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Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing : A Brief Guide to Argument

Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing : A Brief Guide to Argument - 4th edition

ISBN13: 978-0312259112

Cover of Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing : A Brief Guide to Argument 4TH 02 (ISBN 978-0312259112)
ISBN13: 978-0312259112
ISBN10: 0312259115
Cover type: Paperback
Edition/Copyright: 4TH 02
Publisher: Bedford Books
Published: 2002
International: No

List price: $40.00

Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing : A Brief Guide to Argument - 4TH 02 edition

ISBN13: 978-0312259112

Sylvan Barnet and Hugo Bedau

ISBN13: 978-0312259112
ISBN10: 0312259115
Cover type: Paperback
Edition/Copyright: 4TH 02
Publisher: Bedford Books

Published: 2002
International: No
Summary

Features :

  • A compact but comprehensive guide to critical thinking and argumentation. Comprising the text portion of the widely adopted Current Issues and Enduring Questions, this affordable guide provides a thorough introduction to critical thinking and argumentation and can stand alone or supplement a larger anthology of readings for a composition or literature course.
  • A practical approach to critical thinking and reading. The three chapters in Part One show students how to recognize and evaluate assumptions as a prelude to annotating, summarizing, and analyzing arguments.
  • Thorough treatment of writing arguments. The three chapters in Part Two help students apply their critical thinking and reading skills to writing analytical, critical, and research-based papers in the MLA or APA style.
  • 54 provocative readings (25 new). The readings provide arguments designed for student response, and are accompanied by headnotes and questions that prompt students to think and write critically about pressing current issues and one classic philosophical question. Five in-depth casebooks provide a variety of perspectives on the issues.
  • Unique section on alternative perspectives on argument. Part three includes six chapters that introduce students to the various approaches to argument -- philosophical (the Toulmin model), logical (deduction, induction, fallacies), ethical, legal, psychological (Rogerian argument), and literary.



New to This Edition :

  • Compelling new readings and topics. Twemty-five of the readings are new (46%), as are ten topics of current interest covered by single selections and in-depth Casebooks. New topics include standardized tests, advertising directed at children, the use of torture as punishment, racial stereotypes, polygamy, and school prayer.
  • New coverage of visual rhetoric with images. Recognizing the profusion of visual arguments in our culture, this edition teaches students how to read and analyze them. Integrated throughout Chapter Three, 14 images -- monuments, advertisements, photographs, and works of art -- present opportunities for analysis.
  • A new chapter on moral reasoning. Because moral and ethical reasoning underlie most arguments, we have added a new chapter called "A Moralist's View: Ways of Thinking Ethically" designed to help students learn to recognize and analyze moral arguments. The discussion explains the differences between amoral, immoral, and moral reasoning and presents three readings that employ moral reasoning in argument.
  • Updated and expanded research features. The chapter on using sources has been revised to provide the latest information on finding, evaluating, and documenting electronic and other sources. The chapter also includes a new student essay documented in APA style and a student essay in MLA style.
  • More student writing. The book now includes eight essays (three new) on current issues by student writers. The essays serve not only as models for writing, but also as arguments for analysis.
  • New book companion site. Referenced throughout the book, the new book companion site at www.bedfordstmartins.com/barnetbedau offers students and teachers an extensive set of annotated links on argument and on the controversial topics in the book. Brainteasers allow students to test their understanding of logic and argument, and instructors can share assignment and syllabi ideas with colleagues across the nation.

Author Bio

Barnet, Sylvan : Tufts University

Sylvan Barnet, Professor of English and former director of writing at Tufts University, is the most prolific and consistently successful college English textbook author of the past 30 years. His several texts on writing and his numerous anthologies for introductory composition and literature courses have remained leaders in their field through many editions. He is also the general editor of the Signet Classic Shakespeare, for almost three decades the most widely adopted college Shakespeare series.

Bedau, Hugo : Tufts University

Hugo Bedau , professor of philosophy at Tufts University, served as chair of the philosophy department and chair of the university's Committee on College Writing. An internationally respected expert on moral, legal, and political philosophy, his books include The Death Penalty in America; Justice and Equality, Victimless Crimes, Making Mortal Choices, and Thinking and Writing about Philosophy, Second Edition (Bedford/St. Martin's, 1996).

Table of Contents

* New to this edition



Preface

PART I. CRITICAL THINKING AND READING

1. Critical Thinking

Thinking about Driver's Licenses and School Attendance: Imagination, Analysis, Evaluation
Writing as a Way of Thinking
A CHECKLIST FOR CRITICAL THINKING
Examining Assumptions
John Silber, Students Should Not Be Above the Law
Judith H. Christie, What about the Faculty?
A CHECKLIST FOR EXAMINING ASSUMPTIONS
* A Casebook on Examining Assumptions: What Values Do Tests Have?
* Paul Goodman, A Proposal to Abolish Grading
* Leon Botstein, A Tyranny of Standardized Tests
* A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING LETTERS OF RESPONSE
* Letters of Response to Botstein from Janet Rudolph, Jerome Henkin, Batya Lewton, and Sidney Wilson
* Diane Ravitch, In Defense of Testing
Exercises

2. Critical Readings: Getting Started

Active Reading
Previewing
Skimming: Finding the Thesis
Readings With a Pencil: Underlining, Highlighting, Annotating
This, Therefore, That
First, Second, and Third Thoughts
Summarizing and Paraphrasing
* Nicholas Negroponte, Being Asynchronous
Susan Jacoby, A First Amendment Junkie
CHECKLIST FOR GETTING STARTED
A Casebook for Critical Reading: Should Some Kinds of Speech Be Curtailed?
Susan Brownmiller, Let's Put Pornography Back in the Closet
Charles R. Lawrence III, On Racist Speech
Derek Bok, Protecting Freedom of Expression on the Campus
* Jean Kilbourne, Own This Child

3. Critical Readings: Getting Deeper into Arguments

Persuasion, Argument, Dispute
Reason vs.Rationalization
Some Procedures in Argument
Definition
Assumptions
Premise and Syllogisms
Deduction
Sound Arguments
Induction
Evidence
Examples
Authoritative Testimony
Statistics
A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING STATISTICAL EVIDENCE
Satire, Irony, Sarcasm
Emotional Appeals
A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING AN ARGUMENT
Does All Writing Contain Arguments?
* Visual Rhetoric: Images as Arguments
Visual Persuasion: (1) Reading the Human-Made Landscape
Visual Persuasion: (2) Reading Advertisements
Photography and Truth
A Note on Using Visuals in Your Own Paper
* A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING IMAGES (ESPECIALLY ADVERTISEMENTS)
* Images for Analysis
* Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother
* Anonymous Poster, Our Homes Are in Danger Now
David Craig, Utne Reader: A New Renaissance?
Arguments for Analysis
Ronald Takaki, The Harmful Myth of Asian Superiority
James Q. Wilson, Just Take Away Their Guns
* Nora Ephron, The Boston Photos
* Michael Levin, The Case for Torture
* Anna Lisa Raya, It's Hard Enough Being Me (Student Essay)
Judy Brady, I Want a Wife
A Casebook: How Valuable Are Computers in College?
* Nate Stulman, -Off Machine (Student Essay)
* Letters Of Response To Nate Stulman From Mark Cassell, Paul Hogarth, David Schwartz, Chris Toulous, Jo Manning, Robert Kubey, and Kenneth R. Jolls

PART II. CRITICAL WRITING

4. Writing an Analysis of an Argument

Analyzing an Argument
Examining the Author's Thesis
Examining the Author's Purpose
Examining the Author's Methods
Examining the Author's Personal
Summary
An Argument, Its Elements, and a Student's Analysis of the Argument
Stanley S. Scott, Smokers Get a Raw Deal
Tom Wue, Is All Discrimination Unfair? (Student Essay)
An Analysis of the Student's Analysis
A CHECKLIST FOR AN ESSAY ANALYZING AN ARGUMENT
Exercise
Arguments for Analysis
* Elizabeth Joseph, My Husband's Nine Wives
Jeff Jacoby, Bring Back Flogging
Katha Pollitt, It Takes Two: A Modest Proposal for Holding Fathers Equally Accountable
David Cole, Five Myths about Immigration
* Stuart Taylor Jr., School Prayer: When Constitutional Principles Clash
* M. Scott Peck, Living Is the Mystery
Peter Singer, Animal Liberation
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal

5. Developing an Argument of Your Own

Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argument
Getting Ideas
The Thesis
Imagining and Audience
The Audience as Collaborator
The Title
The Opening Paragraphs
Organizing and Revising the Body of the Essay
The Ending
Two Uses of an Outline
Tone and the Writer's Persona
We, One, or I?
Avoiding Sexist Language
A Peer Review Checklist for a Draft of an Argument
Peer Review
A Student's Essay, from Rough Notes to Final Version
Emily Andrews, Why I Don't Spare "Spare Change"
Exercise

6. Using Sources

Why Use Sources?
Choosing a Topic
Finding Material
Interviewing Peers and Local Authorities
Using the Library
Finding Information Online
Evaluating Sources
A Checklist for Evaluating Sources
Taking Notes
A Word about Plagiarism
Compiling an Annotated Bibliography
Writing the Paper
Organizing Your Notes
The First Draft
Later Drafts
Choosing a Tentative Title
The Final Draft
Quoting from Sources
The Use and Abuse of Quotations
How to Quote
Documentation
A Note on Footnotes (And Endnotes)
MLA Format: Citations within the Text
MLA Format: The List of Works Cited
APA Format: Citations within the Text
APA Format: The List of References
A CHECKLIST FOR PAPERS USING SOURCES
An Annotated Student Research Paper in MLA Format
Theresa Washington, Why Trials Should Not Be Televised
* An Annotated Student Research Paper in APA Format
Laura Deveau, The Role of Spirituality and Religion in Mental Health

PART III. FURTHER VIEWS ON ARGUMENT

7. A Philosopher's View: The Toulmin Model

The Claim
Grounds
Warrants
Backing
Modal Qualifiers
Rebuttals
A Model Analysis Using the Toulmin Method
A Checklist for Using the Toulmin Method

8. A Logician's View: Deduction, Induction, Fallacies

Deduction
Induction
Observation and Inference
Probability
Mill's Methods
Confirmation, Mechanism, and Theory
Fallacies
Many Questions
Ambiguity
Death By a Thousand Qualifications
Oversimplifications
False Dichotomy
Hasty Generalization
Equivocation
Composition
Division
Poisoning the Well
Ad Hominem
The Genetic Fallacy
Appeal to Authority
The Slippery Slope
Appeal to Ignorance
Begging the Question
False Analogy
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
Protecting the Hypothesis
A Checklist for Evaluating an Argument from a Logical Point of View
Max Shulman, Love Is a Fallacy

9. A Moralist's View: Ways of Thinking Ethically

Amoral Reasoning
Immoral Reasoning
Moral Reasoning: A Closer Look
Criteria for Moral Rules
A CHECKLIST FOR MORAL REASONING
* United States vs. Holmes
Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality
* Garrett Hardin, Lifeboat Ethics

10. A Lawyer's View: Steps toward Civic Literacy

Civil and Criminal Cases
Trial and Appeal
Decision and Opinion
Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions
Facts and Law
Balancing Interests
Word of Caution
A Checklist for Analyzing Legal Arguments
A Casebook on the Law and Society: What Rights Do the Constitution and the Bill of Rights Protect?
William J. Brennan Jr. and William H. Rehnquist, Texas vs. Johnson
Byron R. White and John Paul Stevens, New Jersey vs. T.L.O.
* Roe vs. Wade


11. A Psychologist's View: Rogerian Argument

Carl R. Rogers, Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation
A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING ROGERIAN ARGUMENT

12. A Literary Critic's View: Arguing about Literature

Interpreting
Judging (Or Evaluating)
Theorizing
A CHECKLIST FOR AN ARGUMENT ABOUT LITERATURE
Examples: Two Students Interpret Robert Frost's Mending Wall
Robert Frost, Mending Wall
Jonathan Deutsch, The Deluded Speaker in Frost's "Mending Wall"
Felicia Alonso, The Debate in Robert Frost's "Mending Wall"
Exercises: Reading a Poem and Reading Two Stories
Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress
Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour
* Kate Chopin, The Storm
Thinking about the Effects of Literature
Plato, The Greater Part of the Stories Current Today We Shall Have to Reject
Thinking about Government Funding for the Arts

PART IV. A CASEBOOK ON THE STATE AND THE INDIVIDUAL

13. What Is the Ideal Society?

* Thomas More, From Utopia
* Niccolò Machiavelli, From The Prince
* Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence
* Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream
Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail
* Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas

Index of Authors and Titles
Index of Terms