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Summary: This anthology represents all of the most important points of view on the most pressing topics in bioethics. Containing current essays and actual medical and legal cases written by outstanding scholars from around the globe, this book provides readers with diverse range of standpoints, including those of medical researchers and practitioners, legal exerts, and philosophers.Edition/Copyright: 6TH 03
Part I: INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS.
1. Ethical Theory and Bioethics.
The Study of Morality.
Moral Dilemmas and Disagreements.
The Problem of Relativism.
Types of Ethical Theory.
Contemporary Cha llenges to Traditional Theories.
The Ethics of Care.
E thical Principles.
Respect for Autonomy.
Law and Policy.
E thics and Public Affairs.
Morality and Law.
Legal and Moral Rights.
Law, Authori ty, And Autonomy.
Part II: JUSTICE AND AUTONOMY IN HEALTH CARE.
2. Justice in Access to Health Care.
Just Health Care and the Righ t to Health Care.
Norman Daniels, "Is There a Right to Health Care and, if so, What Does it Encompass?" Robert M. Veatch, "Justice, the Basic Social Contract, a nd Health Care." Allen E. Buchanan, "The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Car e." H. Tristam Engelhardt, Jr. "Rights to Health Care." Managed Care and Access to Care. Lawrence O. Gostin, "Securing Health or Just Health Care?: The Effect o f the Health Care System." Madison Powers, "Managed Care: How Economic Incentive Reforms Went Wrong." Allen Buchanan, "Managed Care: Rationing without Justice, But Not Unjustly." Rationing.
Peter A. Ubel and Susan Dorr Goold, "'Rationing' H ealth Care: Not All Definitions are Created Equal." Norman Daniels, "Rationing F airly: Programmatic Considerations." Leonard Fleck, "Just Caring: Oregon, Health Care Rationing, and Informed Democratic Deliberation."
3. Autonomy Rights and Medical Information.
The Confidentiality of Medical Information.
Mark Siegler, "Confidentiality in Medicine - A Decrepit Co ncept." California Supreme Court, Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California.
Morton E. Winston, "AIDS, Confidentiality, and the Right to Know." Truth Telling and Disclosing Bad News.
David C. Thomasma, "Telling the Truth to Patien ts: A Clinical Ethics Exploration." Garry S. Sigman, Jerome Kraut, and John La P uma, "Disclosure of a Diagnosis to Children and Adolescents When Parents Object.
United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit, Cantebury v. Spence. Jay Katz, "Physicians and Patients: A History of Silence." Ruth R. Faden and Tom L.
Beauchamp, "The Concept of Informed Consent." Robert J . Levine, "Informed Consent: Some Challenges to the Universal Validity of the We stern Model." Refusal of Treatment.
California Court of Appeals, Second District , Bouvia v. Superior Court.
United States Supreme Court, Cruzan v. Director, Mis souri Department of Health.
Advance Directives. Linda Emmanuel, Marion Danis, Ro bert A. Pearlman, and Peter A. Singer, "Advance Care Planning as a Process: Stru cturing the Discussions in Practice." Ben E. Rich, "Advance Directives: The Next Generation."
Part III: LIFE AND DEATH.
4. End-of-Life Decisionmaking.
The Right to Die.
F. M. Kamm, "A Ri ght to Choose Death?" Leon R. Kass, "Is There a Right to Die?" The Legal Backgro und in the United States.
The Oregon Death With Dignity Act.
United States Supre me Court, Vacco v. Quil andWashington v. Glucksberg.
The Supreme Court of Califo rnia, Wendland v. Wendland.
The Moral Foundations of Public Policy on Physician- Assisted Death.
Henck Jochemsen and John Keown, "Voluntary Euthanasia under Cont rol?: Further Empirical Evidence from the Netherlands." Johannes J. M. van Delde n, "Slippery Slopes in Flat Countries: A Response." Palliation and Other Alterna tives to Physician-Assisted Death.
Bernard Gert, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danne r Clouser, "An Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Timothy E. Quill, Ber nard Lo, and Dan W. Brock, "Palliative Options of Last Resort."
5. Abortion and Maternal-Fetal Relations.
The Problem Justifying Abortion.
Don Marquis, "Why Abortion is Immoral." Judith Jarvis Thomson, "A Defen se of Abortion." Baruch Brody, "The Morality of Abortion." Mary Anne Warren, "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion." Legal Issues of Abortion. United State s Supreme Court, Roe v. Wade.
United States Supreme Court, Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Robert P. Casey, et al., etc.
United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit, Carhart v. Stenberg.
Maternal-Fetal Relationships an d Rights.
United States Supreme Court, Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls, Inc.
District of Columbia Court of Appeals, In Re A.C. Alexander Capron, "Punishing Mothers." Kenneth A. DeVille and Loretta Kopelman, "Moral and Social Issues Regarding Pregnant Women Who Use and Abuse Drugs."
Part IV: BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY.
6. Research Involving Human and Animal Subjects.
Codes and Guideli nes.
"The Nuremberg Code" (1947).
World Medical Association, "Declaration of Hel sinki" (2000) and "Note of Clarification" (2001).
Council for International Orga nizations of Medical Sciences, in Collaboration with the World Health Organizati on, "International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Su bjects" (2002).
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, "In ternational Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals" (1985) .
Ethical Issues in Human Research.
National Bioethics Advisory Commission, "Protecting Research Participants - A Time for Change" (2001).
Ezekiel J. Emanuel an d Franklin G. Miller, "The Ethics of Placebo-Controlled Trials - A Middle Ground " (2001).
Harold T. Shapiro and Eric M. Meslin, "Ethical Issues in the Design an d Conduct of Clinical Trials in Developing Countries" (2001).
Solomon R. Benatar , "Justice and Medical Research: A Global Perspective" (2001).
Past Abuses of Hu man Research Subjects. Gregory E. Pence, "The Tuskegee Study" (1994).
William J. Clinton, "In Apology for the Study Done in Tuskegee" (1997).
Sheldon H. Harris, "Factories of Death" (1994).
Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, "Final Report" (1995).
Ethical Issues in Animal Research.
David DeGrazia, "The Ethics of Animal Research: What Are the Prospects for Agreement?" (1999).
Baruch A. Brody, "Defending Animal Research: An International Perspective" (2001).
And rew N. Rowan, "Formulation of Ethical Standards for the Use of Animals in Medica l Research" (1993).
Richard Smith, "Animal Research: The Need for a Middle Groun d" (2001).
7. Eugenics and Human Genetics.
Eugenics Programs in the Twentieth Century.
Daniel J. Kevles, "Eugenics and Human Rights" (1999).
United States Su preme Court, Buck v.
Stephen Jay Gould, "Carrie Buck's Daughter." Jonathan Glover, "Eugenics: Some Lessons from the Nazi Experience" (1998).
The Hu man Genome Project.
Francis S. Collins and Victor A. McKusick, "Implications of the Human Genome Project for Medical Science" (2001).
James D. Wilson, "Genes an d Politics." Allen Buchanan, et al., "From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justic e" (2000).
Svante Pääbo, "The Human Genome and Our View of Ourselves" (2001).
Ge netic Testing and Screening.
Patricia A. Roche and George J. Annas, "Protecting Genetic Privacy" (2001).
Michael M. Burgess, "Beyond Consent: Ethical and Social Issues in Genetic Testing" (2001).
Lainie Friedman Ross and Margaret R. Moon, " Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing of Children" (2000). Human Gene Transfer Research.
Ninkunj Somia and Inder Verma, "Gene Therapy: Trials and Tribulations" (edi ted) (2000).
Theodore Friedmann, "Principles for Human Gene Therapy Studies" (20 00).
Julian Savulescu, "Harm, Ethics Committees and the Gene Therapy Death" (200 1).
Jonathan Glover, "Questions about Some Uses of Genetic Engineering." Jon W.
Gordon, "Genetic Enhancement in Humans" (1999). Erik Parens , "The Goodness of Fragility: On the Prospect of Genetic Technologies Aimed at t he Enhancement of Human Capabilities." Suggested Readings.
8. Reproductive Technologies and Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.
In Vitro Fertilization.
John A. Robertson, "IVF, Infertility, and the Status of Embryos" (1994).
Susan Sherwin, "Feminist Ethics and In Vitro Fertilization" (1987).
ISLAT Working Group, "ART into Science: Regulation of Fertility Techniqu es" (1998).
Dan W. Brock, "Cloning Human Beings: An Assess ment of Ethical Issues Pro and Con" (1997).
Leon Kass, "The Wisdom of Repugnance " (1997).
National Bioethics Advisory Commission, "Cloning Human Beings" (1997).
Ranaan Gillon, "Human Reproductive Cloning: A Look at the Arguments Against It and a Rejection of Most of Them" (1999).
National Research Council, "Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Reproductive Cloning" (2002).
Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.
National Bioethics Advisory Commission, "Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research" (1999).
Glenn McGee and Arthur L. Caplan, "The Ethics and Po litics of Small Sacrifices in Stem Cell Research" (1999).
Gilbert Meilaender, "T he Point of a Ban: Or, How to Think about Stem Cell Research" (2001).
National R esearch Council and Institute of Medicine, "Stem Cells and the Future of Regener ative Medicine" (2001).
National Research Council, "Using Nuclear Transplantatio n to Produce Embryonic Stem Cells" (2002).
Part V: PUBLIC HEALTH.
The Global AIDS Epidemic and the Threat of Bioterrorism.
General I ssues.
Anthony S. Fauci, "The AIDS Epidemic: Considerations for the 21st Century " (1999).
United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organizati on, "AIDS Epidemic Update" (2001).
Peter R. Lamptey, "Reducing Heterosexual Tran smissions of AIDS in Poor Countries" (2002).
Lawrence O. Gostin and David W. Web ber, "HIV Infection and AIDS in the Public Health and Health Care Systems" (1998 ).
AIDS, Justice and Public Health.
Gavin Yamey and William W. Rankin, "AIDS and Global Justice" (2002).
Donald Berwick, "We All Have AIDS" (2001).
Dorothy E. L ogie and Solomon R. Benatar, "Africa in the 21st Century: Can Despair be Turned to Hope?" (1997).
The Duty to Warn and the Duty Not to Harm.
Charles A. Erin and John Harris, "Is There an Ethics of Heterosexual AIDS?" (1993).
Rebecca Bennett , Heather Draper, and Lucy Frith, "Ignorance is Bliss?: HIV and Moral Duties and Legal Duties to Forewarn" (2000).
Andrea Carlson Gielen, et al., "Women Living with HIV: Disclosure, Violence and Social Support" (2000).
Testing and Screening Programs.
Institute of Medicine, "Reducing the Odds: Preventing Perinatal Trans mission of HIV in the United States" (1998).
Bernard Lo, Leslie Wolf, and Sohini Sengupta, "Ethical Issues in Early Detection of HIV Infection to Reduce Vertica l Transmission" (2000).
Stephen F. Morin, "Early Detection of HIV: Assessing the Legislative Context" (2000).
AIDS Vaccine Trials.
Dale Guenter, Jose Esparza, a nd Ruth Macklin, "Ethical Issues in International HIV Vaccine Trials" (2000).
Ma legapuru William Makgoba, Nandipha Solomon, and Timothy John Paul Tucker, "The S earch for an HIV Vaccine" (2002).
The Threat of Bioterrorism.
Donald A. Henderso n, "The Looming Threat of Bioterrorism" (1999).
Robert C. Spencer and Nigel F. L ightfoot, "Preparedness and Response to Bioterrorism" (2001).
Joseph Barbera, et al., "Large-Scale Quarantine Following Biological Terrorism in the United State s: Scientific Examination, Logisitc and Legal Limits, and Possible Consequences" (2001).
Lawrence O. Gostin, "Law and Ethics in a Public Health Emergency" (2002 ).
George J. Annas, "Bioterrorism, Public Health, and Civil Liberties" (2002).
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