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Bedford Guide to the Research Process

Bedford Guide to the Research Process - 3rd edition

ISBN13: 978-0312119676

Cover of Bedford Guide to the Research Process 3RD 97 (ISBN 978-0312119676)
ISBN13: 978-0312119676
ISBN10: 0312119674
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 3RD 97
Publisher: Bedford Books
Published: 1997
International: No

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Bedford Guide to the Research Process - 3RD 97 edition

ISBN13: 978-0312119676

Jean Johnson

ISBN13: 978-0312119676
ISBN10: 0312119674
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 3RD 97
Publisher: Bedford Books

Published: 1997
International: No

The most comprehensive coverage of research and writing. With extensive coverage of researching, writing, and documenting papers across the disciplines and a friendly, encouraging tone, this invaluable resource will serve students well throughout their college careers.

The strongest coverage of computers. Recognizing that computers have dramatically changed the way papers are researched and written, the third edition features the most complete advice available on using computers in every stage of the research process.

Thorough coverage of conducting research-inside and outside the library. Includes step-by-step advice on using the library (illustrated with annotated examples), as well as extensive guidance in field research, showing students how to gather information with interviews, questionnaires, primary sources, observation, and experimentation.

A complete guide to the writing process. The Bedford Guide to the Research Process offers more on composition than any other research guide, with 3 full chapters on drafting and revising, numerous tips for generating ideas, thorough coverage of integrating sources and avoiding plagiarism, and expanded advice on developing an outline and devising an effective thesis.

Appropriate for research projects across the curriculum. In addition to covering all the major documentation styles (MLA, APA, CBE, and Chicago are illustrated by 4 annotated student research papers-3 of them new to this edition), The Bedford Guide to the Research Process uses examples from student work in every major discipline, explains how to design and incorporate tables and graphs, provides an appendix of style manuals and handbooks for 25 disciplines, and includes an annotated bibliography of cross-curricular sources.

Practical exercises. Throughout the book, optional activities help students practice what they're learning including unique search log exercises that encourage students to analyze their progress; peer review exercises that help students share information and research strategies; and writing and revision exercises for students working in computer labs or on networks.

Jean Johnson is a coordinator of the Professional Writing Program at the University of Maryland at College Park, where she also teaches advanced writing. Through her company Executive Writing Services, she provides seminars to employees in business and in federal and local

Table of Contents


Part I. Searching
Introduction: Research: Searching, Re-Searching, and Writing

Why We Do Research
How We Do Research
Searching: Finding Answers to Your Questions
Re-Searching: The Search for Meaning

Writing the Research Paper

1. Choosing Your Topic

Making a List of Subjects
Choosing Possible Topics
The Controlling Idea or Thesis Statement
Critical Thinking
Dealing with Special Problems
Choosing a Topic

2. Planning Your Search

Creating a Search Strategy
Making a Timetable
Composing a Preliminary Outline
Adjusting the Scope of Your Subject
Listing Possible Sources of Information
Developing a Search Strategy
Assembling Your Materials

3. Compiling Your Working Bibliography

Where to Start Looking
What You Can Find in the Library
Making a List of Sources
Recording Bibliographic Information
Beginning Your Library Search
A Typical Library Search
Finding Information in the Library Catalog
Dewey Decimal System
Library of Congress System
Library of Congress Subject Headings
The Library Catalog
Other Library Databases
Finding Information in the Reference Area
Computer-Aided Searching in the Reference Area
General Sources of Bibliographic Information
Trade Bibliographies and Bibliographies of Books
Biographical Indexes
Periodical Indexes
Handbooks and Manuals
Indexes to Government Documents
Interlibrary Loans
Finding Information through the Internet
World Wide Web
Wide Area Information Service (WAIS)
Other Uses for the Internet
Wading Through the Internet
Using the Internet Critically
Books about the Internet
Taking Stock
Widening or Narrowing?
Focusing a Topic
Keeping a Search Log: A Student Example

4. Recording Information from Print and Electronic Sources

Locating Sources
Evaluating Your Sources
Copyright Date
Professional Journals
Recommendations and Reviews
Source Evaluation: Student Examples
Scanning a Book
Scanning an Article
Close Reading
Taking Notes
Taking Notes on Cards
Taking Notes on a Computer
Recording Your Information
Personal Comments
Avoiding Plagiarism

5. Gathering Information from Other Sources

Personal Interviews
Telephone, Mail, and Electronic Interviews
Surveying and Polling Using Questionnaires
Surveys and Polls
Recording Oral History
Reading Diaries, Letters, and Other Personal Papers
Examining Government Records
State and County Records
Federal Records
Museums, Special Collections, and Organizations
Observing, Exploring, and Experimenting
Four Students' Original Research Projects

Part II. Re-Searching and Writing

6. Re-Searching, Developing a Thesis Statement, and Outlining

Re-Searching: Reviewing Your Information
The Researcher's Questions
Writing a Summary Sentence or Thesis Statement
Critical Thinking
Two Students' Use of Critical Thinking
Analyzing Arguments
Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning
The Toulmin Model for Analyzing Arguments
Examining the Validity of the Arguments in Two Sample Papers
Checking Your Thesis
Creative Thinking
David Kuijt's Creative Thinking and Writing
Making an Outline
Creating a Formal Outline
The Logic of an Outline
The Form of an Outline
Other Types of Outlines
The Arrangement of Your Notes according to Your Outline

7. Writing Your First Draft

Preparing to Write
Preliminary Planning
Focusing on Your Audience
Establishing Your Own Style and Tone
Writing Your Introduction
Beginning with an Anecdote
Beginning with Background
Beginning with a Definition
Beginning with a Summary
Beginning with a Review of the Literature
Using Your Outline and a Computer
Writing the Body of Your Paper
Using Headings
Developing Coherence and Unity
Integrating Sources into Your Text
Keeping Your Readers in Mind
Keeping Your Readers Informed
Handling Quotations
Punctuating Quotations
Acknowledging Your Sources
When to Acknowledge Your Sources
How to Acknowledge Your Sources
Avoiding Plagiarism
Writing Your Conclusion
Writing the Title
Writing an Abstract
Descriptive Abstracts
Informative Abstracts
Designing Illustrations
Drawings and Diagrams
Making Your Illustrations Part of Your Text
Numbering and Titling Your Illustrations
Documenting the Sources of Your Illustrations

8. Revising

Preparing to Revise
Revising on Paper
Revising with a Computer
Following a Plan
First Revising Stage: Focusing on the Whole Paper
Listening to Your Paper
Making an Outline
First-Stage Revising Process: Student Examples
Second Revising Stage: Focusing on Parts of the Paper
Checking Paragraphs
Checking Sentences and Words
Correcting Faulty Connections
Maintaining Consistency
Changing Incorrect or Confusing Punctuation
Focusing on Documentation

9. Preparing Your Final Copy

Making Your Final Revision
Spelling and Usage
Word Usage
Front Matter
Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Back Matter
Content or Explanatory Notes
Footnotes or Endnotes
List of References
Preparing Your Final Copy
Computer Help
Proofreading and Duplicating
Cover and Binding

Part III. Writing Papers across the Curriculum: Documentation Systems

10. Writing a Paper in the Humanities: The Author-Page Style

Parts of the Manuscript
Title Page
Margins and Spacing
Page Numbers
First Page
Content Notes
Parenthetical Citation
List of Works Cited
Two Sample Research Papers Using the Author-Page Style

11. Writing a Paper in the Social Sciences: The Author-Date Style

Parts of the Manuscript
Title Page
Margins and Spacing
Page Numbers
First Page if Text
Content Notes
Parenthetical Citation
Reference List
Sample Research Paper Using the Author-Date Style

12. Writing a Paper in Science or Technology: The Citation Sequence and Name-Year Systems

Parts of the Manuscript
Title Page
Margins and Spacing
Page Numbers
First Page
Explanatory Notes
Citation-Sequence (C-S) System
Name-Year (N-Y) System
Alphabet-Number (A-N) System
Choosing Your Documentation System
Sample Research Paper Using the Citation-Sequence


1. Annotated List of References

Brief Contents of Appendix
General Sources
Sources in General Disciplinary Groups
Sources in Specific Academic Disciplines

2. Using Footnotes or Endnotes to Document Your Paper

In-Text Citations

3. Style Manuals and Handbooks in Various Disciplines


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