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The most popular applications-oriented approach to engineering technology fluid mechanics, this text covers all of the basic principles of fluid mechanics-both statics and dynamics-in a clear, practical presentation that ties theory directly to real devices and systems used in chemical process industries, manufacturing, plant engineering, waste water handling and product design. Readable and clearly written, the new 6th edition brings a much more attractive appearance to the book and includes many updates and additional features.
1. The Nature of Fluids and the Study of Fluid Mechanics.
Basic Introductory Concepts.
The International System of Units (SI)
The U.S. Customary System.
Weight and Mass.
Temperature.
Consistent Units in an Equation.
The Definition of Pressure.
Compressibility.
Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity.
Surface Tension.
2. Viscosity of Fluids.
Dynamic Viscosity.
Kinematic Viscosity.
Newtonian Fluids and Nonnewtonian Fluids.
Variation of Viscosity with Temperature.
Viscosity Measurement.
SAE Viscosity Grades.
ISO Viscosity Grades.
Hydraulic Fluids for Fluid Power Systems.
3. Pressure Measurement.
Absolute and Gage Pressure.
Relationship Between Pressure and Elevation.
Development of the Pressure-Elevation Relation.
Pascal's Paradox.
Manometers.
Barometers.
Pressure Expressed as the Height of a Column of Liquid.
Pressure Gages and Transducers.
4. Forces Due to Static Fluids.
Gases Under Pressure.
Horizontal Flat Surfaces Under Liquids.
Rectangular Walls.
Submerged Plane Areas-General.
Development of the General Procedure for Forces on Submerged Plane Areas.
Piezometric Head.
Distribution of Force on a Submerged Curved Surface.
Effect of a Pressure Above the Fluid Surface.
Forces on a Curved Surface with Fluid Below It.
Forces on Curved Surfaces with Fluid Above and Below.
5. Buoyancy and Stability.
Buoyancy.
Buoyancy Materials.
Stability of Completely Submerged Bodies.
Stability of Floating Bodies.
Degree of Stability.
6. Flow of Fluids and Bernoulli's Equation.
Fluid Flow Rate and the Continuity Equation.
Commercially Available Pipe and Tubing.
Recommended Velocity of Flow in Pipe and Tubing.
Conservation of Energy-Bernoulli's Equation.
Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.
Restrictions on Bernoulli's Equation.
Applications of Bernoulli's Equation.
Torricelli's Theorem.
Flow Due to a Falling Head.
7. General Energy Equation.
Energy Losses and Additions.
Nomenclature of Energy Losses sand Additions.
General Energy Equation.
Power Required by Pumps.
Power Delivered to Fluid Motors.
8. Reynolds Number, Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow, and Energy Losses Due to Friction.
Reynolds Number.
Critical Reynolds Numbers.
Darcy's Equation.
Friction Lass in Laminar Flow.
Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow.
Equations for Friction Factor.
Hazen-Williams Formula for Water Flow.
Other Forms of the Hazen-Williams Formula.
Nomograph for Solving Hazen-Williams Formula.
9. Velocity Profiles for Circular Sections and Flow in Noncircular Sections.
Velocity Profiles.
Velocity Profile for Laminar Flow.
Velocity Profile for Turbulent Flow.
Flow in Noncircular Sections.
10. Minor Losses.
Resistance Coefficient.
Sudden Enlargement.
Exit Loss.
Gradual Enlargement.
Sudden Contraction.
Gradual Contraction.
Entrance Loss.
Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings.
Application of Standard Valves.
Pipe Bends.
Pressure Drop in Fluid Power Valves.
Flow Coefficients for Valves Using Cv.
Plastic Valves.
11. Series Pipe Line Systems.
Class I Systems.
Spreadsheet Aid for Class I Problems.
Class II Systems.
Class III Systems.
Pipeline Design for Structural Integrity.
12. Parallel Pipe Line Systems.
Systems with Two Branches.
Systems with Three or More Branches-Networks.
13. Pump Selection and Application.
Parameters Involved in Pump Selection.
Types of Pumps.
Positive Displacement Pumps.
Kinetic Pumps.
Performance Data for Centrifugal Pumps.
Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps.
Manufacturer's Data for Centrifugal Pumps.
The Operating Point of a Pump and Pump Selection.
Net Positive Suction Head.
Suction Line Details.
Discharge Line Details.
Piping System Design and Pump Selection Procedure.
Alternate System Operating Modes.
Pump Selection and Specific Speed.
Life Cycle Costs for Pumped Fluid System.
Software for Piping System Design and Pump Selection.
14. Open Channel Flow.
Classification of Open Channel Flow.
Hydraulic Radius and Reynolds Number in Open Channel Flow.
Kinds of Open Channel Flow.
Uniform Steady Flow in Open Channels.
The Geometry of Typical Open Channels.
The Most Efficient Shapes for Open Channels.
Critical Flow and Specific Energy.
Hydraulic Jump.
Open Channel Flow Measurement.
15. Flow Measurement.
Flowmeter Selection Factors.
Variable Head Meters.
Variable Area Meters.
Turbine Flowmeter.
Vortex Flowmeter.
Magnetic Flowmeter.
Ultrasonic Flowmeters.
Positive Displacement Meters.
Mass Flow Measurement.
Velocity Probes.
Level Measurement.
Computer-Based Data Acquisition and Processing.
16. Forces Due to Fluids in Motion.
Force Equation.
Impulse-Momentum Equation.
Problem-Solving Method Using the Force Equations.
Forces on Stationary Objects.
Forces on Bends in Pipe Lines.
Forces on Moving Objects.
17. Drag and Lift.
Drag Force Equation.
Pressure Drag.
Drag Coefficient.
Friction Drag on Spheres in Laminar Flow.
Vehicle Drag.
Compressibility Effects and Cavitation.
Lift and Drag on Airfoils.
18. Fans, Blowers, Compressors, And The Flow Of Gases.
Gas Flow Rates and Pressures.
Classification of Fans, Blowers, and Compressors.
Flow of Compressed Air and Other Gases in Pipes.
Flow of Air and Other Gases through Nozzles.
19. Flow Of Air In Ducts.
Energy Losses in Ducts.
Duct Design.
Energy Efficiency and Practical Consideration in Duct Design.
Appendixes.
Properties of Water.
Properties of Common Liquids.
Typical Properties of Petroleum Lubricating Oils.
Variation of Viscosity with Temperature.
Properties of Air.
Dimensions of Steel Pipe.
Dimensions of Steel Tubing.
Dimensions of Type K Copper Tubing.
Dimensions of Ductile Iron Pipe.
Areas of Circles.
Conversion Factors.
Properties of Areas.
Properties of Solids.
Gas Constant, Adiabatic Exponent, and Critical Pressure Ratio for Selected Gases
The most popular applications-oriented approach to engineering technology fluid mechanics, this text covers all of the basic principles of fluid mechanics-both statics and dynamics-in a clear, practical presentation that ties theory directly to real devices and systems used in chemical process industries, manufacturing, plant engineering, waste water handling and product design. Readable and clearly written, the new 6th edition brings a much more attractive appearance to the book and includes many updates and additional features.
Table of Contents
1. The Nature of Fluids and the Study of Fluid Mechanics.
Basic Introductory Concepts.
The International System of Units (SI)
The U.S. Customary System.
Weight and Mass.
Temperature.
Consistent Units in an Equation.
The Definition of Pressure.
Compressibility.
Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity.
Surface Tension.
2. Viscosity of Fluids.
Dynamic Viscosity.
Kinematic Viscosity.
Newtonian Fluids and Nonnewtonian Fluids.
Variation of Viscosity with Temperature.
Viscosity Measurement.
SAE Viscosity Grades.
ISO Viscosity Grades.
Hydraulic Fluids for Fluid Power Systems.
3. Pressure Measurement.
Absolute and Gage Pressure.
Relationship Between Pressure and Elevation.
Development of the Pressure-Elevation Relation.
Pascal's Paradox.
Manometers.
Barometers.
Pressure Expressed as the Height of a Column of Liquid.
Pressure Gages and Transducers.
4. Forces Due to Static Fluids.
Gases Under Pressure.
Horizontal Flat Surfaces Under Liquids.
Rectangular Walls.
Submerged Plane Areas-General.
Development of the General Procedure for Forces on Submerged Plane Areas.
Piezometric Head.
Distribution of Force on a Submerged Curved Surface.
Effect of a Pressure Above the Fluid Surface.
Forces on a Curved Surface with Fluid Below It.
Forces on Curved Surfaces with Fluid Above and Below.
5. Buoyancy and Stability.
Buoyancy.
Buoyancy Materials.
Stability of Completely Submerged Bodies.
Stability of Floating Bodies.
Degree of Stability.
6. Flow of Fluids and Bernoulli's Equation.
Fluid Flow Rate and the Continuity Equation.
Commercially Available Pipe and Tubing.
Recommended Velocity of Flow in Pipe and Tubing.
Conservation of Energy-Bernoulli's Equation.
Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.
Restrictions on Bernoulli's Equation.
Applications of Bernoulli's Equation.
Torricelli's Theorem.
Flow Due to a Falling Head.
7. General Energy Equation.
Energy Losses and Additions.
Nomenclature of Energy Losses sand Additions.
General Energy Equation.
Power Required by Pumps.
Power Delivered to Fluid Motors.
8. Reynolds Number, Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow, and Energy Losses Due to Friction.
Reynolds Number.
Critical Reynolds Numbers.
Darcy's Equation.
Friction Lass in Laminar Flow.
Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow.
Equations for Friction Factor.
Hazen-Williams Formula for Water Flow.
Other Forms of the Hazen-Williams Formula.
Nomograph for Solving Hazen-Williams Formula.
9. Velocity Profiles for Circular Sections and Flow in Noncircular Sections.
Velocity Profiles.
Velocity Profile for Laminar Flow.
Velocity Profile for Turbulent Flow.
Flow in Noncircular Sections.
10. Minor Losses.
Resistance Coefficient.
Sudden Enlargement.
Exit Loss.
Gradual Enlargement.
Sudden Contraction.
Gradual Contraction.
Entrance Loss.
Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings.
Application of Standard Valves.
Pipe Bends.
Pressure Drop in Fluid Power Valves.
Flow Coefficients for Valves Using Cv.
Plastic Valves.
11. Series Pipe Line Systems.
Class I Systems.
Spreadsheet Aid for Class I Problems.
Class II Systems.
Class III Systems.
Pipeline Design for Structural Integrity.
12. Parallel Pipe Line Systems.
Systems with Two Branches.
Systems with Three or More Branches-Networks.
13. Pump Selection and Application.
Parameters Involved in Pump Selection.
Types of Pumps.
Positive Displacement Pumps.
Kinetic Pumps.
Performance Data for Centrifugal Pumps.
Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps.
Manufacturer's Data for Centrifugal Pumps.
The Operating Point of a Pump and Pump Selection.
Net Positive Suction Head.
Suction Line Details.
Discharge Line Details.
Piping System Design and Pump Selection Procedure.
Alternate System Operating Modes.
Pump Selection and Specific Speed.
Life Cycle Costs for Pumped Fluid System.
Software for Piping System Design and Pump Selection.
14. Open Channel Flow.
Classification of Open Channel Flow.
Hydraulic Radius and Reynolds Number in Open Channel Flow.
Kinds of Open Channel Flow.
Uniform Steady Flow in Open Channels.
The Geometry of Typical Open Channels.
The Most Efficient Shapes for Open Channels.
Critical Flow and Specific Energy.
Hydraulic Jump.
Open Channel Flow Measurement.
15. Flow Measurement.
Flowmeter Selection Factors.
Variable Head Meters.
Variable Area Meters.
Turbine Flowmeter.
Vortex Flowmeter.
Magnetic Flowmeter.
Ultrasonic Flowmeters.
Positive Displacement Meters.
Mass Flow Measurement.
Velocity Probes.
Level Measurement.
Computer-Based Data Acquisition and Processing.
16. Forces Due to Fluids in Motion.
Force Equation.
Impulse-Momentum Equation.
Problem-Solving Method Using the Force Equations.
Forces on Stationary Objects.
Forces on Bends in Pipe Lines.
Forces on Moving Objects.
17. Drag and Lift.
Drag Force Equation.
Pressure Drag.
Drag Coefficient.
Friction Drag on Spheres in Laminar Flow.
Vehicle Drag.
Compressibility Effects and Cavitation.
Lift and Drag on Airfoils.
18. Fans, Blowers, Compressors, And The Flow Of Gases.
Gas Flow Rates and Pressures.
Classification of Fans, Blowers, and Compressors.
Flow of Compressed Air and Other Gases in Pipes.
Flow of Air and Other Gases through Nozzles.
19. Flow Of Air In Ducts.
Energy Losses in Ducts.
Duct Design.
Energy Efficiency and Practical Consideration in Duct Design.
Appendixes.
Properties of Water.
Properties of Common Liquids.
Typical Properties of Petroleum Lubricating Oils.
Variation of Viscosity with Temperature.
Properties of Air.
Dimensions of Steel Pipe.
Dimensions of Steel Tubing.
Dimensions of Type K Copper Tubing.
Dimensions of Ductile Iron Pipe.
Areas of Circles.
Conversion Factors.
Properties of Areas.
Properties of Solids.
Gas Constant, Adiabatic Exponent, and Critical Pressure Ratio for Selected Gases