Combines academic theory with practical industry experience
Updated to include the latest regulations and references
Covers hazard identification, risk assessment, and inherent safety
Case studies and problem sets enhance learning
Long-awaited revision of the industry best seller. This fully revised second edition of Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications c...show moreombines rigorous academic methods with real-life industrial experience to create a unique resource for students and professionals alike. The primary focus on technical fundamentals of chemical process safety provides a solid groundwork for understanding, with full coverage of both prevention and mitigation measures. Subjects include:
Toxicology and industrial hygiene
Vapor and liquid releases and dispersion modeling
Relief and explosion venting
In addition to an overview of government regulations, the book introduces the resources of the AICHE Center for Chemical Process Safety library. Guidelines are offered for hazard identification and risk assessment. The book concludes with case histories drawn directly from the authors' experience in the field. A perfect reference for industry professionals, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, Second Edition is also ideal for teaching at the graduate and senior undergraduate levels. Each chapter includes 30 problems, and a solutions manual is now available for instructors. ...show lessEdition/Copyright: 2ND 02 Cover: Hardback Publisher: Prentice Hall, Inc. Published: 10/01/2001 International: No
This second edition of Chemical Process Safety is designed to enhance the process of teaching and applying the fundamentals of chemical process safety. It is appropriate for an industrial reference, a senior-level undergraduate course, or a graduate course in chemical process safety. It can be used by anyone interested in improving chemical process safety, including chemical and mechanical engineers and chemists. More material is presented than can be accommodated in a 3-credit course, providing instructors with the opportunity to emphasize their topics of interest.
The primary objective of this textbook is to encapsulate the important technical fundamentals of chemical process safety. The emphasis on the fundamentals will help the student and practicing scientist to understand the concepts and apply them accordingly. This application requires a significant quantity of fundamental knowledge and technology.
The second edition has been rewritten to include new process safety technology and new references that have appeared since the first edition was published in 1990. It also includes our combined experiences of teaching process safety in both industry and academia during the past 10 years.
Significant modifications were made to the following topics: dispersion modeling, source modeling, flammability characterization, explosion venting, fundamentals of electrostatics, and case histories. This new edition also includes selected materials from the latest AICHE Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) books and is now an excellent introduction to the CCPS library.
This second edition also includes more problems (now 30 per chapter). A complete set of problem solutions is available to instructors using the book in their curriculum. These changes fulfill the requests of many professors who have used this textbook.
We continue to believe that a textbook on safety is possible only with both industrial and academic inputs. The industrial input ensures that the material is industrially relevant. The academic input ensures that the material is presented on a fundamental basis to help professors and students understand the concepts. Although the authors are (now) both from universities, one has over 30 years of relevant experience in industry (J. F. L.) and the other (D. A. C.) has accumulated significant industrial experience since the writing of the first edition.
Since the first edition was published, many universities have developed courses or course content in chemical process safety. This new emphasis on process safety is the result of the positive influences from industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Based on faculty feedback, this textbook is an excellent application of the fundamental topics that are taught in the first three years of the undergraduate education.
Although professors normally have little background in chemical process safety, they have found that the concepts in this text and the accompanying problems and solutions are easy to learn and teach. Professors have also found that industrial employees are enthusiastic and willing to give specific lectures on safety to enhance their courses.
This textbook is designed for a dedicated course in chemical process safety. However, we continue to believe that chemical process safety should be part of every undergraduate and graduate course in chemistry and chemical and mechanical engineering, just as it is a part of all the industrial experiences. This text is an excellent reference for these courses. This textbook can also be used as a reference for a design course.
Some will remark that our presentation is not complete or that some details are missing. The purpose of this book, however, is not to be complete but to provide a starting point for those who wish to learn about this important area. This book, for example, has a companion text titled Health and Environmental Risk Analysis that extends the topics relevant to risk analysis.
We hope that this textbook helps prevent chemical plant and university accidents and contributes to a much safer future.
Daniel A. Crowl and Joseph F. Louvar
View Author Bio
Crowl, Daniel A. : Michigan Technological University
Daniel A. Crowl is the Herbert H. Dow Professor for Chemical Process Safety at Michigan Technological University. The author of numerous books and instructional materials on process safety, he also serves on several committees of the AICHE/CCPS.
Louvar, Joseph F. :
Joseph F. Louvar retired as director of BASF's Chemical Engineering Department to become a professor at Wayne State University, specializing in chemical process safety, risk assessment, and the design of experiments. He has authored many publications on process safety and chairs the Undergraduate Education Committee of the CCPS.
View Table of Contents
(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with a Suggested Reading and Problems.) Preface. Nomenclature.
Safety Programs. Engineering Ethics. Accident and Loss Statistics. Acceptable Risk. Public Perceptions. The Nature of the Accident Process. Inherent Safety. Four Significant Disasters.
How Toxicants Enter Biological Organisms. How Toxicants Are Eliminated from Biological Organisms. Effects of Toxicants on Biological Organisms. Toxicological Studies. Dose versus Response. Models for Dose and Response Curves. Relative Toxicity. Threshold Limit Values.
Introduction to Source Models. Flow of Liquid through a Hole. Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank. Flow of Liquids through Pipes. Flow of Vapor through Holes. Flow of Gases through Pipes. Flashing Liquids. Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling. Realistic and Worst-Case Releases. Conservative Analysis.
5. Toxic Release and Dispersion Models.
Parameters Affecting Dispersion. Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models. Dense Gas Dispersion. Toxic Effect Criteria. Effect of Release Momentum and Buoyancy. Release Mitigation.
6. Fires and Explosions.
The Fire Triangle. Distinction between Fires and Explosions. Definitions. Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors. Limiting Oxygen Concentration and Inerting. Flammability Diagram. Ignition Energy. Autoignition. Auto-Oxidation. Adiabatic Compression. Ignition Sources. Sprays and Mists. Explosions.
7. Designs to Prevent Fires and Explosions.
Inerting. Static Electricity. Controlling Static Electricity. Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments. Ventilation. Sprinkler Systems. Miscellaneous Designs for Preventing Fires and Explosions.
8. Introduction to Reliefs.
Relief Concepts. Definitions. Location of Reliefs. Relief Types. Relief Scenarios. Data for Sizing Reliefs. Relief Systems.
9. Relief Sizing.
Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Liquid Service. Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service. Rupture Disc Reliefs in Liquid Service. Rupture Disc Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service. Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief. Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions. Venting for Fires External to Process Vessels. Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids.
10. Hazards Identification.
Process Hazards Checklists. Hazards Surveys. Hazards and Operability Studies. Safety Reviews. Other Methods.
11. Risk Assessment.
Review of Probability Theory. Event Trees. Fault Trees. QRA and LOPA.
12. Accident Investigations.
Learning from Accidents. Layered Investigations. Investigation Process. Investigation Summary. Aids for Diagnosis. Aids for Recommendations.
13. Case Histories.
Static Electricity. Chemical Reactivity. System Designs. Procedures. Conclusion.
Appendix A: Unit Conversion Constants. Appendix B: Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons. Appendix C: Detailed Equations for Flammability Diagrams. Appendix D: Formal Safety Review Report for Example 10-4. Appendix E: Saturation Vapor Pressure Data.
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