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Cultural Geography : Themes, Concepts, Analyses

Cultural Geography : Themes, Concepts, Analyses - 00 edition

ISBN13: 978-0195413076

Cover of Cultural Geography : Themes, Concepts, Analyses 00 (ISBN 978-0195413076)
ISBN13: 978-0195413076
ISBN10: 0195413075
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 00
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Published: 2000
International: No

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Cultural Geography : Themes, Concepts, Analyses - 00 edition

ISBN13: 978-0195413076

William Norton

ISBN13: 978-0195413076
ISBN10: 0195413075
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 00
Publisher: Oxford University Press

Published: 2000
International: No
Summary

Cultural Geography opens by introducing the ideas that have informed the work of cultural geographers. It includes six chapters, each focusing on a particular cultural geographic theme. In each chapter conceptual material explains the rationale for the theme and empirical material provides examples of analyses conducted by cultural geographers. A concluding chapter provides an opportunity for readers to make some observations on the current and future status of cultural geography.

Author Bio

Norton, William : University of Manitoba, Canada

Table of Contents

1. Introducing Cultural Geography

1.1. Doing Cultural Geography

1.1.1. Describing the visible landscape
1.1.2. Dominant and other cultural identities

1.2. What This Book is About

1.2.1. Question
1.2.2. Answer

1.2.3. Explaining the organization and content of this textbook

1.2.3.1. Three terminological challenges

1.3. Providing a Context

1.3.1. The rise of the social sciences
1.3.2. The rise of human geography
1.3.3. Human geography in the twentieth century

1.3.3.1. The regional approach
1.3.3.2. Spatial analysis
1.3.3.3. The landscape school
1.3.3.4. Marxism and humanism
1.3.3.5. Feminism, poststructuralism, and postmodernism

1.4. Introducing Culture

1.4.1. Cultur and society
1.4.2. Cultural geography, human geography, and geography
1.4.3. Culture in cultural geography

1.4.3.1. Culture and the landscape school
1.4.3.2. Questioning the meaning of culture
1.4.3.3. Culture and the new cultural geography
1.4.3.4. New cultural geography and cultural studies
1.4.3.5. Evaluating the culture concept

1.4.4. Constitutive elements of human identity--who we are

1.4.4.1. Place
1.4.4.2. Language
1.4.4.3. Religion
1.4.4.4. Ethnicity
1.4.4.5. Nationality
1.4.4.6. Community
1.4.4.7. Class
1.4.4.8. Gender

1.5. Introducing Themes and Analyses

1.5.1. Rationale
1.5.2. The six themes

1.5.2.1. Landscape evolution
1.5.2.2. Regions and landscapes
1.5.2.3. Ecology and landscape
1.5.2.4. Behaviour and landscape
1.5.2.5. Unequal groups, unequal landscapes
1.5.2.6. Landscape, identity, symbol

1.6. Concluding Comments
1.7. Further Reading

2. Humans and Nature

2.1. Population and Technology

2.1.1. Foraging

2.1.1.1. Environmental impacts

2.1.2. Agriculture

2.1.2.1. Why the transition from agriculture to industry?
2.1.2.2. Environmental impacts
2.1.2.3. Civilization
2.1.2.4. Feudalism
2.1.2.5. European overseas expansion

2.1.3. Industry

2.1.3.1. Environmental impacts
2.1.3.2. Cultural impacts

2.1.4. A postmodern world?

2.2. Separating Humans and Nature

2.2.1. Why separate humans and nature?

2.2.1.1. Greek and Christian thought
2.2.1.2. The scientific revolution
2.2.1.3. Enlightenment and nineteenth century thought

2.2.2. What it means to be human

2.2.2.1. Different humans?
2.2.2.2. Geological, biological, and cultural evolution

2.3. Environmental Determism

2.3.1. Definition
2.3.2. Historical perspective

2.3.2.1. Greek and Christian thought
2.3.2.2. The scientific revolution
2.3.2.3. Enlightenment and nineteenth century thought

2.3.3. Geography as the study of physical causes

2.3.3.1. The impact of Ratzel
2.3.3.2. The work of Ellen Semple
2.3.3.3. The work of Ellsworth Huntington
2.3.3.4. Appraisal

2.4. Human Use of Nature

2.4.1. Historical perspective

2.4.1.1. Greek and Christian thought
2.4.1.2. The scientific revolution
2.4.1.3. Enlightenment and nineteenth century thought

2.4.2. Geographic interpretations

2.4.2.1. Possibilism
2.4.2.2. The landscape school
2.4.2.3. Variations on a theme

2.4.3. Controlling nature and controlling others

2.5. Towards Holistic Emphases

2.5.1. Rationale
2.5.2. Historical perspective

2.5.2.1. Greek and Christian thought
2.5.2.2. Geographical thought

2.5.3. Ecological emphases

2.6. Contemporary Ideologies of Nature

2.6.1. The culture of nature
2.6.2. New holisms
2.6.3. Evolutionary naturalism

2.7. Humans as Members of Cultural Groups

2.7.1. Cultural evolution
2.7.2. Sociobiology

2.7.2.1. Criticisms

2.7.3. The superorganic concept

2.7.3.1. Kroeber's contribution
2.7.3.2. Evaluation

2.7.4. Other interpretations

2.8. Concluding Comments
2.9. Further Reading

3. Landscape Evolution

3.1. The Landscape School

3.1.1. Origins

3.1.1.1. A confused scholarly terrain
3.1.1.2. Enter Carl Sauer

3.1.2. Key ideas
3.1.3. Impact

3.1.3.1. Defining geography as the study of landscape
3.1.3.2. Revisions of the approach
3.1.3.3. Historical geography

3.2. Cultural Diffusion

3.2.1. The spread of culture traits

3.2.1.1. The example of covered bridges
3.2.1.2. Linking trait studies to culture
3.2.1.3. Migration and diffusion

3.2.2. A spatial analytic emphasis

3.2.2.1. The work of Hagerstrand
3.2.2.2. Space not culture?

3.2.3. Diffusion, culture, and power

3.2.3.1. Rationale
3.2.3.2. Diffusion in the less developed world

3.3. Cultural Contact and Transfer

3.3.1. Europe overseas

3.3.1.1. Why Europe?
3.3.1.2. Ecological imperialism

3.3.2. Aboriginal-European contacts: changing understandings

3.3.2.1. Difference and inferiority

3.3.3. Aboriginal-European contact: cultural change

3.3.3.1. Resisting change, accepting change
3.3.3.2. Imposed change

3.3.4. Dependence

3.4. Shaping Landscapes

3.4.1. Two approaches to historical geography

3.4.1.1. Narratives
3.4.1.2. Cross sections

3.4.2. Sequent occupance
3.4.3. Frontier experiences

3.4.3.1. The frontier thesis
3.4.3.2. Europe simplified?
3.4.3.3. Transferring cultural baggage
3.4.3.4. Irish settlement in eastern Canada
3.4.3.5. German settlement in Texas

3.4.4. Evolutionary regional studies
3.4.5. Reading the landscape

3.4.5.1. The local and regional narrative history tradition
3.4.5.2. The Landscape magazine tradition
3.4.5.3. Making the American landscape
3.4.5.4. Making the Ontario landscape
3.4.5.5. Making the Irish landscape

3.5. Concluding Comments
3.6. Further Reading

4. Regions and Landscapes

4.1. What is a Cultural Region?

4.1.1. Cultural areas in anthropology
4.1.2. Regions in geography
4.1.3. Delimiting regions

4.1.3.1. Classification
4.1.3.2. Four difficulties
4.1.3.3. The decline of traditional regional geography

4.2. The Evolution of Cultural Regions: Concepts

4.2.1. Cultural hearths
4.2.2. Core, domain, and sphere
4.2.3. First effective settlement
4.2.4. Duplication, deviation, and fusion
4.2.5. Stages of regional evolution

4.2.5.1. Six regions in the American west

4.2.6. Culturally habituated predisposition
4.2.7. Preadaptation
4.2.8. The `authority of tradition'

4.3. Cultural Regions

4.3.1. Vernacular regions
4.3.2. Cultural regions as homelands

4.3.2.1. French Canada
4.3.2.2. French Louisiana

4.3.3. The Mormon homeland

4.3.3.1. People and region
4.3.3.2. Landscape

4.3.4. The Hispano homeland

4.3.4.1. People and region
4.3.4.2. Landscape

4.3.5. Ethnicity and cultural islands
4.3.6. Two criticisms

4.4. Shaping the Modern World

4.4.1. Civilizations as global regions
4.4.2. The evolving world system

4.4.2.1. Civilizations as world systems

4.4.3. 'The greatest topic in historical geography'

4.5. Global Regions

4.5.1. Culture Worlds
4.5.2. The Clash of Civilizations
4.5.3. The Myth of Continents

4.6. Concluding Comments
4.7. Further Reading

5. Ecology and Landscape

5.1. Ecology: A Unifying Science?

5.1.1. Nineteenth century origins

5.1.1.1. Two misconceptions
5.1.1.2. Ecologies in physical science
5.1.1.3. Introducing humans

5.1.2. Human ecology and geography

5.1.2.1. The contribution of Barrows
5.1.2.2. Links to the landscape school
5.1.2.3. Some other proposals

5.1.3. Ecologies in social science

5.1.3.1. sociology
5.1.3.2. anthropology
5.1.3.3. history
5.1.3.4. psychology

5.1.4. Ecology and systems analysis

5.2. Cultural Ecological Analysis

5.2.1. Resources and population
5.2.2. Adaptation

5.2.2.1. Definition
5.2.2.2. Adaptation and social scale

5.2.3. The `new ecology'

5.2.3.1. Origins of agriculture

5.2.4. Ecology and the global environment

5.2.4.1. Origins of environmentalism
5.2.4.2. The age of environmentalism
5.2.4.3. The state of the earth

5.3. Revisiting Humans and Nature

5.3.1. The need for reinterpretation
5.3.2. Environmental ethics

5.3.2.1. Religion and environment
5.3.2.2. Extending the principle of equality
5.3.2.3. Ecology, economics, ethics
5.3.2.4. Behaving ethically
5.3.2.5. Living with discordant harmonies
5.3.2.6. The `golden rule'
5.3.2.7. Transforming culture

5.4. Ecofeminism

5.4.1. Definition
5.4.2. Implications

5.5. Political Ecological Analysis

5.5.1. The approach in context
5.5.2. Analyses

5.5.2.1. Peasant-herder conflicts
5.5.2.2. Banana exports and local food production

5.6. Concluding comments
5.7. Further Reading

6. Behaviour and Landscape

6.1. Understanding Human Behaviour

6.1.1. Some key questions
6.1.2. Psychoanalysis
6.1.3. Behavorism
6.1.4. Gestalt psychology
6.1.5. Humanism
6.1.6. Cognition
6.1.7. Debating the merits of the approaches

6.1.7.1. Cognitive behaviourism?

6.1.8. Summary

6.2. Behavioural Cultural Geography

6.2.1. Early statements
6.2.2. The model of humans

6.2.2.1. Behaviouralist geography
6.2.2.2. Humanistic geography
6.2.2.3. Two models of humans--one or two geographies of behaviour?
6.2.2.4. The inference problem

6.3. Spatial Understanding and Spatial Perception

6.3.1. A radial behaviourist approach

6.3.1.1. Revisiting the Mormon landscape
6.3.1.2. The southeastern Australian wheat frontier

6.3.2. Subjective environments

6.3.2.1. Images, mental maps, and cognitive maps
6.3.2.2. Appalachian cognitive maps
6.3.2.3. Creating images
6.3.2.4. Swan River Colony
6.3.2.5. Great Plains or Great American Desert?
6.3.2.6. 'A New and Naked Land'

6.3.3. Summary

6.4. Concluding Comments
6.5. Further Reading

7. Unequal Groups, Unequal Landscapes

7.1. Three Challenges
7.2. Conceptual Underpinnings

7.2.1. Geography and society

7.2.1.1. Space and social theory
7.2.1.2. Social geography

7.2.2. Marxism

7.2.2.1. Marxist social theory
7.2.2.2. The importance of division of labour
7.2.2.3. Versions of Marxism
7.2.2.4. Marxism in geography

7.2.3. Feminism

7.2.3.1. Three versions
7.2.3.2. Locating feminism in geography
7.2.3.3. Feminist challenges to geography

7.2.4. The cultural turn

7.2.4.1. A context
7.2.4.2. Cultural studies
7.2.4.3. Poststructuralism
7.2.4.4. Postmodernism

7.2.5. Summary

7.3. A Divided World: The Idea of Race

7.3.1. The unity of the human species
7.3.2. A history of the idea of race
7.3.3. Correcting a misunderstanding?
7.3.4. Racist geography: apartheid in South Africa

7.3.4.1. Group identity in the South African context
7.3.4.2. Dividing people, dividing space

7.4. A Divided World: Ethnicity

7.4.1. Understanding ethnicity
7.4.2. Language and religion

7.4.2.1. Links to ethnicity
7.4.2.2. Understanding others

7.4.3. National and local identities

7.4.3.1. Identity construction and conflict

7.5. Global Power: Economics, Politics, and Culture

7.5.1. Global inequalities

7.5.1.1. European miracle--or European myth?
7.5.1.2. The gap

7.5.2. The global present (and future?)

7.5.2.1. A global culture?
7.5.2.2. The demise of the state

7.6. Concluding Comments

7.6.1. Further Reading

8. Landscape, Identity, Symbol

8.1. Understanding Place and People

8.1.1. Social constructionism
8.1.2. Place

8.1.2.1. Home
8.1.3. The geographical self
8.1.4. Constructing place identities and human identities

8.2. Others and Other Worlds

8.2.1. Gender

8.2.1.1. Landscapes of gender
8.2.1.2. Gender, landscape, and fear

8.2.2. Sexuality

8.2.2.1. Landscapes of sexuality

8.2.3. Geographies of the disadvantaged
8.2.4. Geographies of resistance

8.2.4.1. Sites of contestation

8.2.5. Individual rights and group rights

8.3. Symbolic Landscapes

8.3.1. Rethinking cultural landscape
8.3.2. Writing the world: identity in landscape

8.3.2.1. Naming places
8.3.2.2. Sacred spaces

8.3.3. Reading the world: landscape as text

8.3.3.1. Reading the urban landscape
8.3.3.2. Monuments in landscape

8.4. Ordinary Landscapes

8.4.1. The personality of place
8.4.2. Folk culture and popular culture
8.4.3. Music, identity, place
8.4.4. Consumption and spectacle

8.4.4.1. Tourism and recreation
8.4.4.2. Retailing and food and drink

8.5. Concluding Comments
8.6. Further Reading

9. Cultural Geography Today

9.1. Informing Cultural Geographic Analyses

9.1.1. The cultural landscape

9.2. A Practical Discipline

9.2.1. Global cultural geography
9.2.2. Cultural geographies of difference

9.3. Some Final Questions

9.3.1. Is there a distinct subdiscipline of cultural geography?
9.3.2. Does the cultural turn challenge the legitimacy of cultural geography?
9.3.3. Is it possible to integrate traditional and new cultural geography?

9.4. Further Reading

List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Boxes

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