Summary: Health care services are rapidly changing in ways that seem increasingly inaccessible and unfair to millions of Americans. Yet what does "unfair" mean and how should the system be changed to make it more "fair"? This book addresses these probing questions by translating the general moral concept of fairness into specific criteria for measuring the relative fairness of different ideas for reforming out health care system. These benchmarks of fairne ...show moress represent the first time that a concept in moral philosophy has been transposed into a usable policy tool for scoring alternate proposals. The authors show how concerned members of the public and policy makers can use the benchmarks by actually scoring four major proposals for health care reform that exemplify the most prevalent ideas of the 1990s in state and national circles. The authors pay particular attention to the problems of fairness in reforms focused on competition. Although some reform ideas fare much better than others, all are found weak in establishing open, democratic procedures for deciding the limits of care. They also assess the current changes brought on by the rapid growth of managed care systems since the collapse of national reform. Written by a leading moral philosopher of health care, an internationally known sociologist of health care systems, and a health economist, Benchmarks of Fairness should be read by citizens, physicians, nurses, employers, and politicians who wants to think clearly about fairness and who wants to understand which reform ideas today are more unfair than others.