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Edition/Copyright: 2ND 01
Kennon, Katherine E. : O'More College of Design
ABOUT THE CODES
Codes are not the only requirements that regulate buildings and building interiors. Alarge number of standards and federal regulations play a major role as well. The most nationally recognized codes, laws, and standard organizations are described in this chapter. They are referenced and discussed throughout this book as they pertain to the interior of a building.
As you read about each of these codes, standards, and regulations, keep in mind that not all of them will be enforced by every code jurisdiction. (See Definitions in Introduction.) For example, NFPA 101 can be used in conjunction with a building code, alone, or not at all. In addition, the code publication being used may not be the most current edition. Plus, each jurisdiction can make a variety of amendments that add to and/ or delete clauses from the code. Each code publication also references certain standards. Other standards are widely used throughout the country or within an industry. However, not all standards are accepted by every jurisdiction. The only regulations that are consistent in every jurisdiction are the federal regulations that are made mandatory by law.
A BRIEF HISTORY
The use of regulatory codes can be traced back as early as the 18th century BCE to the Code of Hammurabi, a collection of laws governing Babylonia. The Code of Hammurabi made the builder accountable for the houses he built. If one of his buildings fell down and killed someone, the builder would be put to death.
In the United States, the first codes addressed fire prevention. The first building law on record was in 1625 in what was then called New Amsterdam (now New York). It governed the types and locations of roof coverings to protect the buildings from chimney sparks. Then, in the 1800s, there were a number of large building fires, including the Chicago fire of 1871, which caused many fatalities. As a result, some of the larger U. S. cities developed their own municipal building codes. Many of these are still in existence today. In the mid 1800s, the National Board of Fire Underwriters was set up to provide insurance companies with information on which to base their fire damage claims. One of the results was the publication of the 1905 National Building Code-- a code that helped spark the three model building codes in existence today.
Meanwhile, the federal government was also creating regulations. Many of these laws pertained to government-built and -owned buildings. Some were national laws that superseded other required codes. In 1973, in an attempt to control government intervention, Congress passed the Consumer Product Safety Act and formed the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). The goal of the commission is to prevent the necessity of federal regulations by encouraging industry self-regulation and standardization. This resulted in the creation of a number of new standards-writing organizations and trade associations.
Today, there are hundreds of separate codes in existence in the United States, a wide variety of federal regulations, and hundreds of standards organizations and regulatory and trade associations found in almost every industry. Only the most widely recognized have been described below. They will provide you with the groundwork as they are discussed throughout this book. (For more information refer to the resources in the Bibliography.)
Codes are a collection of regulations, ordinances, and other statutory requirements put together by various organizations. Each jurisdiction decides which codes it will follow and enforce. Once certain codes are adopted they become law within that jurisdiction. Most are commonly enforced on a local level. This allows the local municipalities to customize the code by amending certain sections of it. (See section on Code Enforcement, page 252.)
However, not every jurisdiction requires updating the codes on a regular basis. If a jurisdiction adopts a specific publication, it may not be enforcing the most recent edition. This is especially true with many of the smaller jurisdictions. As a result some states have issued a statewide code, usually based on one of the existing codes. This eliminates the discrepancies and creates uniform policies in each code jurisdiction throughout the state. It is important to check with the jurisdiction of your project to determine which codes you must follow. Some of the most common types of codes, as they pertain to interior projects, are discussed below.
Each code and standards organization has its own procedure for changing the requirements in its publications. Each organization has a membership made up of a wide range of individuals. These members can typically propose changes in writing or in person at open public hearings. Some organizations allow nonmembers to propose changes as well.
These proposed changes are usually organized and reviewed by a committee. Some organizations allow the committee to make the approval or disapproval decisions, but most of the organizations hold open hearings where the proposals are voted on. Once a proposed code or standard change has passed the approval process, it is adopted by the organization. Usually once a year, or as needed, the organization will publish the most current changes in an addendum. When the next full edition of the code or standard publication is published, it incorporates all the changes into one text.
Building codes stress the construction requirements of an entire building and place restrictions on hazardous materials or equipment used within a building. The principal purpose is to ensure public health and safety throughout a building. In the past, the three ''model'' building codes were the most common building codes used throughout the country. They are the BOCA National Building Code (NBC) published by the Building Officials Code Administrators International (BOCA), the Standard Building Code (SBC) published by the Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI), and the Uniform Building Code (UBC) published by the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). Typically, each state or jurisdiction either adopts one of these three model building codes or is covered by a state building code based on one of the model codes. (See Figure 1.1.) However, this is beginning to change.
In December of 1994, the International Code Council (ICC) was established. It consists of members from each of the three model building code councils-- BOCA, SBCCI, and ICBO. They joined together to develop a single set of code publications known as the ''international'' family of codes, which addresses the issues covered by the three individual model codes. The first International Building Code (IBC) was published in 2000. The IBC will be updated every three years and is eventually intended to replace the three separate model building codes.
New editions of the model building codes were published every three years as well. However, with the introduction of the IBC, the individual model codes will no longer be developed. The NBC, SBC, and the UBC will not be published past their 1999 editions and updates and will eventually be phased out. (1997 was the final edition of the UBC.) Yet, with the initial publication of the IBC in 2000, jurisdictions may not immediately choose to designate the IBC as their regulatory document. Some may choose to continue to use the building code that they have been using or update to a more current edition. Therefore, the existing model building codes will continue to be used. It is essential at the start of any project to determine which code and which edition of the code is being enforced in the jurisdiction of your project.
Although the building codes are very similar and cover most of the same issues, especially as they relate to the interior of a building, there are differences. Each region of the country has different climates and environmental issues to consider and needs specific code requirements. For example, California and its surrounding states need more restrictive seismic building code provisions to allow for the many earthquakes in that area, and the Northern states need codes to allow for long periods of below freezing temperatures. These regional differences affect which of the model building codes each jurisdiction chooses to enforce. Areas that have multiple characteristics may enforce more than one model code, make amendments to address additional issues, or develop their own state code based on one of the model codes. Onthe other hand, the new IBC has incorporated these regional differences into one building code. Until the IBC is enforced more consistently, designers who work on projects in various regions of the United States, must be familiar with multiple regulations for similar issues. It is important to know the specifics in each code.
Even though the requirements of the codes may vary, the organization of information is consistent throughout the building codes, including the IBC. This organization is called the CABO Common Code Format. Since 1994, chapter titles, general chapter contents, and the sequence of chapters are the same in each publication. Specific chapters pertain to the interior of a building. These have been listed below and are discussed throughout this book. Although certain projects may require referring to other sections of the building code, you should become the most familiar with these.
Use or Occupancy Classification
Special Use or Occupancy Requirements
Types of Construction
Fire Resistant Materials and Construction
Fire Protection Systems
Means of Egress
Another new development with the introduction of the IBC is the use of performance-based codes in addition to the typical prescriptive type codes. Generally, a prescriptive code tells you the precise requirement, such as the height of a handrail; a performance regulation will specify the goal that should be met but not provide a specific description as to how that must be achieved. The existing building codes are primarily prescriptive in the way they describe requirements. The new IBC is a combination of prescriptive and performance requirements. Allowances for alternative methods and materials are not as specific. The ICC is in the process of developing the International Performance Code (IPC) to work in conjunction with the IBC. In the future, some jurisdictions will adopt the IPC along with the IBC.
The purpose of performance codes is to allow for creative design solutions in the use of materials and systems of construction and to allow innovative engineering to solve code requirements in ways that can be specific to each project. In designing to meet the requirements of a performance code, the design solution should be discussed with the building official before construction. For the solution to be acceptable, the building official must agree with you that it meets the intent of the code. Performance codes are intended to allow for creativity in design and engineering while still providing for the necessary safety and welfare concerns of the code. (See inset titled Using Performance Codes for additional information.) Performance codes may be applied to any design project if allowed by the code official. However, they may be most effective in unique situations, including the use of new technology and reuse of existing buildings, which may not easily meet the strict requirement of the prescriptive codes.
USING PERFORMANCE CODES
Using performance codes can allow the use of innovative materials and unique design solutions for your project. It is the designer's responsibility to convince your client and the code official that the proposed situations meet the performance requirement of the code. You must take additional steps to prove that your design will provide equivalent safety to the same prescriptive requirements. A few of the steps you may need to take are to
As the performance codes begin to be used more as an alternative to prescriptive requirements, standards may be developed for the process of review. However, since their use is still new, you should work with the code official early in the design process to establish what criteria he or she will require for approval.
To cover as much as possible, the building codes frequently reference other codes and standards within their text. Each code organization publishes a number of other codes that may be referenced. These include a plumbing code, a mechanical code, a fire prevention code, and an existing structures code, some of which are described later in this chapter. In addition, nationally recognized standards organizations and publications are referenced by each of the codes. (See the section on Standards Organizations later in this chapter.)
In the past, each of the three model code organizations had its own plumbing code: the BOCA National Plumbing Code (NPC), the Standard Plumbing Code (SPC), and the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC). In 1997, the International Code Council (ICC) published the first International Plumbing Code (IPC), which replaced the three model code versions. Like the previous model plumbing codes, it will be revised every three years, with the newest edition being 2000. Most of the chapters in the plumbing code are geared toward an engineer and the professional plumbing contractor. In a project requiring plumbing work, you will often use the services of a licensed engineer to design the system.
The one chapter of the plumbing code considered in this book is the chapter on plumbing fixtures. (See Chapter 7 for more detail.) When designing interior projects, this chapter will be important to help you determine the minimum number and type of fixtures required for a particular occupancy classification.
Similar to the plumbing codes, a mechanical code was originally published by each of the model code organizations and included the BOCA National Mechanical Code (NMC), the Standard Mechanical Code (SMC), and the Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC). The first International Mechanical Code (IMC) was published by the International Code Council in 1997. The most current edition is 2000. Although some jurisdictions are still using one of the older model mechanical codes, the IMC will eventually replace them as the jurisdictions update their required codes. The mechanical codes are geared toward mechanical engineers and professional installers. Although you will very rarely have to refer to the mechanical codes, on interior projects you should be familiar with some of the general requirements and the terminology. (See Chapter 7 for more detail.)
Life Safety Code ®
The Life Safety Code (LSC) is one of the main standards published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). It is also referred to as NFPA101®. Like the building codes, the LSCis revised every three years. The most recent edition is 2000, yet many jurisdictions are still using the 1997 or 1994 versions. The LSC is not a building code. It is a life safety code that concentrates on problems involving the removal of all persons from a building fire zone. As stated in the LSC, the purpose of the code is to ''establish minimum requirements that will provide a reasonable degree of safety from fire in buildings and structures.'' The 2000 edition of the LSC also includes alternative performance-based options to choose from, giving you the ability to select the requirements that best suit your project. (See inset titled Using Performance Codes, earlier in this chapter.) Like other codes, the LSC also references additional standard publications within its text. These are typically other NFPA standards, such as NFPA 80: Standard for Fire Doors and Windows and NFPA 220: Standard on Types of Building Construction. (See the section on the NFPA later in this chapter.)
The first part of the LSC concentrates on the broad topics of occupancies, means of egress, and fire protection. The remainder is divided into chapters by occupancy classification for both new and existing buildings. This distinction is made to provide older buildings with additional safety and protective devices so they are virtually as safe as newly constructed buildings. Once you know the occupancy classification of your project, most of your research will be limited to one section of the LSC. The requirements in the LSC are similar in scope to the requirements in the Means of Egress chapters in the building codes. If a jurisdiction requires the LSC in addition to a building code, you must satisfy both sets of requirements in your design. (See Chapter 4 for more detail.)
The LSC is the most widely used fire code. It is used throughout most of the United States and in several other countries. Yet, there are several states and cities in the United States that have established even stricter fire codes, often as a result of fatal fires.
New York City
New York State
Life Safety Code® and 101® are registered trademarks of the National Fire Protection Association, Inc., Quincy, MA 02269.
Boston, for example, has established the Boston Fire Code, and New York and New Jersey must comply with the standards set by the Port Authority. If you are working on a project in one of these jurisdictions, you should research the overlapping restrictions. Other cities or states may follow with similar fire codes in the future. The information in this book mentions some but not all of these special codes. Be sure to check the code jurisdiction of your project.
The National Electrical Code (NEC) is published by NFPA and 1999 is the most current edition. Also known as NFPA 70, the NEC is the most used electrical code published, and is the basis for electrical codes in almost all code jurisdictions. Even the International Code Council (ICC) references the NEC. In 2000, the ICC published the ICC Electrical Code-- Administrative Provisions (IEC). Rather than creating a new electrical code, the IEC outlines the provisions required for the enforcement of the NEC, similar to the other international family of codes.
You will rarely, if ever, refer to the electrical code, since it is the responsibility of an engineer to design electrical systems. On the other hand, for an interior project you will typically specify the location of electrical outlets and fixtures. Therefore, it is important have a basic understanding of this code. The most common requirements are explained in Chapter 8.
The International One and Two Family Dwelling Code (IOTFDC) formerly known as the One and Two Family Dwelling Code (OTFDC) is the main code used for the construction of single and duplex family residences. (It is briefly discussed in Appendix A.) The most current IOTFDC was published in 1998. As the OTFDC, it was developed by the Council of American Building Officials (CABO), which is a national organization created by the three model code organizations. But in 1996 the development of the residential code was transferred to the ICC. The newest edition of the code is 2000 and has been renamed the International Residential Code (IRC).
Other publications and programs supported by CABO have been transferred to the ICC, including the Model Energy Code (MEC). The ICC is also assisting with the development of future editions of ANSI A117.1, as discussed later in this chapter. In the past, CABO was responsible for establishing the National Evaluation Service (see inset above) and creating the CABO Common Code Format now used by the model codes.
A number of federal agencies and departments work with trade associations, private companies, and the general public to develop federal laws for building construction. These regulations are published in the Federal Register (FR) and the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The FR is published daily and includes the newest updates for each federal agency. However, not all rules published in the FR are enforceable laws. Typically, a federal agency must review the regulations published in the FR and make a formal ruling. Once the regulations are passed into law, they are published in the CFR. The CFR is revised annually to include all permanent agency rules.
The federal government plays a part in the building process in a number of ways. First, it regulates the building of its own facilities. These include federal buildings, Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals, and military establishments. Construction of federal buildings is usually not subject to state and local building codes and regulations. Federal buildings have their own criteria, many of which are similar to the model codes. (See inset titled Accessibility Requirements-- ANSI, ADAAG, and UFAS, on page 18.)
Second, the government can pass federal legislation creating a law that supersedes all other state and local codes and standards. Each is created by a specific federal agency. When passed as a law, the codes and standards become mandatory nationwide. This is typically done to create a uniform level of standard throughout the country. The ADA is one example. Although there is a wide variety of legislation covering everything from energy to transportation, only a few laws that pertain to the design of interiors are discussed below.
NATIONAL EVALUATION SERVICE
The National Evaluation Service (NES) is a program originally developed by CABO to evaluate new materials and methods of construction and testing as they become available. The program allows manufacturers to gain national recognition of a new product if it is reviewed and approved by NES. The NES evaluates the characteristics of the product or system, the installation of the product, and the conditions of its use in the evaluation. Currently, the NES is the only way manufacturers, code officials, and designers can determine whether products comply with the different building codes. Once the international family of codes, including the IBC, are readily enforced, this process may become easier.
Americans with Disabilities Act
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a four-part federal legislation that became law on 26 July, 1990 and became enforceable in 1992 and 1993. Prior to this, only federal buildings and federally funded projects had to comply with similar legislation under the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS). Because of this legislation, many other types of projects are required to meet accessibility guidelines as outlined through the various titles of the law.
The ADA is a comprehensive civil rights law that protects individuals with disabilities in the area of employment (Title I), state and local government services and public transportation (Title II), public accommodations and commercial facilities (Title III), and telecommunication services (Title IV). The ADA was developed by the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Depart-ment of Transportation (DOT).
The regulations that will apply most often to interior projects are found in Title III and Title IV. Title IV requires telephone companies to provide telecommunication relay services for the hearing and speech impaired. When you specify a public phone you must be familiar with the requirements. (See inset titled Public Telephones on page 211 in Chapter 8.)
Title III covers all public accommodations (any facility that offers food, merchandise, or services to the public) and commercial facilities (nonresidential buildings that do business but are not open to the general public). Title III's regulations have been incorporated into the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) as developed by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (ATBCB or Access Board) and first published in 1991. The ADAAG deals with architectural concerns, such as accessible routes and restrooms, and communication concerns, such as visible alarm systems and signage. It is the ADAAG that is addressed throughout this book. (Other aspects of ADA, such as the varying levels of compliance and responsibility for compliance, are discussed further in Appendix E.)
Although ADA regulations are mandatory, they may not be the only guidelines for accessibility issues that you follow. Each of the building codes now references the ANSI standard. Depending on the edition, it could be referencing the 1992 or the 1998 ANSI 117.1, which are in some cases stricter that the ADAAG. Some states, such as California and North Carolina, have also adopted their own accessibility requirements as well. You must research and follow the most stringent requirements for that jurisdiction while maintaining the minimum ADAAG requirements.
Fair Housing Act
The Fair Housing Act (FHA) is federal legislation enforced by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Originally established in 1968, the FHA regulates fair housing and protects the consumer from discrimination in housing when buying or renting. In 1988, the FHA was expanded to include persons with disabilities. The FHA prohibits discrimination because of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, family status, or disability. The FHA regulations may apply to private housing, private housing that receives federal financial assistance, and state and local governmental housing.
Although the FHA is not specifically accessibility legislation, it does incorporate a number of provisions for people with disabilities and families with children. It typically pertains to housing that has four or more dwelling units. As of March 1991 these buildings must have accessible public and common areas. Many of the interior aspects are regulated as well. These include location of thermostats, electrical outlets, light switches, and maneuvering areas in hallways, bathrooms, and kitchens. In addition, at least the ground floor units must be accessible and meet specific construction requirements.
The FHAcan be considered the residential version of the ADA. (See Appendix E.) Both are based on the 1986 edition of the ANSI standards. However, the FHAdoes not require total compliance to the ANSI standards. It uses ANSI only as a reference.
ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS-- ANSI, ADAAG, AND UFAS
There are three accessibility documents that are used most frequently for interior projects. Although in many ways they are similar, none of them match exactly. It is important to know which document applies to your project.
ANSI A117.1 is developed by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI). It was one of the first accessibility guidelines used throughout the United States. It has served as the basis for other accessibility documents as well. The most current edition of the ANSI A117.1/ ICC is the1998 edition, which was developed in conjunction with the International Code Council and the Access Board. This edition has been changed to be more consistent with the ADAAG guidelines.
The Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) was developed by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (ATBCB or Access Board) as guidelines for the ADA legislation. It was based on 1986 ANSI A117.1, but added requirements that make it more strict than ANSI. The Access Board and the DOJ are currently working on updating the ADAAG.
The Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) applies mostly to government buildings and organizations that accept federal funding. These buildings are not currently required to conform to ADA regulations. Issued in 1989, the UFAS is based on the 1980 ANSI standard.
For most projects both the ANSI standard and the ADAAG must be reviewed for the strictest accessibility requirement. Remember, there may be additional and/ or conflicting state or local accessibility codes that also need to be considered.
Occupational Safety and Health Act
The Occupational Safety and Health Act is a set of laws passed in 1970 to protect the American employee in the work place. It also set up the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as a branch of the Department of Labor (DOL). OSHA sets new standards on an as needed basis.
OSHA regulates the design of buildings and interior projects where people are employed. The regulations deal with occupational health and safety and are used in conjunction with codes and other standards. They impose a duty upon employers to furnish a safe place of employment for their employees. For example, electrical codes ensure safe design and building construction. OSHA sets additional regulations to cover those electrical parts that come into contact with the building occupants or employees. The OSHA standards are divided into subparts, each affecting a different part of a project.
OSHA regulations must be strictly observed by contractors and subcontractors. They stress the safe installation of materials and equipment to ensure a safe work environment for both the construction workers and the future occupants of the space. Although OSHA regulations are not covered in this book, as a designer you should be aware that these regulations exist and that they affect construction and installation.
A standard is a definition, a recommended practice, a test method, a classification, or a required specification that must be met. Standards are developed by trade associations, government agencies, and standards-writing organizations where members are often allowed to vote on specific issues. The size of these groups can range from a worldwide organization to a small trade association that develops one or two industry-related standards.
By themselves standards have no legal standing; instead, they are referenced by the codes. The standards become law when the code is accepted by a jurisdiction. A standard can also be adopted individually by state, city, and municipal jurisdictions. When a standard is referenced, the acronym of the standard organization and a standard number is called out. For example, ''ASTM E-152'' is an American Society for Testing and Materials standard known as E-152. It is a standard method of fire testing for door assemblies. (The reference may also include the year of the latest revision of the standard.)
The most common standards organizations that pertain to interior projects are described below. Each develops a wide variety of standards. Some may need to be examined in detail prior to designing an interior project. Others may only need mentioning in the specifications of the project.
National Fire Protection Association
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) was originally founded in 1896 to develop standards for the early use of sprinklers. Today it is one of the largest standards organizations. It develops and publishes approximately 250 different standards. Each document is available from NFPA in book or booklet form.
In addition to the LSC and the NEC discussed earlier in this chapter, the NFPA develops and publishes a wide variety of other standards for fire protection. NFPA committees establish stan-dards designed to reduce the extent of injury, loss of life, and destruction of property during a fire. Their testing requirements cover everything from textiles to fire fighting equipment and means of egress design.
Many of these standards are referenced by the LSC and the NEC. Many are also used by the various code publications. This allows the codes to provide specific instructions without going into great detail. For example, instead of setting specific fire extinguisher requirements, the Standard Building Code (SBC) references the NFPA10: Portable Fire Extinguishers. NFPA10 then becomes a part of the enforced building code.
American National Standards Institute
The American National Standards Institute publishes the
American National Standard. Both are generally referred to as ANSI. ANSI is a private corporation that was originally founded in 1918 as the American Engineering Standards Committee. ANSI is a coordinator of voluntary standards development. Instead of developing standards, ANSI generally approves the standards developed by other organizations. It helps to establish priorities and avoid duplications between different standards.
ANSI undertakes the development of a standard only when commissioned by an industry group or government agency. Representing virtually every facet of trade, commerce, organized labor, and the consumer, ANSI's approval procedures ensure a consensus of interests. They are widely accepted on an international level, and local jurisdictions often require compliance with ANSI's standards.
The most common ANSI standard used by designers is ANSI A117.1. It concentrates on the accessibility features in the design of buildings and their interiors, allowing people with disabilities to achieve independence. It was the first standard written for accessibility and is the mostly widely known. The 1986 ANSI standard was used as the basis for the ADAAG. (See Accessibility Requirements-- ANSI, ADAAG, and UFAS inset earlier in this chapter.) ANSI's standards are published annually, though the actual text is updated only on an as-needed basis.
Many standards affect the way building materials and other products are made. Manufacturers must know these standards and incorporate them into the manufacturing process. A number of finished building products must pass one or more specific tests before they can be sold and used.
These tests are developed by the standards organizations. Some of the organizations provide testing services, but many of them do not have the facilities. Instead, there are a number of independent testing laboratories and testing agencies throughout the country that are set up to perform these tests. These companies know the standards. A manufacturer will typically send them a finished product, which is then tested and evaluated. (See inset titled UL Labels on page 23.)
Tested products are given a permanent label or certificate to prove they pass a required standard. Depending on the test and the specific standard, the manufacturer will either attach a label to the product or keep a certificate on file. As the designer, you should be specifying tested products when required. The only way to know if they are required is to know the codes and standards and consult with local code officials.
The most current full edition of this ANSI standard is 1998 and is titled ICC/ ANSI A117.1: American National Standard/ Accessible and Useable Building and Facilities. It was developed in conjunction with the ICC and the Access Board. It has been revised to be more consistent with the requirements of the ADAAG.
American Society for Testing and Materials
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a standardswriting organization formed in 1898 as a nonprofit corporation. It does not perform testing or certify products. Instead, ASTM manages the development of standards and the promotion of related technical knowledge received from over 35,000 members around the world.
More than 10,000 ASTM standards are updated and/ or published each year in the 72 volumes of the ASTM Annual Book of Standards. They are used to specify materials, assure quality, integrate production processes, promote trade, and enhance safety. Many are referenced in the codes and other reference materials. ASTM also publishes a special grouping of standards for the building construction industry.
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration,
and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) came into existence in 1959 with the merger of two engineering groups. ASHRAE is a worldwide standards organization. It sponsors research projects and develops standards for performance levels of HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) and refrigeration systems. ASHRAE standards include uniform testing methods, design requirements, and recommended standard practices. ASHRAE also distributes technological information to the public.
As a designer you will generally not refer to ASHRAE standards. They are typically used by mechanical engineers and refrigerant specialists and installers. One of ASHRAE's most widely used standards is 90A: Energy Conservation in New Building Design. It is the basis for most of the energy building code provisions in the United States.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) is primarily a testing agency that approves products. It has a number of testing laboratories around the world. It tests various devices, systems, and materials to see if they meet specific requirements and to determine their relation to life, fire, casualty hazards, and crime prevention.
UL develops and performs tests in conjunction with other standards organizations. When testing new products, if a standard exists UL will use it. If no standard exists, UL will use its own existing standard or create a new one. All of the approximately 750 different UL safety standards are published in the UL Catalog of Standards.
UL's findings are recognized worldwide. When a product is approved it receives a permanent label or classification marking that identifies Underwriter Laboratories, the word ''classified,'' a class rating, and a UL control number. (See example in Chapter 5, Figure 5.13, page 146.) UL also lists all approved products and assemblies in a number of product directories. The directories most likely to pertain to interior projects include Building Materials, Fire Protection Equipment, and Fire Resistance.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) tests a wide variety of products all over the world. The UL label is the most widely recognized mark of compliance with safety requirements. These safety requirements are based on UL standards as well as standards from other organizations. Most federal, state, and municipal authorities, as well as architects, designers, contractors, and building owners and users, accept and recognize the UL mark.
UL can test whole products, components, materials, and systems, depending on the standard required. The products tested include building materials, upholstered furniture, electrical products, HVAC equipment, fire fighting equipment, safety devices, and more. Once the initial product passes a test, it is retested at random to make sure it continues to function properly.
There are four types of labels or UL marks a product can receive. The UL brochure Testing for Public Safety (1992) describes them as follows:
LISTED MARK: The most popular, it indicates samples of the product have been tested and evaluated and comply with UL requirements. This mark generally includes the UL registered name or symbol, the product name, a control number, and the word ''listed.''
CLASSIFIED MARK: This label may list a product's properties, limited hazards, suitability for certain uses, and/ or possible international standards. The label includes the UL name or symbol and a statement indicating the extent of the UL evaluation.
RECOGNIZED MARK: This covers the evaluation of a component only. The component is later factory-installed in a complete product or system. The label includes a manufacturer's identification and product model number.
CERTIFICATE: This is used when it is difficult to apply one label to a whole system. The certificate indicates the type of system and the extent of the evaluation. It accompanies the product and is issued to the end user upon installation.
In addition to the codes, standards, and regulations mentioned above, there are also more specific codes within each jurisdiction. They can include, but are not limited to, local municipal ordinances, health codes, zoning regulations, historic preservation laws, and neighborhood conservation restrictions. For example, health codes must typically be followed when working on projects that involve food preparation, such as restaurants. In addition, other occupancies (i. e., hospitals) have regulations that must be incorporated into the design in order for the facility to obtain a license to operate. These regulations can control the size, location, and use of a building and are usually set and controlled at a local level.
This book does not cover these local codes, since they are specific to each jurisdiction. However, it is important to consult the jurisdiction of a project for these specific regulations so they can be appropriately researched and referenced.
INTERIOR CODES CHECKLIST
When working on a new project it can be difficult to remember all the applicable code sources that must be referenced. Depending on the type of interior project and the jurisdiction in which it is located, you could be using any number of the codes, regulations, and standards described in this chapter. Figure 1.2 is a checklist that provides a comprehensive list of these codes. Use this list, or develop your own, to be sure you reference the necessary codes and regulations.
Before starting an interior project refer to this checklist to determine which code publications must be referenced for your project. If you are uncertain, consult the code officials in the jurisdiction of the project. Check off the publications you will need in the ''Required'' column and enter the edition or year of the required publication in the next column. Remember that not every jurisdiction uses the most current edition of a code, and that a jurisdiction may have made amendments to an existing publication.
Do this for each code, regulation, and standard. Areminder for engineering involvement is given under each of the code headings. Blank spaces have been provided for specific state or local codes that must be consulted. Blank spaces have also been provided for you to fill in the specific standards to be used.
As you work on the project, continue to refer to the list to make sure each of the checked codes is being used. As the research is completed for each publication, enter the date in the ''Research Date'' column. You will find that as you do the code research additional standards may be required. Add these to the checklist in the spaces provided. When the project is complete, keep this form with the project's files for future reference and proof that each of the code sources was reviewed.
Remember, every jurisdiction does not require every code, regulation and standard. Some are nationally accepted and enforced, whereas others are regulated by the state. Still others are required on a local level as municipalities make amendments to the existing codes and create their own requirements. Once codes are accepted on either a federal, state, or local level, they become regulations enforceable by law. You should become familiar with the different code publications and find out from the code officials in the jurisdiction of your project which ones are required.
The specific codes that pertain to a particular project must be followed during both the design and the construction of an interior space. As you use this book and research the codes, remember the following about codes and standards:
1. They set minimum criteria. Stricter requirements can be followed at any time. (Some interior projects may require stricter guidelines to ensure better safety to the occupants of a building.)
2. They are not always perfectly clear. When two requirements are similar, typically the strictest one applies. Where codes are vague be sure to do additional research and consult the appropriate code official.
3. Not all of them will apply to every design situation, particularly when you are working in existing conditions. Work with the code official to resolve discrepancies.
When there is a question, it is the code officials in your jurisdiction who will make the final decision. Chapter 10 provides some additional guidance and explains the typical code procedure.
About the Codes
Occupancy Classifications and Loads
Fire Protection Systems
Plumbing and Mechanical Requirements
Electrical and Communication Requirements
Finish and Furniture Selection
Code Officials and the Code Process
Bibliography by Topic
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