A compact but comprehensive guide to critical thinking and argumentation. Comprising the text portion of the widely adopted Current Issues and Enduring Questions, this affordable guide provides a thorough introduction to critical thinking and argumentation and can stand alone or supplement a larger anthology of readings for a composition or literature course.
A practical ...show moreapproach to critical thinking and reading. The three chapters in Part One show students how to recognize and evaluate assumptions as a prelude to annotating, summarizing, and analyzing arguments.
Thorough treatment of writing arguments. The three chapters in Part Two help students apply their critical thinking and reading skills to writing analytical, critical, and research-based papers in the MLA or APA style.
54 provocative readings (25 new). The readings provide arguments designed for student response, and are accompanied by headnotes and questions that prompt students to think and write critically about pressing current issues and one classic philosophical question. Five in-depth casebooks provide a variety of perspectives on the issues.
Unique section on alternative perspectives on argument. Part three includes six chapters that introduce students to the various approaches to argument -- philosophical (the Toulmin model), logical (deduction, induction, fallacies), ethical, legal, psychological (Rogerian argument), and literary.
New to This Edition :
Compelling new readings and topics. Twemty-five of the readings are new (46%), as are ten topics of current interest covered by single selections and in-depth Casebooks. New topics include standardized tests, advertising directed at children, the use of torture as punishment, racial stereotypes, polygamy, and school prayer.
New coverage of visual rhetoric with images. Recognizing the profusion of visual arguments in our culture, this edition teaches students how to read and analyze them. Integrated throughout Chapter Three, 14 images -- monuments, advertisements, photographs, and works of art -- present opportunities for analysis.
A new chapter on moral reasoning. Because moral and ethical reasoning underlie most arguments, we have added a new chapter called "A Moralist's View: Ways of Thinking Ethically" designed to help students learn to recognize and analyze moral arguments. The discussion explains the differences between amoral, immoral, and moral reasoning and presents three readings that employ moral reasoning in argument.
Updated and expanded research features. The chapter on using sources has been revised to provide the latest information on finding, evaluating, and documenting electronic and other sources. The chapter also includes a new student essay documented in APA style and a student essay in MLA style.
More student writing. The book now includes eight essays (three new) on current issues by student writers. The essays serve not only as models for writing, but also as arguments for analysis.
New book companion site. Referenced throughout the book, the new book companion site at www.bedfordstmartins.com/barnetbedau offers students and teachers an extensive set of annotated links on argument and on the controversial topics in the book. Brainteasers allow students to test their understanding of logic and argument, and instructors can share assignment and syllabi ideas with colleagues across the nation.
Sylvan Barnet, Professor of English and former director of writing at Tufts University, is the most prolific and consistently successful college English textbook author of the past 30 years. His several texts on writing and his numerous anthologies for introductory composition and literature courses have remained leaders in their field through many editions. He is also the general editor of the Signet Classic Shakespeare, for almost three decades the most widely adopted college Shakespeare series.
Bedau, Hugo : Tufts University
Hugo Bedau , professor of philosophy at Tufts University, served as chair of the philosophy department and chair of the university's Committee on College Writing. An internationally respected expert on moral, legal, and political philosophy, his books include The Death Penalty in America; Justice and Equality, Victimless Crimes, Making Mortal Choices, and Thinking and Writing about Philosophy, Second Edition (Bedford/St. Martin's, 1996).
View Table of Contents
* New to this edition
PART I. CRITICAL THINKING AND READING
1. Critical Thinking
Thinking about Driver's Licenses and School Attendance: Imagination, Analysis, Evaluation Writing as a Way of Thinking A CHECKLIST FOR CRITICAL THINKING Examining Assumptions John Silber, Students Should Not Be Above the Law Judith H. Christie, What about the Faculty? A CHECKLIST FOR EXAMINING ASSUMPTIONS * A Casebook on Examining Assumptions: What Values Do Tests Have? * Paul Goodman, A Proposal to Abolish Grading * Leon Botstein, A Tyranny of Standardized Tests * A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING LETTERS OF RESPONSE * Letters of Response to Botstein from Janet Rudolph, Jerome Henkin, Batya Lewton, and Sidney Wilson * Diane Ravitch, In Defense of Testing Exercises
2. Critical Readings: Getting Started
Active Reading Previewing Skimming: Finding the Thesis Readings With a Pencil: Underlining, Highlighting, Annotating This, Therefore, That First, Second, and Third Thoughts Summarizing and Paraphrasing * Nicholas Negroponte, Being Asynchronous Susan Jacoby, A First Amendment Junkie CHECKLIST FOR GETTING STARTED A Casebook for Critical Reading: Should Some Kinds of Speech Be Curtailed? Susan Brownmiller, Let's Put Pornography Back in the Closet Charles R. Lawrence III, On Racist Speech Derek Bok, Protecting Freedom of Expression on the Campus * Jean Kilbourne, Own This Child
3. Critical Readings: Getting Deeper into Arguments
Persuasion, Argument, Dispute Reason vs.Rationalization Some Procedures in Argument Definition Assumptions Premise and Syllogisms Deduction Sound Arguments Induction Evidence Examples Authoritative Testimony Statistics A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING STATISTICAL EVIDENCE Satire, Irony, Sarcasm Emotional Appeals A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING AN ARGUMENT Does All Writing Contain Arguments? * Visual Rhetoric: Images as Arguments Visual Persuasion: (1) Reading the Human-Made Landscape Visual Persuasion: (2) Reading Advertisements Photography and Truth A Note on Using Visuals in Your Own Paper * A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING IMAGES (ESPECIALLY ADVERTISEMENTS) * Images for Analysis * Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother * Anonymous Poster, Our Homes Are in Danger Now David Craig, Utne Reader: A New Renaissance? Arguments for Analysis Ronald Takaki, The Harmful Myth of Asian Superiority James Q. Wilson, Just Take Away Their Guns * Nora Ephron, The Boston Photos * Michael Levin, The Case for Torture * Anna Lisa Raya, It's Hard Enough Being Me (Student Essay) Judy Brady, I Want a Wife A Casebook: How Valuable Are Computers in College? * Nate Stulman, -Off Machine (Student Essay) * Letters Of Response To Nate Stulman From Mark Cassell, Paul Hogarth, David Schwartz, Chris Toulous, Jo Manning, Robert Kubey, and Kenneth R. Jolls
PART II. CRITICAL WRITING
4. Writing an Analysis of an Argument
Analyzing an Argument Examining the Author's Thesis Examining the Author's Purpose Examining the Author's Methods Examining the Author's Personal Summary An Argument, Its Elements, and a Student's Analysis of the Argument Stanley S. Scott, Smokers Get a Raw Deal Tom Wue, Is All Discrimination Unfair? (Student Essay) An Analysis of the Student's Analysis A CHECKLIST FOR AN ESSAY ANALYZING AN ARGUMENT Exercise Arguments for Analysis * Elizabeth Joseph, My Husband's Nine Wives Jeff Jacoby, Bring Back Flogging Katha Pollitt, It Takes Two: A Modest Proposal for Holding Fathers Equally Accountable David Cole, Five Myths about Immigration * Stuart Taylor Jr., School Prayer: When Constitutional Principles Clash * M. Scott Peck, Living Is the Mystery Peter Singer, Animal Liberation Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
5. Developing an Argument of Your Own
Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argument Getting Ideas The Thesis Imagining and Audience The Audience as Collaborator The Title The Opening Paragraphs Organizing and Revising the Body of the Essay The Ending Two Uses of an Outline Tone and the Writer's Persona We, One, or I? Avoiding Sexist Language A Peer Review Checklist for a Draft of an Argument Peer Review A Student's Essay, from Rough Notes to Final Version Emily Andrews, Why I Don't Spare "Spare Change" Exercise
6. Using Sources
Why Use Sources? Choosing a Topic Finding Material Interviewing Peers and Local Authorities Using the Library Finding Information Online Evaluating Sources A Checklist for Evaluating Sources Taking Notes A Word about Plagiarism Compiling an Annotated Bibliography Writing the Paper Organizing Your Notes The First Draft Later Drafts Choosing a Tentative Title The Final Draft Quoting from Sources The Use and Abuse of Quotations How to Quote Documentation A Note on Footnotes (And Endnotes) MLA Format: Citations within the Text MLA Format: The List of Works Cited APA Format: Citations within the Text APA Format: The List of References A CHECKLIST FOR PAPERS USING SOURCES An Annotated Student Research Paper in MLA Format Theresa Washington, Why Trials Should Not Be Televised * An Annotated Student Research Paper in APA Format Laura Deveau, The Role of Spirituality and Religion in Mental Health
PART III. FURTHER VIEWS ON ARGUMENT
7. A Philosopher's View: The Toulmin Model
The Claim Grounds Warrants Backing Modal Qualifiers Rebuttals A Model Analysis Using the Toulmin Method A Checklist for Using the Toulmin Method
8. A Logician's View: Deduction, Induction, Fallacies
Deduction Induction Observation and Inference Probability Mill's Methods Confirmation, Mechanism, and Theory Fallacies Many Questions Ambiguity Death By a Thousand Qualifications Oversimplifications False Dichotomy Hasty Generalization Equivocation Composition Division Poisoning the Well Ad Hominem The Genetic Fallacy Appeal to Authority The Slippery Slope Appeal to Ignorance Begging the Question False Analogy Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Protecting the Hypothesis A Checklist for Evaluating an Argument from a Logical Point of View Max Shulman, Love Is a Fallacy
9. A Moralist's View: Ways of Thinking Ethically
Amoral Reasoning Immoral Reasoning Moral Reasoning: A Closer Look Criteria for Moral Rules A CHECKLIST FOR MORAL REASONING * United States vs. Holmes Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality * Garrett Hardin, Lifeboat Ethics
10. A Lawyer's View: Steps toward Civic Literacy
Civil and Criminal Cases Trial and Appeal Decision and Opinion Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions Facts and Law Balancing Interests Word of Caution A Checklist for Analyzing Legal Arguments A Casebook on the Law and Society: What Rights Do the Constitution and the Bill of Rights Protect? William J. Brennan Jr. and William H. Rehnquist, Texas vs. Johnson Byron R. White and John Paul Stevens, New Jersey vs. T.L.O. * Roe vs. Wade
11. A Psychologist's View: Rogerian Argument
Carl R. Rogers, Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING ROGERIAN ARGUMENT
12. A Literary Critic's View: Arguing about Literature
Interpreting Judging (Or Evaluating) Theorizing A CHECKLIST FOR AN ARGUMENT ABOUT LITERATURE Examples: Two Students Interpret Robert Frost's Mending Wall Robert Frost, Mending Wall Jonathan Deutsch, The Deluded Speaker in Frost's "Mending Wall" Felicia Alonso, The Debate in Robert Frost's "Mending Wall" Exercises: Reading a Poem and Reading Two Stories Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour * Kate Chopin, The Storm Thinking about the Effects of Literature Plato, The Greater Part of the Stories Current Today We Shall Have to Reject Thinking about Government Funding for the Arts
PART IV. A CASEBOOK ON THE STATE AND THE INDIVIDUAL
13. What Is the Ideal Society?
* Thomas More, From Utopia * Niccolò Machiavelli, From The Prince * Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence * Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail * Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas
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