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What is geography? Geography is the study of where things are located on Earth's surface and the reasons for the location. The word geography, invented by the ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes, is based on two Greek words. Geo means "Earth," and graphy means "to write." Geographers ask two simple questions: where and why. Where are people and activities located across Earth's surface? Why are they located in particular places?
Geography as a Social Science
Recent world events lend a sense of urgency to geographic inquiry. Geography's spatial perspectives help to relate economic change in Africa, the Middle East, and other regions to the distributions of cultural features such as languages and religions, demographic patterns such as population growth and migration, and natural resources such as energy and food supply.
Does the world face an overpopulation crisis? Geographers study population problems by comparing the arrangements of human organizations and natural resources across Earth. Given these spatial distributions, geographers conclude that some locations may have more people than can be provided for, whereas other places may be underpopulated.
Similarly, geographers examine the prospects for an energy crisis by relating the distribution of energy sources and consumption. Geographers find that the users of energy are located in places with different social, economic, and political institutions than the producers of energy. Geographers seek first to describe the distribution of features such as the production and consumption of energy, and then to explain the relationships between these distributions and other human and physical phenomena.
The main purpose of this book is to introduce students to the study of geography as a social science by emphasizing the relevance of geographic concepts to human problems. It is intended for use in college-level introductory human or cultural geography courses. The book is written for students who have not previously taken a college-level geography course and have had little, if any, geography in high school.
Divisions within Geography
Because geography is a broad subject, some specialization is inevitable. At the same time, one of geography's strengths is its diversity of approach. Rather than being forced to adhere rigorously to established disciplinary laws, geographers can combine a variety of methods and approaches. This tradition stimulates innovative thinking, although students who are looking for a series of ironclad laws to memorize may be disappointed.
Human vs. Physical Geography. Geography is both a physical and a social science. When geography concentrates on the distribution of physical features, such as climate, soil, and vegetation, it is a natural science. When it studies cultural features, such as language, industry, and cities, geography is a social science. This division is reflected in some colleges, where physical geography courses may carry natural science credit and human and cultural geography courses social science credit.
While this book is concerned with geography from a social science perspective, one of the distinctive features of geography is its use of natural science concepts to help understand human behavior. The distinction between physical and human geography reflects differences in emphasis, not an absolute separation.
Topical vs. Regional Approach. Geographers face a choice between a topical and a regional approach. The topical approach, which is used in this book, starts by identifying a set of important cultural issues to be studied, such as population growth, political disputes, and economic restructuring. Geographers using the topical approach examine the location of different aspects of the topic, the reasons for the observed pattern, and the significance of the distribution.
The alternative approach is regional. Regional geographers start by selecting a portion of Earth and studying the environment, people, and activities within the area. The regional geography approach is used in courses on Europe, Africa, Asia, and other areas of the world. Although this book is organized by topics, geography students should be aware of the location of places in the world. A separate index section lists the book's maps by location. One indispensable aid in the study of regions is an atlas, which can also be used to find unfamiliar places that may pop up in the news. Partly for this reason, the publisher has chosen to offer an atlas to accompany this textbook at no additional cost to the student.
Descriptive vs. Systematic Method. Whether using a topical or a regional approach, geographers can select either a descriptive or a systematic method. Again, the distinction is one of emphasis, not an absolute separation. The descriptive method emphasizes the collection of a variety of details about a particular location. This method has been used primarily by regional geographers to illustrate the uniqueness of a particular location on Earth's surface. The systematic method emphasizes the identification of several basic theories or techniques developed by geographers to explain the distribution of activities.
This book uses both the descriptive and systematic methods because total dependence on either approach is unsatisfactory. An entirely descriptive book would contain a large collection of individual examples not organized into a unified structure. A completely systematic approach suffers because some of the theories and techniques are so abstract that they lack meaning for the student. Geographers who depend only on the systematic approach may have difficulty explaining important contemporary issues.
This book is sensitive to the study needs of students. Each chapter is clearly structured to help students understand the material and effectively review from the book.
The book discusses the following main topics:
What basic concepts do geographers use? Chapter 1 provides an introduction to ways that geographers think about the world. Geographers employ several concepts to describe the distribution of people and activities across Earth, to explain reasons underlying the observed distribution, and to understand the significance of the arrangements.
Where are people located in the world? Chapters 2 and 3 examine the distribution and growth of the world's population, as well as the movement of people from one place to another. Why do some places on Earth contain large numbers of people or attract newcomers while other places are sparsely inhabited?
How are different cultural groups distributed? Chapters 4 through 8 analyze the distribution of different cultural traits and beliefs and the problems that result from those spatial patterns. Important cultural traits discussed in Chapter 4 include food, clothing, shelter, and leisure activities. Chapters 5 through 7 examine three main elements of cultural identity: language, religion, and ethnicity. Chapter 8 looks at political problems that arise from cultural diversity. Geographers look for similarities and differences in the cultural features at different places, the reasons for their distribution, and the importance of these differences for world peace.
How do people earn a living in different parts of the world? Human survival depends on acquiring an adequate food supply. One of the most significant distinctions in the world is whether people produce their food directly from the land or buy it with money earned by performing other types of work. Chapters 9 through 12 look at the three main ways of earning a living: agriculture, manufacturing, and services. Chapter 13 discusses cities, the centers for economic as well as cultural activities.
What issues result from using Earth's resources? The final chapter is devoted to a study of three issues related to the use of Earth's natural resources: energy, pollution, and food supply. Geographers recognize that cultural problems result from the depletion, destruction, and inefficient use of the world's natural resources.
To help the student use the material in this book, each chapter is organized with these study aids:
Case Study. Each chapter opens with a case study that illustrates some of the key concepts presented in the text. The case studies are generally drawn from news events or from daily experiences familiar to residents of North America.
Key Issues. Each chapter contains a set of three, four, or five key issues around which the chapter material is organized. These questions reappear as major headings within the chapter. Other than in Chapter 1, all questions include one of the two key geographic concerns: where or why.
Key Terms. The key terms in each chapter are indicated in bold type when they are introduced. These terms are also listed at the end of the chapter and defined at the end of the book.
Contemporary Geographic Tools. Each chapter has a one- or two-page box that explores in depth an issue related to the subject of the chapter. The boxes show how geographic tools, such as geographic information systems, aerial photography, and remotely sensed images, have been used to resolve-or at least understand-cultural, political, and economic controversies and disputes.
Summary. The key issues are repeated at the end of the chapter with a brief review of the important concepts covered in detail in the text.
Case Study Revisited. Additional information related to the chapter's case study may be used to reinforce some of the main points.
Thinking Geographically. This section offers five questions based on concepts and themes developed in the chapter. The questions help students apply geographic concepts to explore issues more intensively.
On the Internet. The internet site (www.prenhall.com/rubenstein) that accompanies the book offers a variety of resources for both students and professors. The site features review exercises for students, critical thinking problems, annotated resources for further exploration, and mapping exercises.
Further Readings. A list of books and articles is provided for students who wish to study the subject further.
Appendix. A special appendix on scale and major projections enhances the discussion of the subject in Chapter 1 of the text. We are grateful to Phillip C. Muehrcke, Professor of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and former president of the American Cartographic Association, for his clear explanation of the subject.
In addition to the text itself, the author and publisher have been pleased to work with a number of talented people to produce an excellent instructional package. This package includes the traditional supplements that students and professors have come to expect from authors and publishers, as well as new kinds of components that utilize electronic media.
For the Student
Companion Web site: The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Web Site by Robert E. Nunley, George W. Ulbrick, Daniel L. Roy, and Severin M. Roberts, all of the University of Kansas, gives students the opportunity to further explore topics presented in the book using the Internet. The site contains numerous review exercises (from which students get immediate feedback), exercises to expand students' understanding of human geography, and resources for further exploration. This Web site provides an excellent platform from which to start using the Internet for the study of human geography. Please visit the site at http://www.prenhall.com/rubenstein
Science on the Internet: A Student's Guide, (0-13-028253-7) by Andrew T. Stull and Harry Nickla, is a guide to the Internet specifically for geography students. Science on the Internet is available at no cost to qualified adopters of The Cultural Landscape.
Study Guide (0-13-091398-2): Written by experienced educators Robert E. Nunley and George W. Ulbrick, the study guide helps students identify the important points from the text and then provides them with review exercises, study questions, self-check exercises, and vocabulary review.
For the Professor
Slides (0-13-091394-4) and Transparencies (0-13-091393-6): More than 150 full-color illustrations from the text are available free of charge to qualified adopters. In order to accommodate instructor preference, these images are available both on transparency acetates and 35 millimeter slides.
Digital Files (0-13-091932-2): All of the maps and figures from the text, and some of the photographs, are available digitally on a CD-ROM. These files are ideal for those professors who use PowerPoint or a comparable presentation software for their classes, or for professors who create text-specific Web sites for their students.
The New York Times Themes of the Times-Geography: This unique newspaper-format supplement features recent articles about geography from the pages of The New York Times. This supplement, available at no extra charge from your local Prentice Hall representative, encourages students to make connections between the classroom and the world around them.
Instructor's Manual: Written by Tarek Joseph of Michigan State University, the instructor's manual is intended as a resource for both new and experienced instructors. It includes a variety of lecture outlines, additional source materials, teaching tips, advice about how to integrate visual supplements (including the Web-based resources), and various other ideas for the classroom.
Test Item File (0-13-091435-5): The test item file, by Robert E. Nunley, George W. Ulbrick, Severin M. Roberts, and Daniel L. Roy, provides instructors with a wide variety of test questions.
PH Custom Test: Available formatted for both Macintosh (0-13-091396-0) and IBM (0-13-091395-2) computers and based on the powerful testing technology developed by Engineering Software Associates, Inc. (ESA), Prentice Hall Custom Test allows instructors to create and tailor exams to their own needs. With the online testing program, exams can also be administered online and data can then be automatically transferred for evaluation. A comprehensive desk reference guide is included, along with online assistance.
Course Management: Prentice Hall is proud to be a partner with many of the leading course-management system providers on the market today. These partnerships enable us to combine our market-leading online content with the powerful course management tools Blackboard, WebCT, and our proprietary course management system, CourseCompass. Please visit our demo site, www.prenhall.com/demo, for more information, or contact your local Prentice Hall representative, who can provide a live demonstration of these exciting tools.
Suggestions for Use
Tis book can be used in an introductory human or cultural geography course that extends over one semester, one quarter, or two quarters. An instructor in a one-semester course could devote one week to each of the chapters, leaving time for examinations. In a one-quarter course, the instructor might need to omit some of the book's material.
A course with more of a cultural orientation could use Chapters 1 through 8, plus Chapter 14. If the course has more of an economic orientation, then the appropriate chapters would be 1 through 3 and 8 through 14.
A two-quarter course could be organized around the culturally oriented Chapters 1 through 8 during the first quarter and the more economically oriented Chapters 9 through 14 during the second quarter. Topics of particular interest to the instructor or students could be discussed for more than one week.
A central theme in this book is a tension between two important themes-globalization and cultural diversity. In many respects we are living in a more unified world economically, culturally, and environmentally. The actions of a particular corporation or country affect people around the world. This book argues that after a period when globalization of the economy and culture has been a paramount concern in geographic analysis, local diversity now demands equal time. People are taking deliberate steps to retain distinctive cultural identities. They are preserving little used languages, fighting fiercely to protect their religions, and carving out distinctive economic roles.
A major change in this edition is an emphasis on five basic concepts of space, place, region, scale, and connections. Chapter 1 has been substantially rewritten around these five concepts and renamed "Thinking Geographically." The inspiration for this emphasis came from the Advanced Placement in College-Level Human Geography examination, based on National Geography Standards, which is organized around these five concepts.
Two chapters of particular importance in this book are Ethnicity (Chapter 7) and Services (Chapter 12). Ethnicity, like language and religion, is increasingly a source of pride to people and a link to the cultural traditions of ancestors. Ethnicity may help to explain demographic, health, and economic conditions and patterns of inequality and discrimination. Some of the material in Chapter 7 was found elsewhere in previous editions, including U.S. urban patterns, South Africa's history of apartheid, and ethnic cleansing in the Balkans. Two-thirds of North Americans work in services, but this sector of the economy receives minimal treatment in introductory (or even intermediate-level) geography books. Chapter 12 is designed to rectify that imbalance.
Finally, given the enormous amount of material now available electronically, through CD-ROM, Internet, and so on, why should an instructor continue to make students buy an expensive textbook? In the computer age, is a textbook an anachronism? A book is a slow way to communicate: By the time this book is in your hands, something in it will be outdated; perhaps there will be a new war, peace treaty, or United Nations member. The information superhighway is filled with data that can be quickly retrieved, but the information is poorly organized and written.
In contrast, a high-quality book is crafted carefully by the author, editors, and publisher. The author has rewritten these sentences several times to convey a precise meaning. Editors then change many of the words and punctuation to assure that the author's intended meaning is successfully communicated. A book allows an author to lay out a more careful and clear route to explanation and understanding than is possible electronically. For now, computers are tools for retrieval of facts and for advanced analysis, but they cannot yet compete with books in explaining a discipline's basic concepts and themes.
The successful completion of a book like this requires the contribution of many people. First and foremost I would like to take this opportunity to discuss the central role of Prentice Hall Geography Editor Daniel Kaveney in the successful completion of this project. More important, as editor of the dominant geography college textbook publisher, Dan holds as much responsibility as any other single individual for shaping the nation's college geography curriculum. Dan has assumed this leadership role with great modesty and deference, but he has been firm in assuring that Prentice Hall sets a high standard of quality for what appears in print.
Befitting its leadership role, Prentice Hall has a strong team of support staff that makes life easy for an author. Susan J. Fisher, Senior Production Editor, carefully oversees all the elements of the project in an efficient no-nonsense manner. With the assistance of Nicole M. Bush, Production Editor, the production team has brought home a well-crafted book on a very rapid timetable. Thanks also to Geography Marketing Manager Christine Henry and to the Prentice Hall sales representatives who have done a fine job promoting the book on campus. Lastly, I will always be grateful to Paul Corey, President of Prentice Hall's Engineering, Science, and Math division, for his longtime support and friendship.
Outside Prentice Hall, the production staff at MapQuest, led by Kevin Lear, produced outstanding maps for this book, and Academy Artworks, led by Patricia Burns, produced handsome line drawings. Judy Olson at Michigan State University helped to modernize the look of the maps in this edition by creating a fresh color palette. Kathy Ringrose, photo researcher, assembled an especially strong collection of engaging photographs. Preparé pulled together the page layout and composition far more smoothly and attractively than in the old days of galleys and paste-ups. I am also grateful to the outstanding work done on a variety of ancillaries by the University of Kansas crowd, led by Robert E. Nunley, George Ulbrick, and Daniel L. Roy, as well as by Tarek Joseph of Michigan State University. Finally, I would like to thank my students at Miami, who make this work worthwhile.
I'd like to extend a special thanks to all of my colleagues who have, over the years, offered a great deal of feedback and constructive criticism. Colleagues who served as reviewers as we prepared this seventh edition of the text are Samuel Aryeetey-Attoh, University of Toledo; Brad Bays, Oklahoma State University; Henry W. Bullamore, Frostburg State University; Michael S. DeVivo, Kutztown University; Vernon Domingo, Bridgewater State College; Robert E. Nunley, University of Kansas; Thomas Terich, Western Washington University; William Wyckoff, Montana State University. I thank them for their help and feedback.
Rubenstein, James M. : Miami University
(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Summary, Case Study Revisited, Key Terms, Thinking Geographically, On the Internet, Further Readings, and Contemporary Geographic Tools.)
1. Thinking Geographically.
Case Study: Big Mac Attack.
Thinking about Space.
Thinking about Place.
Thinking about Region.
Thinking about Scale.
Thinking about Connections.
Case Study: Population Growth in India.
Where Is the World's Population Distributed?
Where Has the World's Population Increased?
Why Is Population Increasing at Different Rates in Different Countries?
Why Might the World Face an Overpopulation Problem?
Case Study: Migrating to Spain.
Why Do People Migrate?
Where Are Migrants Distributed?
Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?
Why Do People Migrate within a Country?
4. Folk and Popular Culture.
Case Study: The Aboriginal Artists of Australia at Lincoln Center.
Where Do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse?
Why Is Folk Culture Clustered?
Why Is Popular Culture Widely Distributed?
Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems?
Case Study: French and Spanish in the United States and Canada.
Where Are English-Language Speakers Distributed?
Why Is English Related to Other Languages?
Where Are Other Language Families Distributed?
Why Do People Preserve Local Languages?
Case Study: The Dalai Lama vs. the People's Republic of China.
Where Are Religions Distributed?
Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions?
Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns?
Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise among Religious Groups?
Case Study: Ethnic Conflict in Rwanda.
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
Why Have Ethnicities Been Transformed into Nationalities?
Why Do Ethnicities Clash?
8. Political Geography.
Case Study: Changing Borders in Europe.
Where Are States Located?
Where Are Boundaries Drawn between States?
Why Do Boundaries between States Cause Problems?
Why Do States Cooperate with Each Other?
Case Study: Bangladesh's Development Problems.
Why Does Development Vary among Countries?
Where Are More and Less Developed Countries Distributed?
Why Do Less Developed Countries Face Obstacles to Development.
Case Study: Wheat Farmers in Kansas and Pakistan.
Where Did Agriculture Originate?
Where Are Agricultural Regions in Less Developed Countries?
Where Are Agricultural Regions in More Developed Countries?
Why Does Agriculture Vary among Regions?
Case Study: Maquiladoras in Mexico.
Where Did Industry Originate?
Where Is Industry Distributed?
Why Do Industries Have Different Distributions?
Why Do Industries Face Problems?
Case Study: Obtaining Goods in Romania.
Where Did Services Originate?
Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?
Why Do Business Services Locate in Large Settlements?
Why Do Services Cluster Downtown?
13. Urban Patterns.
Case Study: Two Families in New Jersey.
Where Have Urban Areas Grown?
Where Are People Distributed within Urban Areas?
Why Do Inner Cities Have Distinctive Problems?
Why Do Suburbs Have Distinctive Problems?
14. Resource Issues.
Case Study: Pollution in Mexico City.
Why Are Fossil-Fuel Resources Being Depleted?
Why Are Resources Being Polluted?
Why Are Global Food Resources Expandable?
Conclusion: Careers in Geography.
Appendix: Map Scale and Projections.
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