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Bioethics: Principles, Issues and Cases

Bioethics: Principles, Issues and Cases - 2nd edition

ISBN13: 978-0199796236

Cover of Bioethics: Principles, Issues and Cases 2ND 13 (ISBN 978-0199796236)
ISBN13: 978-0199796236
ISBN10: 0199796238
Cover type: Paperback
Edition/Copyright: 2ND 13
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Published: 2013
International: No
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Bioethics: Principles, Issues and Cases - 2ND 13 edition

ISBN13: 978-0199796236

Lewis Vaughn

ISBN13: 978-0199796236
ISBN10: 0199796238
Cover type: Paperback
Edition/Copyright: 2ND 13
Publisher: Oxford University Press

Published: 2013
International: No
Summary

Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases, Second Edition, explores the philosophical, medical, social, and legal aspects of key bioethical issues. Opening with a thorough introduction to ethics, bioethics, and moral reasoning, it then covers influential moral theories and the criteria for evaluating them. Integrating eighty-five readings--thirteen of them new to this edition--numerous cases, and abundant pedagogical tools, the book addresses the most provocative and controversial topics in bioethics.

Updated throughout, the second edition incorporates new information on justice, health care, and health insurance reform along with more coverage of issues related to race and culture and of the moral challenges facing nurses and other health care professionals. It also offers additional step-by-step guidance on how to identify and evaluate moral arguments in real-world contexts, with accompanying exercises and answers in an appendix.

Table of Contents

*=New to this edition
Chapters 3-10 include an ''Applying Major Theories'' section.
Chapters 3-11 include Cases for Evaluation.
Each chapter includes Key Terms, a Summary, Further Reading, and Notes.
Preface
PART 1. PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES
CHAPTER 1. MORAL REASONING IN BIOETHICS
Ethics and Bioethics
Ethics and the Moral Life
In Depth: Morality and the Law
Moral Principles in Bioethics
Autonomy
Beneficence
Utility
Justice
Ethical Relativism
In Depth: Anthropology and Moral Diversity
Ethics and Religion
Moral Arguments
Argument Fundamentals
Patterns of Moral Arguments
Review: Valid and Invalid Argument Forms
In Depth: Fallacies in Moral Reasoning
Evaluating Premises
* Assessing Whole Arguments
CHAPTER 2. BIOETHICS AND MORAL THEORIES
The Nature of Moral Theories
Influential Moral Theories
Utilitarianism
In Depth: Utilitarianism and the Golden Rule
Kantian Ethics
Natural Law Theory
Rawls' Contract Theory
Virtue Ethics
The Ethics of Care
In Depth: Can Virtue Be Taught?
Feminist Ethics
Criteria for Judging Moral Theories
Review: Evaluating Moral Theories: Criteria of Adequacy
Applying the Criteria
Utilitarianism
Kant's Theory
* READINGS:
* ''Utilitarianism,'' John Stuart Mill
* ''The Moral Law,'' Immanuel Kant
* ''Virtue and the Moral Life,'' Bernard Mayo
* ''The Ethics of Care,'' Virginia Held
PART 2. MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL AND PATIENT
CHAPTER 3. PATERNALISM AND PATIENT AUTONOMY
Shades of Autonomy and Paternalism
Refusing Treatment
In Depth: The Hippocratic Oath
Futile Treatment
Legal Brief: Refusing Treatment for Children on Religious Grounds
In Depth: CPR and DNR
* In Depth: Moral Conflicts in Nursing
Classic Case File: Elizabeth Bouvia
READINGS:
''Paternalism,'' Gerald Dworkin
''The Refutation of Medical Paternalism,'' Alan Goldman
''Why Doctors Should Intervene,'' Terrence F. Ackerman
''Autonomy, Futility, and the Limits of Medicine,'' Robert L. Schwartz
Bouvia v. Superior Court, California Court of Appeals
''Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship,'' AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs
''Code of Ethics for Nurses,'' American Nurses Association
*''In Defense of the Traditional Nurse,'' Lisa H. Newton
*''Advocacy or Subservience for the Sake of Patients?'' Helga Kuhse
CHAPTER 4. TRUTH-TELLING AND CONFIDENTIALITY
Paternalism and Deception
In Depth: Do Patients Want the Truth? Do Physicians Tell It?
Confidential Truths
Legal Brief: Confidentiality and a Duty to Warn
Classic Case File: Carlos R.
READINGS:
''Telling the Truth to Patients: A Clinical Ethics Exploration,'' David C. Thomasma
''On Telling Patients the Truth,'' Mack Lipkin
''On a Supposed Right to Lie from Altruistic Motives,'' Immanuel Kant
''Respect for Patients, Physicians, and the Truth,'' Susan Cullen and Margaret Klein
''Why Privacy Is Important,'' James Rachels
''Confidentiality in Medicine--A Decrepit Concept,'' Mark Siegler
*''Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society,'' Ruth Macklin
Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, Supreme Court of California
CHAPTER 5. INFORMED CONSENT
Autonomy and Consent
Conditions of Informed Consent
In Depth: Two Views of Informed Consent
Legal Brief: Important Informed Consent Cases
Classic Case File: Jerry Canterbury
READINGS:
''The Concept of Informed Consent,'' Ruth R. Faden and Tom L. Beauchamp
''Informed Consent--Must It Remain a Fairy Tale?'' Jay Katz
''Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care,'' Howard Brody
''Informed Consent: Some Challenges to the Universal Validity of the Western Model,'' Robert J. Levine
Canterbury v. Spence, United States Court of Appeals
CHAPTER 6. HUMAN RESEARCH
The Science of Clinical Trials
In Depth: The Tuskegee Tragedy
Beneficence, Science, and Placebos
Science and Informed Consent
In Depth: Women in Clinical Trials
Research on the Vulnerable
In Depth: Why Enter a Clinical Trial?
Classic Case File: The UCLA Schizophrenia Study
READINGS:
The Nuremberg Code
Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Medical Association
''The Belmont Report,'' The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
''Final Report: Human Radiation Experiments,'' Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
''Of Mice but Not Men: Problems of the Randomized Clinical Trial,'' Samuel Hellman and Deborah S. Hellman
''A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients,'' Benjamin Freedman
''How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials,'' Don Marquis
* ''Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study,'' Allan M. Brandt
''The Ethics of Clinical Research in the Third World,'' Marcia Angell
''Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials in Developing Countries,'' Baruch Brody
PART 3. LIFE AND DEATH
CHAPTER 7. ABORTION
Starting Point: The Basics
Fact File: U.S. Abortions
In Depth: Abortion and Public Opinion
The Legal Struggle
In Depth: Late-Term Abortion
Persons and Rights
Classic Case File: Nancy Klein
READINGS:
''A Defense of Abortion,'' Judith Jarvis Thomson
''Why Abortion Is Immoral,'' Don Marquis
''An Almost Absolute Value in History,'' John T. Noonan, Jr.
''On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion,'' Mary Anne Warren
''Abortion Decisions: Personal Morality,'' Daniel Callahan
''Abortion and the Concept of a Person,'' Jane English
''In Defense of Abortion and Infanticide,'' Michael Tooley
''Abortion Through a Feminist Ethic Lens,'' Susan Sherwin
Roe v. Wade, U.S. Supreme Court
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, U.S. Supreme Court
CHAPTER 8. REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY
In Vitro Fertilization
Fact File: Assisted Reproduction
Surrogacy
In Depth: IVF and Children's Future Children
Cloning
In Depth: Cloning Time Line
Classic Case File: Baby M
READINGS:
''IVF: The Simple Case,'' Peter Singer
''IVF and Women's Interests: An Analysis of Feminist Concerns,'' Mary Anne Warren
'''Give Me Children or I Shall Die!' New Reproductive Technologies and Harm to Children,'' Cynthia B. Cohen
''Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and on the Dignity of Procreation,'' Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
* ''The Presumptive Primacy of Procreative Liberty,'' John A. Robertson
''Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation or Empowerment?,'' Laura M. Purdy
''On 'Surrogacy,''' Barbara Katz Rothman
* Is Women's Labor a Commodity?,'' Elizabeth S. Anderson
''The Wisdom of Repugnance,'' Leon R. Kass
''Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con,'' Dan W. Brock
Opinion in the Matter of Baby M, New Jersey Supreme Court
CHAPTER 9. GENETIC CHOICES
Genes and Genomes
Genetic Testing
In Depth: Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests
Gene Therapy
Fact File: Genetic Tests
Stem Cells
In Depth: Recent Research in Gene Therapy
Classic Case File: The Kingsburys
READINGS:
''Implications of Prenatal Diagnosis for the Human Right to Life,'' Leon R. Kass
''Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children Be Immoral?,'' Laura M. Purdy
''The Morality of Screening for Disability,'' Jeff McMahan
* Genetic Dilemmas and the Child's Right to an Open Future,'' Dena S. Davis
''Disowning Knowledge: Issues in Genetic Testing,'' Robert Wachbroit
''The Non-Identity Problem and Genetic Harms--The Case of Wrongful Handicaps,'' Dan W. Brock
''Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics?,'' John Harris
''Genetic Enhancement,'' Walter Glannon
''Germ-Line Gene Therapy,'' LeRoy Walters and Julie Gage Palmer
''What Does 'Respect for Embryos' Mean in the Context of Stem Cell Research?,'' Bonnie Steinbock
''Declaration on the Production and the Scientific and Therapeutic Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells,'' Pontifical Academy for Life
CHAPTER 10. EUTHANASIA & PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE
Deciding Life and Death
Legal Brief: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: Major Developments
In Depth: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: What Doctors Think and Do
Autonomy, Mercy, and Harm
In Depth: Oregon's Death With Dignity Act
In Depth: Physician-Assisted Suicide and Public Opinion
Classic Case File: Nancy Cruzan
READINGS:
*''Death and Dignity: A Case of Individualized Decision Making,'' Timothy E. Quill
''Voluntary Active Euthanasia,'' Dan W. Brock
''When Self-Determination Runs Amok,'' Daniel Callahan
''When Abstract Moralizing Runs Amok,'' John Lachs
''Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Tragic View,'' John D. Arras
''Active and Passive Euthanasia,'' James Rachels
''The Distinction Between Refusing Medical Treatment and Suicide,'' New York State Task Force on Life and the Law
''The Philosophers' Brief,'' Ronald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, Robert Nozick, John Rawls, Thomas Scanlon, and Judith Jarvis Thomson
Vacco v. Quill, U.S. Supreme Court
Washington v. Glucksberg, U.S. Supreme Court
PART 4. JUSTICE AND HEALTH CARE
CHAPTER 11. DIVIDING UP HEALTH CARE RESOURCES
Health Care in Trouble
In Depth: Unequal Health Care for Minorities
Fact File: U.S. Health Care
Theories of Justice
In Depth: Public Opinion: Obtaining Adequate Heath Care
A Right to Health Care
The Ethics of Rationing
Classic Case File: Christine deMeurers
READINGS:
''Is There a Right to Health Care and, if So, What Does It Encompass?,'' Norman Daniels
''The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care,'' Allen E. Buchanan
''Rights to Health Care, Social Justice, and Fairness in Health Care Allocations: Frustrations in the Face of Finitude,'' H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.
* Health Care Reform: Lessons from Canada,'' Raisa Berlin Debar
''Rationing Fairly: Programmatic Considerations,'' Norman Daniels
''The Allocation of Exotic Medical Lifesaving Therapy,'' Nicholas Rescher
''QALYfying the Value of Life,'' John Harris
Appendix
Glossary
Index
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