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Chemical Principles - Text Only

Chemical Principles - Text Only - 5th edition

ISBN13: 978-0618372065

Cover of Chemical Principles - Text Only 5TH 05 (ISBN 978-0618372065)
ISBN13: 978-0618372065
ISBN10: 0618372067
Edition: 5TH 05
Copyright: 2005
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Published: 2005
International: No

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Chemical Principles - Text Only - 5TH 05 edition

ISBN13: 978-0618372065

Steven S. Zumdahl

ISBN13: 978-0618372065
ISBN10: 0618372067
Edition: 5TH 05
Copyright: 2005
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Published: 2005
International: No

Designed for students with solid mathematical preparation and prior exposure to chemistry, this market-leading text emphasizes a qualitative understanding of chemical concepts. The unique organization of the text supports this approach: early chapters cover equilibria and acid-base chemistry, while later chapters address atomic theory and bonding. The comprehensive technology program reinforces the approach of text and provides superior support for instructors and students.

Table of Contents

1. Chemists and Chemistry

1.1 Thinking Like a Chemist
1.2 A Real-World Chemistry Problem
1.3 The Scientific Method
1.4 Industrial Chemistry
1.5 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Real-World Chemistry

2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

2.1 The Early History of Chemistry
2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws
2.3 Dalton's Atomic Theory
2.4 Cannizzaro's Interpretation
2.5 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom
2.6 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction
2.7 Molecules and Ions
2.8 An Introduction to the Periodic Table
2.9 Naming Simple Compounds

3. Stoichiometry

3.1 Atomic Masses
3.2 The Mole
3.3 Molar Mass
3.4 Percent Composition of Compounds
3.5 Determining the Formula of a Compound
3.6 Chemical Equations
3.7 Balancing Chemical Equations
3.8 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products
3.9 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant

4. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

4.1 Water, the Common Solvent
4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes
4.3 The Composition of Solutions
4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions
4.5 Precipitation Reactions
4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution
4.7 Selective Precipitation
4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions
4.9 Acid-Base Reactions
4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations
4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations

5. Gases

5.1 Early Experiments
5.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro
5.3 The Ideal Gas Law
5.4 Gas Stoichiometry
5.5 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
5.7 Effusion and Diffusion
5.8 Collisions of Gas Particles with the Container Walls
5.9 Intermolecular Collisions
5.10 Real Gases
5.11 Chemistry in the Atmosphere

6. Chemical Equilibrium

6.1 The Equilibrium Condition
6.2 The Equilibrium Constant
6.3 Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures
6.4 The Concept of Activity
6.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria
6.6 Applications of the Equilibrium Constant
6.7 Solving Equilibrium Problems
6.8 Le Chatelier's Principle
6.9 Equilibria Involving Real Gases

7. Acids and Bases

7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases
7.2 Acid Strength
7.3 The pH Scale
7.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions
7.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions
7.6 Bases
7.7 Polyprotic Acids
7.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts
7.9 Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration
7.10 Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration
7.11 Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary

8. Applications of Aqueous Equilibria

8.1 Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion
8.2 Buffered Solutions
8.3 Exact Treatment of Buffered Solutions
8.4 Buffer Capacity
8.5 Titrations and pH Curves
8.6 Acid-Base Indicators
8.7 Titration of Polyprotic Acids
8.8 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product
8.9 Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis
8.10 Complex Ion Equilibria

9. Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry

9.1 The Nature of Energy
9.2 Enthalpy
9.3 Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases
9.4 Calorimetry
9.5 Hess's Law
9.6 Standard Enthalpies of Formation
9.7 Present Sources of Energy
9.8 New Energy Sources

10. Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

10.1 Spontaneous Processes
10.2 The Isothermal Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas
10.3 The Definition of Entropy
10.4 Entropy and Physical Changes
10.5 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
10.6 The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity
10.7 Free Energy
10.8 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions
10.9 Free Energy and Chemical Reactions
10.10 The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure
10.11 Free Energy and Equilibrium
10.12 Free Energy and Work
10.13 Reversible and Irreversible Processes: A Summary
10.14 Adiabatic Processes

11. Electrochemistry

11.1 Galvanic Cells
11.2 Standard Reduction Potentials
11.3 Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy
11.4 Dependence of the Cell Potential on Concentration
11.5 Batteries
11.6 Corrosion
11.7 Electrolysis
11.8 Commercial Electrolytic Processes

12. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory

12.1 Electromagnetic Radiation
12.2 The Nature of Matter
12.3 The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen
12.4 The Bohr Model
12.5 The Quantum Mechanical Description of the Atom
12.6 The Particle in a Box
12.7 The Wave Equation for the Hydrogen Atom
12.8 The Physical Meaning of a Wave Function
12.9 The Characteristics of Hydrogen Orbitals
12.10 Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle
12.11 Polyelectronic Atoms
12.12 The History of the Periodic Table
12.13 The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table
12.14 Further Development of the Polyelectronic Model
12.15 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties
12.16 The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals

13. Bonding: General Concepts

13.1 Types of Chemical Bonds
13.2 Electronegativity
13.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments
13.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes
13.5 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds
13.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds
13.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model
13.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions
13.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model
13.10 Lewis Structure
13.11 Resonance
13.12 Exceptions to the Octet Rule
13.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model

14. Covalent Bonding: Orbitals

14.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model
14.2 The Molecular Orbital Model
14.3 Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
14.4 Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
14.5 Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models
14.6 Orbitals: Human Invention
14.7 Molecular Spectroscopy: An Introduction
14.8 Electronic Spectroscopy
14.9 Vibrational Spectroscopy
14.10 Rotational Spectroscopy
14.11 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

15. Chemical Kinetics

15.1 Reaction Rates
15.2 Rate Laws: An Introduction
15.3 Determining the Form of the Rate Law
15.4 The Integrated Rate Law
15.5 Rate Laws: A Summary
15.6 Reaction Mechanisms
15.7 The Steady-State Approximation
15.8 A Model for Chemical Kinetics
15.9 Catalysis

16. Liquids and Solids

16.1 Intermolecular Forces
16.2 The Liquid State
16.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids
16.4 Structure and Bonding in Metals
16.5 Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids
16.6 Molecular Solids
16.7 Ionic Solids
16.8 Structures of Actual Ionic Solids
16.9 Lattice Defects
16.10 Vapor Pressure and Changes of State
16.11 Phase Diagrams

17. Properties of Solutions

17.1 Solution Composition
17.2 The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation
17.3 Factors Affecting Solubility
17.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions
17.5 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression
17.6 Osmotic Pressure
17.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions
17.8 Colloids

18. The Representative Elements: Groups 1A Through 4A

181. A Survey of the Representative Elements
18.2 The Group 1A Elements
18.3 The Chemistry of Hydrogen
18.4 The Group 2A Elements
18.5 The Group 3A Elements
18.6 The Group 4A Elements

19. The Representative Elements: Groups 5A Through 8A

19.1 The Group 5A Elements
19.2 The Chemistry of Nitrogen
19.3 The Chemistry of Phosphorus
19.4 The Group 6A Elements
19.5 The Chemistry of Oxygen
19.6 The Chemistry of Sulfur
19.7 The Group 7A Elements
19.8 The Group 8A Elements

20. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

20.1 The Transition Metals: A Survey
20.2 The First-Row Transition Metals
20.3 Coordination Compounds
20.4 Isomerism
20.5 Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model
20.6 The Crystal Field Model
20.7 The Molecular Orbital Model
20.8 The Biological Importance of Coordination Complexes

21. The Nucleus: A Chemist's View

21.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay
21.2 The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay
21.3 Nuclear Transformations
21.4 Detection and Uses of Radioactivity
21.5 Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus
21.6 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion
21.7 Effects of Radiation

22. Organic and Biochemical Molecules

22.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
22.2 Alkenes and Alkynes
22.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
22.4 Hydrocarbon Derivatives
22.5 Polymers
22.6 Natural Polymers

Appendix 1. Mathematical Procedures

A1.1 Exponential Notation
A1.2 Logarithms
A1.3 Graphing Functions
A1.4 Solving Quadratic Equations
A1.5 Uncertainties in Measurements
A1.6 Significant Figures

Appendix 2. Units of Measurements and Conversions Among Units

A2.1 Measurements
A2.2 Unit Conversions

Appendix 3. Spectral Analysis
Appendix 4. Selected Thermodynamic Data
Appendix 5. Equilibrium Constants and Reduction Potentials
Answers to Selected Exercises
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