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Chemistry : An Environmental Approach

Chemistry : An Environmental Approach - 2nd edition

ISBN13: 978-0763710743

Cover of Chemistry : An Environmental Approach 2ND 03 (ISBN 978-0763710743)
ISBN13: 978-0763710743
ISBN10: 0763710741
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 2ND 03
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Published: 2003
International: No

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Chemistry : An Environmental Approach - 2ND 03 edition

ISBN13: 978-0763710743

Phyllis Buell and James Girard

ISBN13: 978-0763710743
ISBN10: 0763710741
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 2ND 03
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

Published: 2003
International: No
Summary

Chemistry Fundamentals: An Environmental Perspective, Second Edition aims to guide students to the knowledge that humans live in a chemical environment and that chemistry affects every aspect of our lives. The text emphasizes that all living and non-living parts of our environment are made up of chemicals, and that the natural processes continuously occurring in the environment all involve chemical reactions. With a grasp of this notion of interdependence, students begin to see that without some understanding of chemistry, it is impossible to fully understand environmental issues such as ozone depletion, global warming, air and water pollution, and the hazards of radioactivity.

CHAPTER ELEMENTS
Introduction Each chapter begins with an introduction that explains the importance of the subject matter to our understanding of the environment and outlines the material that will be covered.

Chapter Objectives The introduction is followed by a list of the concepts and subject matter students should understand after reading the chapter. Stating learning objectives provides goals that students should strive for and serves as a useful guide for reviewing each chapter.

Examples and Exercises Illustrative worked examples, each one accompanied by a challenging practice exercise, are included throughout the text, particularly in the chapters covering basic chemical principles.

Key Terms Lists of key terms introduced in the chapter are included at chapter's end to help reinforce the most important information.

Questions and Problems Each chapter includes a wide selection (40-50) of problems and questions, with answers to all even-numbered ones given in an appendix. Quantitative, review, and discussion type questions are included.

Explorations The two-page Explorations essays at the end of chapters explore ways in which chemistry affects our dynamic world. They profile people such as Marie Curie and Linus Pauling, advances such as the pacemaker and the electric car, and events such as the eruption of Krakatoa and environmental terrorism during the Gulf War.

Summary Each chapter ends with a summary of the main topics covered in the chapter.

Author Bio

Buell, Phyllis : American University

Dr. Phyllis Buell, Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, American University, Washington, DC


Girard, James E. : American University

Dr. James E. Girard is a Professor at American University, Washington, DC. Professor Girard's interests are in the area of environmental analytical chemistry. He has received more than $1 million in research grants. His present research interests focus on supercritical fluids for extraction and chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. He was the department chair from 1984-1991. Professor Girard is a specialist in chromatography. He has published over 40 articles on the methods and techniques used to separate complex mixtures, and he has developed methods for the analysis of environmental pollutants in soil and water, the amount of neurotransmitter present in human serum, the concentration of disinfectants in hospital sterilants, and the separation of genetic material from DNA. Professor Girard is the recipient of various awards for excellence in teaching and scholarship. He was the 1995 recipient of the Leo Schubert Award for Outstanding Teaching at the College Level from the Washington Academy of Sciences. In addition, Professor Girard has received awards for outstanding teaching and distinguished scientific work from American University.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - WHAT IS CHEMISTRY? An Introduction to the Central Science 1.1 Science, Technology, and Chemistry What is Science? What is Technology? What is Chemistry? 1.2 Properties of Matter Physical Properties Chemical Properties 1.3 Changes in Matter Physical Changes Chemical Changes Nuclear Changes Energy and Changes in Matter 1.4 States of Matter 1.5 Pure Substances and Mixtures Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Mixtures 1.6 Elements and Compounds Symbols 1.7 Atoms and Molecules Atoms Compounds 1.8 Subatomic Particles and Ions 1.9 Chemical Formulas 1.10 Chemical Equations 1.11 Acids and Bases 1.12 Electromagnetic Radiation 1.13 The Scientific Method

CHAPTER 2 - PLANET EARTH: ROCKS, LIFE, AND ENERGY 2.1 The Formation of the Universe Galaxies and Stars The Planets in our Solar System The Sun 2.2 Differentiation of the Earth into Zones Why the Earth Heated Up The Core The Mantle The Crust The Relative Abundance of the Elements in the Earth 2.3 Formation of the Oceans and the Atmosphere 2.4 Rocks and Minerals 2.5 Rocks as Natural Resources 2.6 Silicates Three-dimensional Networks and Sheets Long chains 2.7 Ores and Minerals Iron Aluminum Copper Strategic Metals 2.8 Mineral Reserves 2.9 The Origin of Life on Earth 2.10 The Uniqueness of the Earth 2.11 The Environment 2.12 Ecosystems Producers and Consumers 2.13 The Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems What is Energy? Energy Transformations Food Chains and Trophic Levels Energy and Biomass 2.14 Nutrient Cycles The Carbon Cycle The Nitrogen Cycle The Oxygen Cycle Nature's Cycles in Balance

CHAPTER 3 - ATOMS AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3.1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 3.2 Dalton's Atomic Theory 3.3 Evidence Supporting the Atomic Theory The Law of Conservation of Mass The Law of Definite Proportions The Law of Multiple Proportions 3.4 The Structure of the Atom: The Experimental Evidence The Electrical Nature of Matter Electrons Canal Rays 3.5 The Discovery of the Nucleus of the Atom The Structure of the Nucleus of the Atom 3.6 The Subatomic Particles: Their Properties and Arrangement in the Atom Electrons Protons Neutrons The arrangement of Subatomic Particles in an Atom The Size of the Atom 3.7 Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Isotopes Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes 3.8 The Atomic Mass Unit and Atomic Masses (Atomic Weights) 3.9 The Periodic Table: Mendeleev's Contribution 3.10 The Modern Periodic Table Periods and Groups Metals and Nonmetals

CHAPTER 4 - ATOMS AND CHEMICAL BONDING 4.1 The Electron Configuration of Atoms Continuous and Line Spectra The Bohr Model of the Atom Building Atoms with the Bohr Model The Wave-Mechanical Model of the Atom Building Atoms with the Wave-Mechanical Model The Position of Electrons in Orbitals 4.2 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 4.3 Electron Configurations and Bonding Valence Electrons The Octet Rule 4.4 Ionic Bonds: Donating and Accepting Electron Transition Element Ions Nomenclature of Two-Element Ionic Compounds 4.5 Covalent Bonds: Sharing Electrons Multiple Covalent Bonds 4.6 Polar Covalent Bonds Electronegativity 4.7 Polyatomic Ions 4.8 Metallic Bonding 4.9 Intermolecular Forces London Forces Dipole-Dipole Interactions between Polar Molecules Hydrogen Bonding

CHAPTER 5 - NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY The Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Radiation 5.1 The Atomic Nucleus Nuclear Stability 5.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity 5.3 The Nature of Natural Radioactivity Penetrating Power and Speed of Natural Forms of Radiation 5.4 Nuclear Reactions Radioactive Decay Series 5.5 Artificial Transmutations New Isotopes and New Elements 5.6 The Half-Life of Radioisotopes 5.7 The Harmful Effects of Radiation on Humans Why is Radiation Harmful? Factors Influencing Radiation Damage Detection of Radiation Units of Radiation How Much Radiation is Harmful? 5.8 Everyday Exposure to Radiation Natural Sources of Radiation Radiation from Human Activities 5.9 Uses of Radioisotopes Determining the Age of Archeological and Geological Events Medical Diagnosis and Treatment Applications in the Home Applications in Agriculture, Industry, and Scientific Research 5.10 Nuclear Fission The Energy Source in Nuclear Fission Fission Reactions The Atomic Bomb Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Fission

CHAPTER 6 - CHEMICAL REACTIONS 6.1 Chemical Equations 6.2 Writing Chemical Equations 6.3 Some Environmentally Important Reactions Oxides of Nitrogen and Smog Oxides of Sulfur and Acid Rain Photosynthesis 6.4 Chemical Arithmetic Weight Relationships in Chemical Equations Determining Formula Masses Calculations Based on Chemical Equations 6.5 The Mole Molar Mass Calculations Using the Mole and Molar Mass Concepts 6.6 Chemical Reactions: What Makes them Happen? Spontaneous Reactions 6.7 Rates of Chemical Reactions Getting A Reaction Started 6.8 Factors that Influence the Rate of a Reaction The Effect of Temperature The Effect of Concentration The Effect of a Catalyst 6.9 Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibrium Reactions that Go in Either Direction Reactions that Go Part-Way

CHAPTER 7 - REACTIONS IN SOLUTION ACIDS AND BASES, AND OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS 7.1 Aqueous Solutions 7.2 The Formation of Aqueous Solutions 7.3 Concentrations Units Molarity and Molar Solutions Parts per Million (ppm) Parts per Billion (ppb) 7.4 Acids and Bases: Properties and Definitions Properties of Acids and Bases Early Definitions of Acids and Bases The Hydronium Ion The Bronsted-Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases Ammonia 7.5 The Strengths of Acids and Bases 7.6 Neutralization 7.7 The Dissociation of Water 7.8 The pH Scale 7.9 Antacids 7.10 Acid-Base Buffers 7.11 Naturally Occurring Acids 7.12 Uses of Acids and Bases 7.13 Acid Rain The Effects of Acid Rain Causes of Increased Acidity in the Environment 7.14 Acid Mine Drainage 7.15 Oxidation and Reduction 7.16 Gaining and Losing Oxygen Atoms Gaining Oxygen Atoms Losing oxygen Atoms 7.17 Gaining and Losing Hydrogen Atoms Gaining Hydrogen Atoms Losing Hydrogen Atoms 7.18 Gaining and Losing Electrons Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions 7.19 Oxidation and Reduction: Three Definitions 7.20 Batteries: Energy from Oxidation Reduction Reactions

CHAPTER 8 - CARBON COMPOUNDS An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 8.1 The Carbon Atom and Chemical Bonding Different Forms of Carbon Compounds of Carbon with Other Elements 8.2 Hydrocarbons Alkanes Structural Isomerism Nomenclature of Alkanes Reactions of Alkanes Alkenes Cis-Trans Isomerism Alkynes Saturated Hydrocarbon Rings (Cycloalkanes) 8.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons The Structure of Benzene Alkyl Derivatives of Benzene Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 8.4 Functional Groups Organic Halides Alcohols Ethers Aldehydes and Ketones Carboxylic Acids Esters Amines and Amides

CHAPTER 9 - SYNTHETIC POLYMERS Materials for the Modern Age 9.1 Polymers: Characteristics and Different Types Homopolymers and Copolymers Plastics Natural Polymers Early Synthetic Polymers The Formation of Different Types of Polymers 9.2 Addition Polymers Polyethylene Substituted Ethylenes 9.3 Elastomers Natural Rubber Synthetic Rubber 9.4 Paints and Polymers 9.5 Condensation Polymers Polyesters Polyamides Formaldehyde-Based Network Polymers 9.6 Rearrangement Polymers: Polyurethanes 9.7 Silicones 9.8 Polymers for the Future 9.9 Problems with Polymers Disposal of Plastics Polymer Additives: Plasticizers The Raw Marerials for Polymer Production

CHAPTER 10 - WATER RESOURCES AND WATER POLLUTION 10.1 Distribution of Water on the Earth 10.2 The Composition of Natural Waters 10.3 The Hydrologic Cycle: Recycling and Purification 10.4 The Unique Properties of Water The Water Molecule and Hydrogen Bonding Boiling Point and Melting Point Heat Capacity Heat of Fusion and Heat of Vaporization Temperature-Density Relationship 10.5 Water Use and Water Shortages 10.6 Water Management and Conservation Potable Water from Wastewater Desalination 10.7 Water Pollution: A Historical Perspective 10.8 Types of Water Pollution Point and Non-Point Sources of Water Pollution 10.9 Disease-Causing Agents 10.10 Oxygen-Consuming Wastes 10.11 Plant Nutrients Control of Eutrophication 10.12 Suspended Solids and Sediments 10.13 Dissolved Solids 10.14 Toxic Substances Toxic Metals Synthetic Organic Chemicals 10.15 Thermal Pollution 10.16 Pollution of Groundwater 10.17 Sewage Treatment Primary Treatment Secondary Treatment Disinfection with Chlorine Tertiary Treatment Regulation of Water Quality

CHAPTER 11 - THE AIR WE BREATHE 11.1 The Major Layers in the Atmosphere Temperature Changes in the Atmosphere Pressure and Density Changes 11.2 The Gas Laws Boyle's Law Charles' Law The Combined Gas Laws 11.3 Composition of the Atmosphere Ozone in the Stratosphere 11.4 Types and Sources of Air Pollution 11.5 Chemical Reactions in the Atmosphere 11.6 Carbon Monoxide Sources of Carbon Monoxide Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Human Health 11.7 Nitrogen oxides: NOx Sources of NOx The Fate of Atmospheric NOx Effects of NOx on Human Health and the Environment 11.8 Volatile Organic Compounds Sources of Hydrocarbons 11.9 Automobile Pollutants and the Catalytic Converter 11.10 Sulfur Dioxide: SO2 Sources of SO2 The Fate of Atmospheric SO2: Acid Rain Effects of SO2 on Human Health and the Environment Techniques for Controlling SO2 Emissions

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