regression

Controlling for Confounding

Predicting Nominal or Categorical Outcomes

Predicting a Censored Outcome: Cox Proportional Hazard Model

Meta-Analysis

Methods for Classification

Multiple Dependent Variables

Summary of Advanced Methods

**11. Survey Research **

The Research Questions

Questionnaire Layout

Reliability and Validity of Survey Instruments

Administration of Surveys

Selecting the Sample & Determining N

Analysis of Survey Results

Summary

**12. Methods of Evidence-Based Medicine and Decision Analysis **

Introduction

Evaluating Diagnostic Procedures with the Threshold Model

Measuring the Accuracy of Diagnostic Procedures

Using Sensitivity & Specificity to Revise Probabilities

ROC Curves

Decision Analysis

Using Decision Analysis to Compare Strategies

Using Decision Analysis to Evaluate Timing & Methods

Computer Programs for Decision Analysis

Summary

**13. Reading the Medical Literature **

Purpose of the Chapter

Review of Major Study Designs

The Abstract & Introduction Sections of a Research Report

The Method Section of a Research Report

The Results Section of a Research Report

The Discussion & Conclusion Sections of a Research Report

A Checklist for Reading the Literature

Appendix A Tables

Appendix B Answers to Exercises

Appendix C Flowcharts for Relating Research Questions to Statistical Methods

ISBN10: 007141018X

Cover type:

Edition/Copyright: 4TH 04

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company

Published: 2004

International: No

A comprehensive user-friendly introduction to biostatistics and epidemiology applied to medicine, clinical practice, and research. Features "Presenting Problems" (case studies) drawn from studies published in the medical literature

Table of Contents

**1. Introduction to Medical Research **

The Scope of Biostatistics & Epidemiology

Biostatistics in Medicine

The Design of This Book

The Organization of This Book

Additional Resources

**2. Study Designs in Medical Research **

Classification of Study Designs

Observational Studies

Experimental Studies or Clinical Trials

Meta-Analysis & Review Papers

Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Study Designs

Summary

**3. Summarizing Data & Presenting Data in Tables & Graphs **

Purpose of the Chapter

Scales of Measurement

Summarizing Numerical Data with Numbers

Displaying Numerical Data in Tables & Graphs

Summarizing Nominal & Ordinal Data with Numbers

Tables & Graphs for Nominal & Ordinal Data

Describing Relationships Between Two Characteristics

Graphs for Two Characteristics

Examples of Misleading Charts & Graphs

Computer Programs

Summary

**4. Probability & Related Topics for Making Inferences About Data **

Purpose of the Chapter

The Meaning of the Term "Probability"

Populations & Samples

Random Variables & Probability Distributions

Sampling Distributions

Estimation & Hypothesis Testing

Summary

**5. Research Questions About One Group**

Purpose of the Chapter

Mean in One Group When the Observations Are Normally Distributed

Hypothesis Testing

Research Questions About a Proportion in One Group

Means When the Same Group Is Measured Twice

Proportions When the Same Group Is Measured Twice

What to Do When Observations Are Not Normally Distributed

Mean Differences When Observations Are Not Normally Distributed

Finding the Appropriate Sample Size for Research

Summary

**6. Research Questions About Two Separate or Independent Groups **

Purpose of the Chapter

Decisions About Means in Two Independent Groups

Decisions About Proportions in Two Independent Groups

Finding Sample Sizes for Means and Proportions in Two Groups

Summary

**7. Research Questions About Means in Three or More Groups **

Purpose of the Chapter

Intuitive Overview of ANOVA

Traditional Approach to ANOVA

Multiple-Comparison Procedures

Additional Illustrations of the Use of ANOVA

Nonparametric ANOVA

Comparing Frequencies or Proportions in More than Two Groups

Sample Sizes for ANOVA

Summary

**8. Research Questions About Relationships Among Variables **

An Overview of Correlation & Regression

Correlation

Comparing Two Correlation Coefficients

Other Measures of Correlation

Linear Regression

Use of Correlation & Regression

Sample Sizes for Correlation & Regression

Summary

**9. Analyzing Research Questions About Survival **

Purpose of the Chapter

Why Specialized Methods Are Needed to Analyze Survival Data

Actuarial, or Life Table, Analysis

Kaplan--Meier Product Limit Method

Comparing Two Survival Curves

The Hazard Function in Survival Analysis

Interpreting Survival Curves from the Literature

The Intention-to-Treat Principle

Summary

**10. Statistical Methods for Multiple Variables **

Purpose of the Chapter

Multiple Regression

Controlling for Confounding

Predicting Nominal or Categorical Outcomes

Predicting a Censored Outcome: Cox Proportional Hazard Model

Meta-Analysis

Methods for Classification

Multiple Dependent Variables

Summary of Advanced Methods

**11. Survey Research **

The Research Questions

Questionnaire Layout

Reliability and Validity of Survey Instruments

Administration of Surveys

Selecting the Sample & Determining N

Analysis of Survey Results

Summary

**12. Methods of Evidence-Based Medicine and Decision Analysis **

Introduction

Evaluating Diagnostic Procedures with the Threshold Model

Measuring the Accuracy of Diagnostic Procedures

Using Sensitivity & Specificity to Revise Probabilities

ROC Curves

Decision Analysis

Using Decision Analysis to Compare Strategies

Using Decision Analysis to Evaluate Timing & Methods

Computer Programs for Decision Analysis

Summary

**13. Reading the Medical Literature **

Purpose of the Chapter

Review of Major Study Designs

The Abstract & Introduction Sections of a Research Report

The Method Section of a Research Report

The Results Section of a Research Report

The Discussion & Conclusion Sections of a Research Report

A Checklist for Reading the Literature

Appendix A Tables

Appendix B Answers to Exercises

Appendix C Flowcharts for Relating Research Questions to Statistical Methods

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