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Edition/Copyright: 2ND 03
SECTION 1. CONCEPTUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES.
1. Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes.
Block Flow Diagram (BFD). Process Flow Diagram (PFD). Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID). Additional Diagrams. 3-Dimensional Representation of a Process. The 3-D Plant Model.
2. The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow Diagrams.
Introduction. Step 1--Batch vs. Continuous Process. Step 2--The Input-Output Structure of the Process. Step 3--The Recycle Structure of the Process. Step 4--General Structure of the Separation System. Step 5--Heat-Exchanger Network or Process Energy Recovery System. Information Required and Sources.
3. Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow Diagram.
Guidelines and Tactics for Tracing Chemicals. Tracing Primary Paths Taken by Chemicals in a Chemical Process. Recycle and Bypass Streams. Tracing Nonreacting Chemicals. Limitations. Written Process Description.
4. Understanding Process Conditions.
Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Separation and Reactor Systems. Reasons for Operating at Conditions of Special Concern. Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Other Equipment. Analysis of Important Process Conditions.
Section 2. Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical Processes.
5. Estimation of Capital Costs.
Classifications of Capital Cost Estimates. Estimation of Purchased Equipment Costs. Estimating the Total Capital Cost of a Plant
6. Estimation of Manufacturing Costs.
Factors Affecting the Cost of Manufacturing a Chemical Product. Cost of Operating Labor. Utility Costs. Raw Material Costs. Yearly Costs and Stream Factors. Estimating Utility Costs from the PFD. Cost of Treating Liquid and Solid Waste Streams. Evaluation of Cost of Manufacture for the Production of Benzene via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene.
7. Engineering Economic Analysis.
Investments and the Time Value of Money. Different Types of Interest. Time Basis for Compound Interest Calculations. Cash Flow Diagrams. Calculations from Cash Flow Diagrams. Inflation. Depreciation of Capital Investment. Taxation, Cash Flow, and Profit.
8. Profitability Analysis.
A Typical Cash Flow Diagram for a New Project. Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation. Comparing Several Large Projects--Incremental Economic Analysis. Establishing Acceptable Returns from Investments--The Concept of Risk. Evaluation of Equipment Alternatives. Incremental Analysis for Retrofitting Facilities. Evaluation of Risk in Evaluating Profitability. Profit Margin Analysis.
Section 3. Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes.
9. Utilizing Experience-Based Principles to Confirm the Suitability of a Process Design.
The Role of Experience in the Design Process. Presentation of Tables of Technical Heuristics and Guidelines.
10. Synthesis of the PFD from the Generic BFD.
Information Needs and Sources. Reactor Section. Separator Section. Reactor Feed Preparation and Separator Feed Preparation Sections. Recycle Section. Environmental Control Section. Major Process Control Loops. Flow Summary Table. Major Equipment Summary Table.
11. Synthesis of a Process Using a Simulator and Simulator Troubleshooting.
The Structure of a Process Simulator. Information Required to Complete a Process Simulation--Input Data. Handling Recycle Streams. Choosing Thermodynamic Models. Case Study--Toluene Hydrodealkylation Process.
12. Process Optimization.
Background Information on Optimization. Strategies. Topological Optimization. Parametric Optimization. Lattice Search Techniques vs. Experimental Design. Process Flexibility and the Sensitivity of the Optimum.
13. Pinch Technology.
Introduction. Heat Integration and Network Design. Composite Temperature Enthalpy Diagram. Composite Enthalpy Curves for Systems without a Pinch. Using the Composite Enthalpy Curve to Estimate Heat Exchanger Surface Area. Effectiveness Factor (F) and the Number of Shells. Combining Costs to Give the EAOC for the Network. Other Considerations. Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Analysis and Design (HENSAD) Program. Mass-Exchange Networks.
Section 4. Analysis of Process Performance.
14. Process Input/Output Models.
Representation of Process Inputs and Outputs. Analysis of the Effect of Process Inputs on Process Outputs. A Process Example.
15. Tools for Evaluating Process Performance.
Key Relationships. Thinking with Equations. Base Case Ratios. Analysis of Systems Using Controlling Resistances. Graphical Representations.
16. Performance Curves for Individual Unit Operations.
Applications to Heat Transfer. Application to Fluid Flow. Application to Separation Problems.
17. Performance of Multiple Unit Operations.
Analysis of a Reactor with Heat Transfer. Performance of a Distillation Column. Performance of a Heating Loop. Performance of the Feed Section to a Process.
18. Reactor Performance.
Production of Desired Product. Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics. The Chemical Reactor. Heat Transfer in the Chemical Reactor. Reactor System Case Studies.
19. Regulating Process Conditions.
A Simple Regulation Problem. The Characteristics of Regulating Valves. Regulating Flowrates and Pressures. The Measurement of Process Variables. Common Control Strategies Used in Chemical Processes. Exchanging Heat and Work between Process and Utility Streams. Case Studies.
20. Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking.
Recommended Methodology. Troubleshooting Individual Units. Troubleshooting Multiple Units. A Process Troubleshooting Problem. Debottlenecking Problems.
Section 5. The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society.
21. Ethics and Professionalism.
Ethics. Professional Registration. Legal Liability. Business Codes of Conduct.
22. Health, Safety, and the Environment.
Risk Assessment. Regulations and Agencies. Fires and Explosions. Process Hazard Analysis. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. Inherently Safe Design. Glossary.
23. Green Engineering.
Environmental Regulations. Environmental Fate of Chemicals. Green Chemistry. Pollution Prevention during Process Design. Analysis of a PFD for Pollution Performance and Environmental Performance. An Example of the Economics of Pollution Prevention. Life-Cycle Analysis.
24. Chemical Product Design.
Strategies for Chemical Product Design. Needs. Ideas. Selection. Manufacture. Batch Processing. Economic Considerations.
Section 6. Interpersonal and Communication Skills.
Groups. Group Evolution. Teams and Teamwork. Misconceptions. Learning in Teams. Other Reading.
26. Written and Oral Communications.
Audience Analysis. Written Communication. Oral Communications. Software and Author Responsibility.
27. A Report Writing Case Study.
The Assignment Memorandum. Response Memorandum. Visual Aids. Example Reports. Checklist of Common Mistakes and Errors.
Appendix A. Cost Equations and Curves for the CAPCOST Program.
Purchased Equipment Costs. Pressure Factors. Material Factors and Bare Module Factors.
Appendix B. Information for the Preliminary Design of Four Chemical Processes.
Production of Dimethyl Ether (DME) via the Dehydration of Methanol. Acrylic Acid Production via the Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Propylene. Production of Acetone via the Dehydrogenation of Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA). Production of Heptenes from Propylene and Butenes.
Appendix C. Design Projects (on companion CD-ROM).
Project 1. Increasing the Production of 3-Chloro-1-Propene (Allyl Chloride) in Unit 600. Project 2. Design and Optimization of a New 20,000 Metric Tons per Year Facility to Produce Allyl Chloride at La Nueva Cantina, Mexico. Project 3. Scale-Down of Phthalic Anhydride Production at TBWS Unit 700. Project 4. The Design of a New, 100,000 Metric Tons per Year, Phthalic Anhydride Production Facility. Project 5. Problems at the Cumene Production Facility, Unit 800. Project 6. Design of a New, 100,000 Metric Tons per Year, Cumene Production Facility.
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