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by Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn

Edition: 6TH 03Copyright: 2003

Publisher: Saunders College Division

Published: 2003

International: No

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The main objectives of this introductory physics book are twofold: to provide the student with a clear and logical presentation of the basic concepts and principles of physics, and to strengthen an understanding of the concepts and principles through a broad range of interesting applications to the real world. In order to meet these objectives, emphasis is placed on sound physical arguments and discussions of everyday experiences and observations. At the same time, the student is motivated through practical examples that demonstrate the role of physics in other disciplines. This sixth edition features new pedagogy in keeping with the findings of physics education research. The rich, new pedagogy has been integrated within the framework of an established and reliable text, facilitating its use by instructors.This text, which covers the standard topics in classical physics and 20th century physics, is divided into six parts. Newtonian mechanics and the physics of fluids (Part I); heat and thermodynamics (Part II); wave motion and sound (Part III); electricity and magnetism (Part IV); properties of light and the field of geometric and wave optics (Part V); and an introduction to special relativity, quantum physics, and atomic and nuclear physics (Part VI).

**Serway, Raymond A. : **Raymond A. Serway received his doctorate at Illinois Institute of Technology and is Professor Emeritus at James Madison University. In 1990, he received the Madison Scholar Award at James Madison University, where he taught for 17 years. Dr. Serway began his teaching career at Clarkson University, where he conducted research and taught from 1967 to 1980. His second academic appointment was at James Madison University as Professor of Physics and Head of the Physics Department from 1980 to 1986. He remained at James Madison University until his retirement in 1997. He was the recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award at Clarkson University in 1977 and of the Alumni Achievement Award from Utica College in 1985. As Guest Scientist at the IBM Research Laboratory in Zurich, Switzerland, he worked with K. Alex Müller, 1987 Nobel Prize recipient. Dr. Serway also held research appointments at Rome Air Development center from 1961 to 1963, at IIT Research Institute from 1963 to 1967, and as a visiting scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, where he collaborated with his mentor and friend, Sam Marshall. Dr. Serway is also the co-author of

**Faughn, Jerry S. : **

Jerry S. Faughn earned his doctorate at the University of Mississippi. He is Professor Emeritus and former Chair of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Eastern Kentucky University. Dr. Faughn has also written a microprocessor interfacing text for upper-division physics students. He is co-author of a non-mathematical physics text and a physical science text for general education students, and (with Dr. Serway) the high-school textbook *PHYSICS*, published by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. He has taught courses ranging from the lower division to the graduate level, but his primary interest is in students just beginning to learn physics. He has been director of a number of NSF and state grants, many of which were devoted to the improvement of physics education. He believes that there is no greater calling than to be a teacher and an interpreter of physics for others. Dr. Faughn has a wide variety of hobbies, among which are reading, travel, genealogy, and old-time radio. His wife Mary Ann is an avid gardener, and he contributes to her efforts by staying out of the way. His daughter Laura is in family practice and his son David is an attorney.

Part I: MECHANICS

**1 Introduction**

Standards of Length, Mass, and Time

The Building Blocks of Matter

Dimensional Analysis

Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant Figures

Conversion of Units

Order-of-Magnitude Calculations

Coordinate SystemsTrigonometry

Problem-Solving Strategy

**2 Motion in One Dimension**

Displacement

Average Velocity

Instantaneous Velocity

Acceleration

Motion Diagrams

One-Dimensional Motion With Constant Acceleration

Freely Falling Objects

**3 Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion**

Vectors and Scalars Revisited

Some Properties of Vectors

Components of a Vector

Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration in Two Dimensions

Projectile Motion

Relative Velocity

**4 The Laws of Motion**

The Concept of Force

Newton's First Law

Newton's Second Law

Newton's Third Law

Some Applications of Newton's Laws

Forces of Friction

**5 Energy**

Work

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

Potential Energy

Conservative and Non-conservative Forces

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Nonconservative Forces and Conservation of Energy

Power

Work Done by a Varying Force

**6 Momentum and Collisions**

Momentum and ImpulseConservation of Momentum

Collisions

Glancing Collisions

Rocket Propulsion

**7 Circular Motion and the Law of Gravity**

Angular Speed and Angular Acceleration

Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Acceleration

Relations Between Angular and Linear Quantities

Centripetal Acceleration

Forces Causing Centripetal Acceleration

Describing Forces in Accelerated Reference Frames

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

Gravitational Potential Energy RevisitedKepler's Laws

The Vector Nature of Angular Quantities

**8 Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics**

TorqueTorque and the Second Condition for Equilibrium

The Center of Gravity

Examples of Objects in Equilibrium

Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration

Rotational Kinetic Energy

Angular Momentum

**9 Solids and Fluids**

States of Matter

The Deformation of Solids

Density and Pressure

Variation of Pressure with Depth

Pressure MeasurementsBuoyant Forces and Archimedes's Principle

Fluids in Motion

Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics

Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscous Fluid Flow

Transport Phenomena

**Part II: THERMODYNAMICS **

**10 Thermal Physics**

Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Thermometers and Temperature ScalesThermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas

Avogadro's Number and the Ideal Gas

The Kinetic Theory of Gases

**11 Energy in Thermal Processes**

Heat and Internal Energy

Specific Heat

CalorimetryLatent Heat and Phase Change

Energy Transfer by Thermal Conduction

Energy Transfer by Convection

Energy Transfer by Radiation

Hindering Energy Transfer

Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases

**12 The Law of Thermodynamics**

Work in Thermodynamic Processes

The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law and Human Metabolism

Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Reversible and Irreversible Processes

The Carnot Engine

Entropy

Entropy and Disorder

**Part III: VIBRATIONS AND WAVES**

**13 Vibrations and Waves**

Hooke's Law

Elastic Potential Energy

Velocity as a Function of Position

Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion

Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of TimeMotion of a Pendulum

Damped Oscillations

Wave Motion

Types of Waves

Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelength

The Speed of Waves on Strings

Interference of Waves

Reflection of Waves

**14 Sound**

Producing a Sound Wave

Characteristics of Sound Waves

The Speed of Sound

Energy and Intensity of Sound Waves

Spherical and Plane Waves

The Doppler Effect

Interference of Sound Waves

Standing Waves

Forced Vibrations and Resonance

Standing Waves in Air ColumnsBeats

Quality of Sound

The Ear

**Part IV: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM**

**15 Electric Forces and Electric Fields**

Properties of Electric Charges

Insulators and Conductors

Coulomb's Law

The Electric Field

Electric Field Lines

Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium

The Millikan Oil-Drop ExperimentThe Van de Graaff Generator

Electric Flux and Gauss's Law

**16 Electrical Energy and Capacitance**

Potential Difference and Electric Potential

Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges

Potentials and Charged ConductorsEquipotential Surfaces

Applications

Capacitance

The Parallel-Plate Capacitor

Combinations of Capacitors

Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor

Capacitors with Dielectrics

**17 Current and Resistance**

Electric Current

A Microscopic View: Current and Drift Speed

Current and Voltage Measurements in Circuits

Resistance and Ohm's Law

ResistivityTemperature Variation of Resistance

Superconductors

Electrical Energy and Power

Electrical Activity in the Heart

**18 Direct Current Circuits**

Sources of emf

Resistors in Series

Resistors in Parallel

Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuits

RC Circuits

Household Circuits

Electrical Safety

Conduction of Electrical Signals by Neurons

**19 Magnetism**

Magnets

Magnetic Field of the Earth

Magnetic Fields

Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

Torque on a Current Loop and Electric Motors

Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and AmpFre's Law

Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors

Magnetic Field of a Current Loop

Magnetic Field of a Solenoid

Magnetic Domains

**20 Induced Voltages and Inductance**

Induced emf and Magnetic Flux

Faraday's Law of Induction

Motional emf (Change of A with Time)

Lenz's Law Revisited (The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law)

Generators (Change in Omega with Time)

Self-Inductance

RL Circuits

Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field

**21 Alternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves**

Resistors in an AC Circuit

Capacitors in an AC Circuit

Inductors in an AC Circuit

The RLC Series Circuit

Power in an AC Circuit

Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit

The Transformer

Maxwell's Predictions

Hertz's Confirmation of Maxwell's Predictions

Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves

The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves

The Doppler Effect for Electromagnetic Waves

**Part V: LIGHT AND OPTICS**

**22 Reflection and Refration of Light**

The Nature of Light

The Ray Approximation in Geometric Optics

Reflection and Refraction

The Law of Refraction

Dispersion and Prisms

The Rainbow

Huygens's Principle

Total Internal Reflection

**23 Mirrors and Lenses**

Flat Mirrors

Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors

Convex Mirrors and Sign Conventions

Images Formed by Refraction

Atmospheric Refraction

Thin Lenses

Lens Aberrations

**24 Wave Optics**

Conditions for Interference

Young's Double-Slit Interference

Change of Phase Due to Reflection

Interference in Thin FilmsUsing Interference to Read CD's and DVD's

Diffraction

Single-Slit Diffraction

The Diffraction Grating

Polarization of Light Waves

**25 Optical Instruments**

The Camera

The Eye

The Simple Magnifier

The Compound Microscope

The Telescope

Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures

The Michelson Interferometer

**Part VI: MODERN PHYSICS**

**26 Relativity**

Introduction

The Principle of Relativity

The Speed of Light

The Michelson-Morley ExperimentEinstein's Principle of Relativity

Consequences of Special Relativity

Relativistic Momentum

Relativistic Addition of Velocities

Relativistic Energy and the Equivalence of Mass and Energy

Pair Production and Annihilation

General Relativity

**27 Quantum Physics**

Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis

The Photoelectric Effect

Some ApplicationsX-Rays

Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals

The Compton Effect

Photons and Electromagnetic Waves

The Wave Properties of Particles

The Wave Function

The Uncertainty Principle

The Scanning Tunneling Microscope

**28 Atomic PhysicsEarly Models of the Atom**

Atomic Spectra

The Bohr Theory of Hydrogen

Modification of the Bohr Theory

De Broglie Waves and the Hydrogen Atom

Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom

The Spin Magnetic Quantum Number

Electron Clouds

The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table

Characteristic X-Rays

Atomic Transitions

Lasers and HolographyEnergy Bands in Solids

Semiconductor Devices

**29 Nuclear Physics**

Some Properties of Nuclei

Binding EnergyRadioactivity

The Decay Processes

Natural Radioactivity

Nuclear Reactions

Medical Applications of RadiationRadiation Detectors

**30 Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles**

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Reactors

Nuclear FusionElementary Particles

The Fundamental Forces in Nature

Positrons and Other AntiParticles

Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics

Classification of Particles

Conservation Laws

Strange Particles and Strangeness.

Summary

The main objectives of this introductory physics book are twofold: to provide the student with a clear and logical presentation of the basic concepts and principles of physics, and to strengthen an understanding of the concepts and principles through a broad range of interesting applications to the real world. In order to meet these objectives, emphasis is placed on sound physical arguments and discussions of everyday experiences and observations. At the same time, the student is motivated through practical examples that demonstrate the role of physics in other disciplines. This sixth edition features new pedagogy in keeping with the findings of physics education research. The rich, new pedagogy has been integrated within the framework of an established and reliable text, facilitating its use by instructors.This text, which covers the standard topics in classical physics and 20th century physics, is divided into six parts. Newtonian mechanics and the physics of fluids (Part I); heat and thermodynamics (Part II); wave motion and sound (Part III); electricity and magnetism (Part IV); properties of light and the field of geometric and wave optics (Part V); and an introduction to special relativity, quantum physics, and atomic and nuclear physics (Part VI).

Author Bio

**Serway, Raymond A. : **Raymond A. Serway received his doctorate at Illinois Institute of Technology and is Professor Emeritus at James Madison University. In 1990, he received the Madison Scholar Award at James Madison University, where he taught for 17 years. Dr. Serway began his teaching career at Clarkson University, where he conducted research and taught from 1967 to 1980. His second academic appointment was at James Madison University as Professor of Physics and Head of the Physics Department from 1980 to 1986. He remained at James Madison University until his retirement in 1997. He was the recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award at Clarkson University in 1977 and of the Alumni Achievement Award from Utica College in 1985. As Guest Scientist at the IBM Research Laboratory in Zurich, Switzerland, he worked with K. Alex Müller, 1987 Nobel Prize recipient. Dr. Serway also held research appointments at Rome Air Development center from 1961 to 1963, at IIT Research Institute from 1963 to 1967, and as a visiting scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, where he collaborated with his mentor and friend, Sam Marshall. Dr. Serway is also the co-author of

**Faughn, Jerry S. : **

Jerry S. Faughn earned his doctorate at the University of Mississippi. He is Professor Emeritus and former Chair of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Eastern Kentucky University. Dr. Faughn has also written a microprocessor interfacing text for upper-division physics students. He is co-author of a non-mathematical physics text and a physical science text for general education students, and (with Dr. Serway) the high-school textbook *PHYSICS*, published by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. He has taught courses ranging from the lower division to the graduate level, but his primary interest is in students just beginning to learn physics. He has been director of a number of NSF and state grants, many of which were devoted to the improvement of physics education. He believes that there is no greater calling than to be a teacher and an interpreter of physics for others. Dr. Faughn has a wide variety of hobbies, among which are reading, travel, genealogy, and old-time radio. His wife Mary Ann is an avid gardener, and he contributes to her efforts by staying out of the way. His daughter Laura is in family practice and his son David is an attorney.

Table of Contents

Part I: MECHANICS

**1 Introduction**

Standards of Length, Mass, and Time

The Building Blocks of Matter

Dimensional Analysis

Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant Figures

Conversion of Units

Order-of-Magnitude Calculations

Coordinate SystemsTrigonometry

Problem-Solving Strategy

**2 Motion in One Dimension**

Displacement

Average Velocity

Instantaneous Velocity

Acceleration

Motion Diagrams

One-Dimensional Motion With Constant Acceleration

Freely Falling Objects

**3 Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion**

Vectors and Scalars Revisited

Some Properties of Vectors

Components of a Vector

Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration in Two Dimensions

Projectile Motion

Relative Velocity

**4 The Laws of Motion**

The Concept of Force

Newton's First Law

Newton's Second Law

Newton's Third Law

Some Applications of Newton's Laws

Forces of Friction

**5 Energy**

Work

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

Potential Energy

Conservative and Non-conservative Forces

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Nonconservative Forces and Conservation of Energy

Power

Work Done by a Varying Force

**6 Momentum and Collisions**

Momentum and ImpulseConservation of Momentum

Collisions

Glancing Collisions

Rocket Propulsion

**7 Circular Motion and the Law of Gravity**

Angular Speed and Angular Acceleration

Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Acceleration

Relations Between Angular and Linear Quantities

Centripetal Acceleration

Forces Causing Centripetal Acceleration

Describing Forces in Accelerated Reference Frames

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

Gravitational Potential Energy RevisitedKepler's Laws

The Vector Nature of Angular Quantities

**8 Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics**

TorqueTorque and the Second Condition for Equilibrium

The Center of Gravity

Examples of Objects in Equilibrium

Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration

Rotational Kinetic Energy

Angular Momentum

**9 Solids and Fluids**

States of Matter

The Deformation of Solids

Density and Pressure

Variation of Pressure with Depth

Pressure MeasurementsBuoyant Forces and Archimedes's Principle

Fluids in Motion

Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics

Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscous Fluid Flow

Transport Phenomena

**Part II: THERMODYNAMICS **

**10 Thermal Physics**

Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Thermometers and Temperature ScalesThermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas

Avogadro's Number and the Ideal Gas

The Kinetic Theory of Gases

**11 Energy in Thermal Processes**

Heat and Internal Energy

Specific Heat

CalorimetryLatent Heat and Phase Change

Energy Transfer by Thermal Conduction

Energy Transfer by Convection

Energy Transfer by Radiation

Hindering Energy Transfer

Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases

**12 The Law of Thermodynamics**

Work in Thermodynamic Processes

The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law and Human Metabolism

Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Reversible and Irreversible Processes

The Carnot Engine

Entropy

Entropy and Disorder

**Part III: VIBRATIONS AND WAVES**

**13 Vibrations and Waves**

Hooke's Law

Elastic Potential Energy

Velocity as a Function of Position

Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion

Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of TimeMotion of a Pendulum

Damped Oscillations

Wave Motion

Types of Waves

Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelength

The Speed of Waves on Strings

Interference of Waves

Reflection of Waves

**14 Sound**

Producing a Sound Wave

Characteristics of Sound Waves

The Speed of Sound

Energy and Intensity of Sound Waves

Spherical and Plane Waves

The Doppler Effect

Interference of Sound Waves

Standing Waves

Forced Vibrations and Resonance

Standing Waves in Air ColumnsBeats

Quality of Sound

The Ear

**Part IV: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM**

**15 Electric Forces and Electric Fields**

Properties of Electric Charges

Insulators and Conductors

Coulomb's Law

The Electric Field

Electric Field Lines

Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium

The Millikan Oil-Drop ExperimentThe Van de Graaff Generator

Electric Flux and Gauss's Law

**16 Electrical Energy and Capacitance**

Potential Difference and Electric Potential

Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges

Potentials and Charged ConductorsEquipotential Surfaces

Applications

Capacitance

The Parallel-Plate Capacitor

Combinations of Capacitors

Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor

Capacitors with Dielectrics

**17 Current and Resistance**

Electric Current

A Microscopic View: Current and Drift Speed

Current and Voltage Measurements in Circuits

Resistance and Ohm's Law

ResistivityTemperature Variation of Resistance

Superconductors

Electrical Energy and Power

Electrical Activity in the Heart

**18 Direct Current Circuits**

Sources of emf

Resistors in Series

Resistors in Parallel

Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuits

RC Circuits

Household Circuits

Electrical Safety

Conduction of Electrical Signals by Neurons

**19 Magnetism**

Magnets

Magnetic Field of the Earth

Magnetic Fields

Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

Torque on a Current Loop and Electric Motors

Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and AmpFre's Law

Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors

Magnetic Field of a Current Loop

Magnetic Field of a Solenoid

Magnetic Domains

**20 Induced Voltages and Inductance**

Induced emf and Magnetic Flux

Faraday's Law of Induction

Motional emf (Change of A with Time)

Lenz's Law Revisited (The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law)

Generators (Change in Omega with Time)

Self-Inductance

RL Circuits

Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field

**21 Alternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves**

Resistors in an AC Circuit

Capacitors in an AC Circuit

Inductors in an AC Circuit

The RLC Series Circuit

Power in an AC Circuit

Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit

The Transformer

Maxwell's Predictions

Hertz's Confirmation of Maxwell's Predictions

Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves

The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves

The Doppler Effect for Electromagnetic Waves

**Part V: LIGHT AND OPTICS**

**22 Reflection and Refration of Light**

The Nature of Light

The Ray Approximation in Geometric Optics

Reflection and Refraction

The Law of Refraction

Dispersion and Prisms

The Rainbow

Huygens's Principle

Total Internal Reflection

**23 Mirrors and Lenses**

Flat Mirrors

Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors

Convex Mirrors and Sign Conventions

Images Formed by Refraction

Atmospheric Refraction

Thin Lenses

Lens Aberrations

**24 Wave Optics**

Conditions for Interference

Young's Double-Slit Interference

Change of Phase Due to Reflection

Interference in Thin FilmsUsing Interference to Read CD's and DVD's

Diffraction

Single-Slit Diffraction

The Diffraction Grating

Polarization of Light Waves

**25 Optical Instruments**

The Camera

The Eye

The Simple Magnifier

The Compound Microscope

The Telescope

Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures

The Michelson Interferometer

**Part VI: MODERN PHYSICS**

**26 Relativity**

Introduction

The Principle of Relativity

The Speed of Light

The Michelson-Morley ExperimentEinstein's Principle of Relativity

Consequences of Special Relativity

Relativistic Momentum

Relativistic Addition of Velocities

Relativistic Energy and the Equivalence of Mass and Energy

Pair Production and Annihilation

General Relativity

**27 Quantum Physics**

Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis

The Photoelectric Effect

Some ApplicationsX-Rays

Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals

The Compton Effect

Photons and Electromagnetic Waves

The Wave Properties of Particles

The Wave Function

The Uncertainty Principle

The Scanning Tunneling Microscope

**28 Atomic PhysicsEarly Models of the Atom**

Atomic Spectra

The Bohr Theory of Hydrogen

Modification of the Bohr Theory

De Broglie Waves and the Hydrogen Atom

Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom

The Spin Magnetic Quantum Number

Electron Clouds

The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table

Characteristic X-Rays

Atomic Transitions

Lasers and HolographyEnergy Bands in Solids

Semiconductor Devices

**29 Nuclear Physics**

Some Properties of Nuclei

Binding EnergyRadioactivity

The Decay Processes

Natural Radioactivity

Nuclear Reactions

Medical Applications of RadiationRadiation Detectors

**30 Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles**

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Reactors

Nuclear FusionElementary Particles

The Fundamental Forces in Nature

Positrons and Other AntiParticles

Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics

Classification of Particles

Conservation Laws

Strange Particles and Strangeness.

Publisher Info

Publisher: Saunders College Division

Published: 2003

International: No

Published: 2003

International: No

**Serway, Raymond A. : **Raymond A. Serway received his doctorate at Illinois Institute of Technology and is Professor Emeritus at James Madison University. In 1990, he received the Madison Scholar Award at James Madison University, where he taught for 17 years. Dr. Serway began his teaching career at Clarkson University, where he conducted research and taught from 1967 to 1980. His second academic appointment was at James Madison University as Professor of Physics and Head of the Physics Department from 1980 to 1986. He remained at James Madison University until his retirement in 1997. He was the recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award at Clarkson University in 1977 and of the Alumni Achievement Award from Utica College in 1985. As Guest Scientist at the IBM Research Laboratory in Zurich, Switzerland, he worked with K. Alex Müller, 1987 Nobel Prize recipient. Dr. Serway also held research appointments at Rome Air Development center from 1961 to 1963, at IIT Research Institute from 1963 to 1967, and as a visiting scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, where he collaborated with his mentor and friend, Sam Marshall. Dr. Serway is also the co-author of

**Faughn, Jerry S. : **

Jerry S. Faughn earned his doctorate at the University of Mississippi. He is Professor Emeritus and former Chair of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Eastern Kentucky University. Dr. Faughn has also written a microprocessor interfacing text for upper-division physics students. He is co-author of a non-mathematical physics text and a physical science text for general education students, and (with Dr. Serway) the high-school textbook *PHYSICS*, published by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. He has taught courses ranging from the lower division to the graduate level, but his primary interest is in students just beginning to learn physics. He has been director of a number of NSF and state grants, many of which were devoted to the improvement of physics education. He believes that there is no greater calling than to be a teacher and an interpreter of physics for others. Dr. Faughn has a wide variety of hobbies, among which are reading, travel, genealogy, and old-time radio. His wife Mary Ann is an avid gardener, and he contributes to her efforts by staying out of the way. His daughter Laura is in family practice and his son David is an attorney.

Part I: MECHANICS

**1 Introduction**

Standards of Length, Mass, and Time

The Building Blocks of Matter

Dimensional Analysis

Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant Figures

Conversion of Units

Order-of-Magnitude Calculations

Coordinate SystemsTrigonometry

Problem-Solving Strategy

**2 Motion in One Dimension**

Displacement

Average Velocity

Instantaneous Velocity

Acceleration

Motion Diagrams

One-Dimensional Motion With Constant Acceleration

Freely Falling Objects

**3 Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion**

Vectors and Scalars Revisited

Some Properties of Vectors

Components of a Vector

Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration in Two Dimensions

Projectile Motion

Relative Velocity

**4 The Laws of Motion**

The Concept of Force

Newton's First Law

Newton's Second Law

Newton's Third Law

Some Applications of Newton's Laws

Forces of Friction

**5 Energy**

Work

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

Potential Energy

Conservative and Non-conservative Forces

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Nonconservative Forces and Conservation of Energy

Power

Work Done by a Varying Force

**6 Momentum and Collisions**

Momentum and ImpulseConservation of Momentum

Collisions

Glancing Collisions

Rocket Propulsion

**7 Circular Motion and the Law of Gravity**

Angular Speed and Angular Acceleration

Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Acceleration

Relations Between Angular and Linear Quantities

Centripetal Acceleration

Forces Causing Centripetal Acceleration

Describing Forces in Accelerated Reference Frames

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

Gravitational Potential Energy RevisitedKepler's Laws

The Vector Nature of Angular Quantities

**8 Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics**

TorqueTorque and the Second Condition for Equilibrium

The Center of Gravity

Examples of Objects in Equilibrium

Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration

Rotational Kinetic Energy

Angular Momentum

**9 Solids and Fluids**

States of Matter

The Deformation of Solids

Density and Pressure

Variation of Pressure with Depth

Pressure MeasurementsBuoyant Forces and Archimedes's Principle

Fluids in Motion

Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics

Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscous Fluid Flow

Transport Phenomena

**Part II: THERMODYNAMICS **

**10 Thermal Physics**

Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Thermometers and Temperature ScalesThermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas

Avogadro's Number and the Ideal Gas

The Kinetic Theory of Gases

**11 Energy in Thermal Processes**

Heat and Internal Energy

Specific Heat

CalorimetryLatent Heat and Phase Change

Energy Transfer by Thermal Conduction

Energy Transfer by Convection

Energy Transfer by Radiation

Hindering Energy Transfer

Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases

**12 The Law of Thermodynamics**

Work in Thermodynamic Processes

The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law and Human Metabolism

Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Reversible and Irreversible Processes

The Carnot Engine

Entropy

Entropy and Disorder

**Part III: VIBRATIONS AND WAVES**

**13 Vibrations and Waves**

Hooke's Law

Elastic Potential Energy

Velocity as a Function of Position

Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion

Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of TimeMotion of a Pendulum

Damped Oscillations

Wave Motion

Types of Waves

Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelength

The Speed of Waves on Strings

Interference of Waves

Reflection of Waves

**14 Sound**

Producing a Sound Wave

Characteristics of Sound Waves

The Speed of Sound

Energy and Intensity of Sound Waves

Spherical and Plane Waves

The Doppler Effect

Interference of Sound Waves

Standing Waves

Forced Vibrations and Resonance

Standing Waves in Air ColumnsBeats

Quality of Sound

The Ear

**Part IV: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM**

**15 Electric Forces and Electric Fields**

Properties of Electric Charges

Insulators and Conductors

Coulomb's Law

The Electric Field

Electric Field Lines

Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium

The Millikan Oil-Drop ExperimentThe Van de Graaff Generator

Electric Flux and Gauss's Law

**16 Electrical Energy and Capacitance**

Potential Difference and Electric Potential

Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges

Potentials and Charged ConductorsEquipotential Surfaces

Applications

Capacitance

The Parallel-Plate Capacitor

Combinations of Capacitors

Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor

Capacitors with Dielectrics

**17 Current and Resistance**

Electric Current

A Microscopic View: Current and Drift Speed

Current and Voltage Measurements in Circuits

Resistance and Ohm's Law

ResistivityTemperature Variation of Resistance

Superconductors

Electrical Energy and Power

Electrical Activity in the Heart

**18 Direct Current Circuits**

Sources of emf

Resistors in Series

Resistors in Parallel

Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuits

RC Circuits

Household Circuits

Electrical Safety

Conduction of Electrical Signals by Neurons

**19 Magnetism**

Magnets

Magnetic Field of the Earth

Magnetic Fields

Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

Torque on a Current Loop and Electric Motors

Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and AmpFre's Law

Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors

Magnetic Field of a Current Loop

Magnetic Field of a Solenoid

Magnetic Domains

**20 Induced Voltages and Inductance**

Induced emf and Magnetic Flux

Faraday's Law of Induction

Motional emf (Change of A with Time)

Lenz's Law Revisited (The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law)

Generators (Change in Omega with Time)

Self-Inductance

RL Circuits

Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field

**21 Alternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves**

Resistors in an AC Circuit

Capacitors in an AC Circuit

Inductors in an AC Circuit

The RLC Series Circuit

Power in an AC Circuit

Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit

The Transformer

Maxwell's Predictions

Hertz's Confirmation of Maxwell's Predictions

Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves

The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves

The Doppler Effect for Electromagnetic Waves

**Part V: LIGHT AND OPTICS**

**22 Reflection and Refration of Light**

The Nature of Light

The Ray Approximation in Geometric Optics

Reflection and Refraction

The Law of Refraction

Dispersion and Prisms

The Rainbow

Huygens's Principle

Total Internal Reflection

**23 Mirrors and Lenses**

Flat Mirrors

Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors

Convex Mirrors and Sign Conventions

Images Formed by Refraction

Atmospheric Refraction

Thin Lenses

Lens Aberrations

**24 Wave Optics**

Conditions for Interference

Young's Double-Slit Interference

Change of Phase Due to Reflection

Interference in Thin FilmsUsing Interference to Read CD's and DVD's

Diffraction

Single-Slit Diffraction

The Diffraction Grating

Polarization of Light Waves

**25 Optical Instruments**

The Camera

The Eye

The Simple Magnifier

The Compound Microscope

The Telescope

Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures

The Michelson Interferometer

**Part VI: MODERN PHYSICS**

**26 Relativity**

Introduction

The Principle of Relativity

The Speed of Light

The Michelson-Morley ExperimentEinstein's Principle of Relativity

Consequences of Special Relativity

Relativistic Momentum

Relativistic Addition of Velocities

Relativistic Energy and the Equivalence of Mass and Energy

Pair Production and Annihilation

General Relativity

**27 Quantum Physics**

Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis

The Photoelectric Effect

Some ApplicationsX-Rays

Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals

The Compton Effect

Photons and Electromagnetic Waves

The Wave Properties of Particles

The Wave Function

The Uncertainty Principle

The Scanning Tunneling Microscope

**28 Atomic PhysicsEarly Models of the Atom**

Atomic Spectra

The Bohr Theory of Hydrogen

Modification of the Bohr Theory

De Broglie Waves and the Hydrogen Atom

Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom

The Spin Magnetic Quantum Number

Electron Clouds

The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table

Characteristic X-Rays

Atomic Transitions

Lasers and HolographyEnergy Bands in Solids

Semiconductor Devices

**29 Nuclear Physics**

Some Properties of Nuclei

Binding EnergyRadioactivity

The Decay Processes

Natural Radioactivity

Nuclear Reactions

Medical Applications of RadiationRadiation Detectors

**30 Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles**

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Reactors

Nuclear FusionElementary Particles

The Fundamental Forces in Nature

Positrons and Other AntiParticles

Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics

Classification of Particles

Conservation Laws

Strange Particles and Strangeness.