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A completely updated, expanded edition of a longstanding and influential text on chemical thermodynamics Covers the logical foundations and interrelationships of thermodynamics and their application to problems that are commonly encountered by the chemist. Explanations of abstract concepts in a clear and simple, yet still rigorous fashion Logical arrangement of the material to facilitate learning, including worked out examples. Computational techniques, graphical, numerical, and analytical, are described fully and are used frequently, both in illustrative and in assigned problems.
Author Bio
Robert M. Rosenberg is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at Lawrence University and an Adjunct Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University.
PREFACE.
1 INTRODUCTION. 1.1 Origins of Chemical Thermodynamics. 1.2 Objectives of Chemical Thermodynamics. 1.3 Limitations of Classic Thermodynamics. References.
2 MATHEMATICAL PREPARATION FOR THERMODYNAMICS. 2.1 Variables of Thermodynamics. Extensive and Intensive Quantities. Units and Conversion Factors. 2.2 Analytic Methods. Partial Differentiation. Exact Differentials. Homogeneous Functions. Exercises. References 3 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. 3.1 Definitions. Temperature. Work. 3.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics. Energy. Heat. General Form of the First Law. Exercises. References.
4 ENTHALPY, ENTHALPY OF REACTION, AND HEAT CAPACITY. 4.1 Enthalpy. Definition. Relationship between Q v and Q p . 4.2 Enthalpy of Reactions. Definitions and Conventions. 4.3 Enthalpy as a State Function. Enthalpy of Formation from Enthalpy of Reaction. Enthalpy of Formation from Enthalpy of Combustion. Enthalpy of Transition from Enthalpy of Combustion. Enthalpy of Conformational Transition of a Protein from Indirect Calorimetric Measurements. Enthalpy of Solid-State Reaction from Measurements of Enthalpy of Solution. 4.4 Bond Enthalpies. Definition of Bond Enthalpies. Calculation of Bond Enthalpies. Enthalpy of Reaction from Bond Enthalpies. 4.5 Heat Capacity. Definition. Some Relationships between C p and C v . Heat Capacities of Gases. Heat Capacities of Solids. Heat Capacities of Liquids. Other Sources of Heat Capacity Data. 4.6 Enthalpy of Reaction as a Function of Temperature. Analytic Method. Arithmetic Method. Graphical or Numerical Methods. Exercises. References.
5 APPLICATIONS OF THE FIRST LAW TO GASES. 5.1 Ideal Gases. Definition. Enthalpy as a Function of Temperature Only. Relationship Between C p and C v . Calculation of the Thermodynamic Changes in Expansion Processes. 5.2 Real Gases. Equations of State. Joule-Thomson Effect. Calculations of Thermodynamic Quantities in Reversible Expansions. Exercises. References.
6 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. 6.1 The Need for a Second Law. 6.2 The Nature of the Second Law. Natural Tendencies Toward Equilibrium. Statement of the Second Law. Mathematical Counterpart of the Verbal Statement. 6.3 The Carnot Cycle. The Forward Cycle. The Reverse Cycle. Alternative Statement of the Second Law. Carnot's Theorem. 6.4 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale. 6.5 The Definition of S, the Entropy of a System. 6.6 The Proof that S is a Thermodynamic Property. Any Substance in a Carnot Cycle. Any Substance in Any Reversible Cycle. Entropy S Depends Only on the State of the System. 6.7 Entropy Changes in Reversible Processes. General Statement. Isothermal Reversible Changes. Adiabatic Reversible Changes. Reversible Phase Transitions. Isobaric Reversible Temperature Changes. Isochoric Reversible Temperature Changes. 6.8 Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes. Irreversible Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas. Irreversible Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas. Irreversible Flow of Heat from a Higher Temperature to a Lower Temperature. Irreversible Phase Transitions. Irreversible Chemical Reactions. General Statement. 6.9 General Equations for the Entropy of Gases. Entropy of the Ideal Gas. Entropy of a Real Gas. 6.10 Temperature-Entropy Diagram. 6.11 Entropy as an Index of Exh
A completely updated, expanded edition of a longstanding and influential text on chemical thermodynamics Covers the logical foundations and interrelationships of thermodynamics and their application to problems that are commonly encountered by the chemist. Explanations of abstract concepts in a clear and simple, yet still rigorous fashion Logical arrangement of the material to facilitate learning, including worked out examples. Computational techniques, graphical, numerical, and analytical, are described fully and are used frequently, both in illustrative and in assigned problems.
Author Bio
Robert M. Rosenberg is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at Lawrence University and an Adjunct Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University.
Table of Contents
PREFACE.
1 INTRODUCTION. 1.1 Origins of Chemical Thermodynamics. 1.2 Objectives of Chemical Thermodynamics. 1.3 Limitations of Classic Thermodynamics. References.
2 MATHEMATICAL PREPARATION FOR THERMODYNAMICS. 2.1 Variables of Thermodynamics. Extensive and Intensive Quantities. Units and Conversion Factors. 2.2 Analytic Methods. Partial Differentiation. Exact Differentials. Homogeneous Functions. Exercises. References 3 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. 3.1 Definitions. Temperature. Work. 3.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics. Energy. Heat. General Form of the First Law. Exercises. References.
4 ENTHALPY, ENTHALPY OF REACTION, AND HEAT CAPACITY. 4.1 Enthalpy. Definition. Relationship between Q v and Q p . 4.2 Enthalpy of Reactions. Definitions and Conventions. 4.3 Enthalpy as a State Function. Enthalpy of Formation from Enthalpy of Reaction. Enthalpy of Formation from Enthalpy of Combustion. Enthalpy of Transition from Enthalpy of Combustion. Enthalpy of Conformational Transition of a Protein from Indirect Calorimetric Measurements. Enthalpy of Solid-State Reaction from Measurements of Enthalpy of Solution. 4.4 Bond Enthalpies. Definition of Bond Enthalpies. Calculation of Bond Enthalpies. Enthalpy of Reaction from Bond Enthalpies. 4.5 Heat Capacity. Definition. Some Relationships between C p and C v . Heat Capacities of Gases. Heat Capacities of Solids. Heat Capacities of Liquids. Other Sources of Heat Capacity Data. 4.6 Enthalpy of Reaction as a Function of Temperature. Analytic Method. Arithmetic Method. Graphical or Numerical Methods. Exercises. References.
5 APPLICATIONS OF THE FIRST LAW TO GASES. 5.1 Ideal Gases. Definition. Enthalpy as a Function of Temperature Only. Relationship Between C p and C v . Calculation of the Thermodynamic Changes in Expansion Processes. 5.2 Real Gases. Equations of State. Joule-Thomson Effect. Calculations of Thermodynamic Quantities in Reversible Expansions. Exercises. References.
6 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. 6.1 The Need for a Second Law. 6.2 The Nature of the Second Law. Natural Tendencies Toward Equilibrium. Statement of the Second Law. Mathematical Counterpart of the Verbal Statement. 6.3 The Carnot Cycle. The Forward Cycle. The Reverse Cycle. Alternative Statement of the Second Law. Carnot's Theorem. 6.4 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale. 6.5 The Definition of S, the Entropy of a System. 6.6 The Proof that S is a Thermodynamic Property. Any Substance in a Carnot Cycle. Any Substance in Any Reversible Cycle. Entropy S Depends Only on the State of the System. 6.7 Entropy Changes in Reversible Processes. General Statement. Isothermal Reversible Changes. Adiabatic Reversible Changes. Reversible Phase Transitions. Isobaric Reversible Temperature Changes. Isochoric Reversible Temperature Changes. 6.8 Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes. Irreversible Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas. Irreversible Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas. Irreversible Flow of Heat from a Higher Temperature to a Lower Temperature. Irreversible Phase Transitions. Irreversible Chemical Reactions. General Statement. 6.9 General Equations for the Entropy of Gases. Entropy of the Ideal Gas. Entropy of a Real Gas. 6.10 Temperature-Entropy Diagram. 6.11 Entropy as an Index of Exh