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Summary: This text covers the range of chemical substances that affect our minds and our bodies and discusses the challenges these substances bring to our daily lives.
In today's world, drugs and their use present a social paradox, combining the potential for good and for bad. As a society and as individuals, we can be the beneficiaries of drugs or their victims. This perspective continues to be the message of Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society, Fourth Edition. As ...show more has been the case since the first edition published in 1996, students will be introduced to the basic facts and the major issues concerning drug-taking behavior, in a straightforward, comprehensive, and "reader-friendly" manner.
Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society, Fourth Edition has been designed to be the most comprehensive review of psychoactive drugs of any undergraduate college textbook on the market today. It is particularly notable for the attention given to two aspects of drug-taking behavior that have been underreported in other texts: steroid abuse and inhalant abuse. The text also highlights the impact of dietary supplements, whether herb-based or not, on the current drug scene; the impact of "club drugs" on contemporary drug-taking behavior; and the recent increase in the abuse of prescription analgesic (pain-relief) medications such as OxyContin. ...show less
I. DRUGS IN SOCIETY/DRUGS IN OUR LIVES.
1. Drugs and Behavior Today.
Two Ways of Looking At Drugs and Behavior.
Health Line 1.1 - Drug Abuse and the College Student: An Assessment Tool.
Drugs in Early Times.
Drugs in the Nineteenth Century.
Drugs and Behavior in the Twentieth Century.
Drugs and Behavior in the New Millennium.
Quick Concept Check 1.1 - Understanding the History of Drugs and Behavior.
Patterns of Drug Use in the United States.
Why Some Individuals Use Drugs and Others Don't.
Quick Concept Check 1.2 - Understanding Present Drug Use in the United States.
Looking to the Future and Learning from the Past.
Drugs...In Focus 1.1 - Facts About Club Drugs.
Portrait --- Peter Schlendorf and the Risks of a "Herbal High."
2. Drug-Taking Behavior: The Personal and Social Concerns.
Quick Concept Check 2.1 - Understanding Dose-Response Curves.
Drugs...In Focus 2.1 - Acute Toxicity in the News: Drug-Related Deaths.
The DAWN Reports.
Tolerance Effects in Drug-Taking Behavior.
Quick Concept Check 2.2 - Understanding Behavioral Tolerance Through Conditioning.
Physical and Psychological Dependence.
Special Problems in Drug Abuse.
Health Line 2.1 - Effects of Psychoactive Drugs on Pregnant Women and Newborns.
Drug Abuse and AIDS.
Drugs, Violence, and Crime.
Governmental Policy, Regulation, and Laws.
Portrait --- Harry J. Anslinger: America's First Drug Czar.
Enforcement of Drug Laws on a Local and International Scale.
Health Line 2.2 - Harm Reduction as a Drug-Abuse Policy.
3. How Drugs Work in the Body and on the Mind.
How Drugs Enter the Body.
Drugs...In Focus 3.1 - Ways to Take Drugs: Routes of Administration.
How Drugs Exit the Body.
Factors Determining the Physiological Impact of Drugs.
Health Alert 3.1 - Adverse Effects of Drug-Drug and Food-Drug Combinations.
Quick Concept Check 3.1 - Understanding Drug Interactions.
Introducing the Nervous System.
Understanding the Brain.
Quick Concept Check 3.2 - Understanding Drugs and Brain Functioning.
Understanding the Biochemistry of Psychoactive Drugs.
Drugs...In Focus 3.2 - Drug Effects and Synaptic Communication in the Nervous System.
Physiological Aspects of Drug-Taking Behavior.
Portrait --- Nora D. Volkow: Imaging the Face of Addiction in the Brain.
Health Line 3.1 Dopamine and Reinforcement: Both the Chicken and the Egg.
Psychological Factors in Drug-Taking Behavior.
Point/Counterpoint Debate I - Should We Legalize Drugs?
II. LEGALLY RESTRICTED DRUGS IN OUR SOCIETY.
4. The Major Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines.
The History of Cocaine.
Drugs...In Focus 4.1 - What Happened to the Coca in Coca-Cola?
Acute Effects of Cocaine.
Quick Concept Check 4.1 - Understanding the History of Cocaine.
Health Alert 4.1 - Cocaine After Alcohol: The Increased Risks of Cocaethylene Toxicity.
Chronic Effects of Cocaine.
Medical Uses of Cocaine.
How Cocaine Works in the Brain.
Present-Day Cocaine Abuse.
Patterns of Cocaine Abuse.
Health Alert 4.2 - The Physical Signs of Possible Cocaine Abuse.
Treatment Programs for Cocaine Abuse.
Health Line 4.1 - Seven Rules for Cocaine Abusers Who Want to Quit.
Portrait --- Robert Downey Jr.: Trials and Tribulations.
Drugs...In Focus 4.2 - Crack Babies Revisited: Has There Been an Adverse Effect?
Acute and Chronic Effects of Methamphetamine.
Health Line 4.2 - Methcathinone Abuse: A New Kind of Cat.
Medical Uses for Amphetamines and Similar Stimulant Drugs.
Quick Concept Check 4.2 - Understanding Patterns of Stimulant Abuse.
5. The Major Narcotics: Opium, Morphine, and Heroin.
Opium in History.
Morphine and the Advent of Heroin.
Heroin and Opiate Dependence in the Twentieth Century.
Drugs...In Focus 5.1 The Changing Face of Drug Trafficking.
Effects on the Mind and the Body.
Quick Concept Check 5.1 - Understanding the History of Drugs.
Medical Uses of Narcotic Drugs.
How Opiates Work in the Brain.
Quick Concept Check 5.2 - Understanding Effects of Administering and Withdrawing Heroin.
Heroin Abuse and Society.
Drugs...In Focus 5.3 - The Secret and Dangerous Life of a Chipper.
Treatment and Long-Term Recovery Programs.
Medical Uses of Narcotic Drugs.
Portrait --- Barry Tuttle and Russell Fitch: The Two Sides of Oxycontin.
LSD and Other Hallucinogens.
A Matter of Definition.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD).
6. Strange Days in Salem: Witchcraft or Hallucinogens?
Portrait - Timothy Leary: Whatever Happened to Him?
Facts and Fictions About LSD.
Health Alert 6.1 - Emergency Guidelines for a Bad Trip on LSD.
Psilocybin and Other Hallucinogens Related to Serotonin.
Drugs...In Focus 6.2 - Bufotenine and the Bufo Toad.
Hallucinogens Related to Norepinephrine.
Drugs...In Focus 6.3 - Present-Day Peyotism and the Native American Church.
Health Alert 6.2 - MDMA Toxicity: The Other Side of Ecstasy.
Hallucinogens Related to Acetylcholine.
Health Line 6.1 - Ibogaine: A Treatment Option for Drug Dependence?
Quick Concept Check 6.1 - Understanding Variations in Hallucinogens Phencyclidine (PCP).
Quick Concept Check 6.2 - Understanding PCP.
Drugs in Focus 6.4 Salvia Divinorum: A New Hallucinogen on the Horizon?
A Matter of Terminology.
A History of Marijuana and Hashish.
Acute Effects of Marijuana.
Drugs...In Focus 7.1 - Can You Control a Marijuana High?.
Quick Concept Check 7.1 - Understanding the Effects of Marijuana.
Effects of Marijuana on the Brain.
Chronic Effects of Marijuana.
The Gateway Hypothesis.
Quick Concept Check 7.2 - Understanding the Adverse Effects of Chronic Marijuana Abuse.
Patterns of Marijuana Smoking.
Current Trends as Causes for Concern.
Medical Uses of Marijuana.
Portrait --- Kenny and Barbra Jenks Vs. America's War on Drugs.
Drugs...In Focus 7.2 - Street Language for Marijuana.
The Issue of Decriminalization.
8. Anabolic Steroids and Drug Abuse in Sports.
Drug-Taking Behavior in Sports.
Portrait - Ben Johnson and the Olympic Gold Medal.
Drugsin Focus 8.1 - Disqualified By DNA?
The Hazards of Anabolic Steroids.
Quick Concept Check 8.1 - Understanding the Effects of Anabolic Steroids.
Patterns of Anabolic Steroid Abuse.
Health Alert 8.1 - The Signs of Steroid Abuse.
Nonsteroid Hormones and Ergogenic Drugs .
Current Drug Testing Procedures and Policies.
What Can Be Done About Anabolic Steroid Abuse?
Quick Concept Check 8.2 - Understanding Drug Testing.
Point/Counterpoint Debate II - Should Marijuana Be Available for Medicinal Use?
III. LEGAL DRUGS IN OUR SOCIETY.
9. Alcohol: Social Beverage/Social Drug.
What Makes an Alcoholic Beverage?
Alcohol Through History.
Patterns of Alcohol Consumption Today.
Drugsin Focus 9.1 - Visualizing the Disparity of Alcohol Consumption in the United States.
Health Line 9.1 When is a Binge Not a Binge?
Quick Concept Check 9.1 - Understanding Alcoholic Beverages.
The Pharmacology of Alcohol.
Health Line 9.2 - Gender, Race, and Medication: Factors in Alcohol Metabolism.
Effects of Alcohol on the Brain.
Acute Physiological Effects.
Health Alert 9.1 - Emergency Signs and Procedures in Acute Alcohol Intoxication.
Acute Behavioral Effects.
Portrait - Candace Lightner: Founder of MADD.
Drugsin Focus 9.2 Expectancy Effects and the Paradoxical Effect of Caffeine on Alcohol-Impaired Performance.
Quick Concept Check 9.2 - Understanding the Data from Balanced Placebo Designs.
Alcohol and Health Benefits.
Strategies for Responsible Drinking.
Health Line 9.3 - Guidelines for Responsible Drinking.
10. Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
Alcoholism: Stereotypes, Definitions, and Criteria.
Health Line 10.1 - A Self-Administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST).
Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence: The Professional's View.
Quick Concept Check 10.1 - Understanding the Psychology of Alcoholism.
The History of Efforts to Regulate Chronic Alcohol Abuse.
Chronic Effects of Alcohol.
Health Line 10.2 - The TWEAK Alcoholism Screening Instrument for Pregnant Women.
Patterns of Chronic Alcohol Abuse.
The Genetics of Alcoholism.
The Concept of Alcoholism as a Disease.
Approaches to Treatment for Alcoholism.
Drugs...In Focus 10.1 - Is Controlled Drinking Possible for Alcoholics?
Portrait - Bill W. and Dr. Bob: Founders of Alcoholics Anonymous.
Quick Concept Check 10.2 - Understanding Alcoholics Anonymous.
Health Line 10.3 - Alternative Models of Alcoholism and Other Patterns of Drug Abuse.
Alcoholism in the Workplace.
11. Nicotine and Tobacco.
Tobacco Through History.
Health Concerns and Smoking Behavior.
Tobacco Today: An Industry on the Defensive.
Drugsin Focus 11.1 Cigarette Purchases and the Internet.
What's in Tobacco?
The Dependence Potential of Nicotine.
Health Consequences from Tobacco Use.
Health Line 11.1 Visualizing 400,000-500,000 People.
Health Alert 11.1 - Signs of Trouble from Smokeless Tobacco.
Drugs...In Focus 11.2 - Who Has the Right: Smokers or Nonsmokers?
Quick Concept Check 11.1 - Understanding the Effects of Tobacco.
Patterns of Smoking Behavior and Use of Smokeless Tobacco.
Drugsin Focus 11.3 Lighting Up in Hollywood: Rating Your Latest Movie for Tobacco Use.
Portrait: Sigmund Freud: Nicotine Dependence, Cigars, and Cancer.
Quitting Smoking: The Good News and the Bad.
Health Line 11.2 - Ten Tips on How to Succeed When Trying to Quit Smoking.
Drugs...In Focus 12.1 - Why There Are No (Live) Flies in Your Coffee.
Health Line 12.1 - Chocolate and Heart Disease: Some Good News.
Portrait - Milton S. Hershey and the Town Built on Chocolate.
Caffeine from Medications.
The Era of Decaffeination.
Quick Concept Check 12.1 - Understanding Caffeine Levels in Foods and Beverages.
Caffeine as a Drug.
Potential Health Benefits.
Potential Health Risks.
Dependence: Tolerance and Withdrawal.
Kids and Caffeine: A Special Concern.
13. Glues, Solvents, and Other Inhalants.
Inhalants Through History.
Glue, Solvent, and Aerosol Inhalation.
Health Alert 13.1 - The Signs of Possible Inhalant Abuse.
Patterns of Inhalant Abuse
Drugs...In Focus 13.1 - Resistol and Resistoleros in Latin America.
Portrait - Scott Pecor: The Scotchgard High.
Responses of Society to Inhalant Abuse.
Amyl Nitrite and Butyl Nitrite Inhalation.
Quick Concept Check 13.1 - Understanding the History of Inhalants.
Point/Counterpoint Debate III - Should Alcoholism Be Viewed as a Disease?
IV. MEDICINAL DRUGS.
14. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, and Dietary Supplements.
How the Regulation of Prescription and OTC Drugs Began.
Portrait - Frances Kelsey: Saving a Generation of American Babies.
Procedures for Approving Prescription and OTC Drugs.
Health Line 14.1 - Widening the Population During Drug Testing.
Quick Concept Check 14.1 - Understanding the FDA Approval Process.
Are FDA-Approved Drugs Safe?
Health Alert 14.1 - Side Effects of Common Medications.
Health Line 14.2- Death By Medication: Prescription Error.
Major OTC Analgesic Drugs.
Health Line 14.3 -Treatment and Prevention Through Aspirin and Other Nsaids.
Quick Concept Check 14.2 - Understanding OTC Analgesic Drugs.
Other Major Classes of OTC Drugs.
Health Alert 14.2 - The Risks of Web Pharmacies/The Allure of Foreign Drugs.
The Pharmaceutical Industry Today.
Drugs...In Focus 14.1 - Pushing Pills: Public Commercials for Prescription Drugs.
15. Sedative-Hypnotics and Antianxiety Drugs.
Drugs...In Focus 15.1 - Is There Any Truth Regarding "Truth Serum"?
Health Alert 15.1 - In Case of a Barbiturate Overdose Emergency...
The Nature of Anxiety.
The Development of Antianxiety Drugs.
Health Line 15.1 - Guidelines for Avoiding the Misuse of Benzodiazepine Drugs.
Health Line 15.2 - Rohypnol as a Date-Rape Drug.
Cross-Tolerance and Cross-Dependence.
Quick Concept Check 15.1 - Understanding Cross-Tolerance and Cross-Dependence.
Nonbenxodiazepine Sedative-Hypnotics and Antianxiety Drugs.
Quick Concept Check 15.2 - Understanding the Abuse Potential in Drugs.
A Special Alert: The Risks of GHB.
Portrait Patricia White, GHB, and the "Perfect" Crime.
16. Drugs for Treating Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders.
The Biomedical Model.
Antipsychotic Drugs and Schizophrenia.
Portrait - Antipsychotic Drugs and a "Beautiful Mind": The Story of John Forbes Nash Jr.
First-Generation Antipsychotic Drugs.
Health Line 16.1 - Hallucinations, Schizophrenia, Drugs, and the Brain.
Drugs Used to Treat Mood Disorders
Drugsin Focus Abraham Lincoln, Depression, and "Those Little Blue Pills."
Health Line 16.2 - Is There a Dark Side to Prozac and Other SSRI Antidepressant Drugs?
Quick Concept Check 16.1 - Understanding the Biochemistry of Mental Illness.
Drugs for Other Types of Mental Illness.
Saint Johns Wort: An Herbal Alternative for Treating Depression.
Health Alert 16.1 - The Risks of Interactions Between St. Johns Wort and Prescription Drugs.
Psychiatric Drugs, Social Policy, and Deinstitutionalization.
Drugs...In Focus 16.1 - Psychiatric Drugs and the Civil Liberties Debate.
Point/Counterpoint Debate IV - Should Orphan Drugs Be Adopted?
V. TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND EDUCATION.
17. Intervention and Treatment: Strategies for Change.
Levels of Intervention in Drug-Abuse Prevention.
Quick Concept Check 17.1 - Understanding Levels of Intervention in Drug-Abuse Prevention Programs.
A Biopsychosocial Strategy for Treatment.
Health Line 17.1 - Acupuncture as a Potential Treatment for Cocaine Abuse.
Drugs...In Focus 17.1 - Penalties for Crack Versus Penalties for Cocaine: A Racial Disparity?
Portrait - Msgr William O'Brien: Founder of Daytop Village.
Prevention and Treatment in the Workplace.
The Personal Journey to Treatment and Recovery.
The Importance of Family Systems in Prevention and Treatment.
Health Alert 17.1 - Coping With a Child's Abuse of Alcohol or Other Drugs: What Parents Should and Should Not Do.
Finding the Right Drug-Abuse Treatment and Prevention Programs.
A Final Note: The Continuing Need for Drug-Abuse Treatment.
18. Prevention and Education: Schools, Community, and Family.
ATOD Prevention: Strategic Priorities, Goals, and Resilience.
Health Line 18.1 - The Public Health Model and the Analogy of Infectious Disease Control.
Lessons from the Past: Prevention Approaches That Have Failed.
Hope and Promise: Components of Effective School-Based Prevention Programs.
Health Line 18.2 - Peer-Refusal Skills: Ten Ways to Make It Easier to Say No.
Quick Concept Check 18.1 - Understanding ATOD Prevention and Education.
Community-Based Prevention Programs.
Family Systems in Primary and Second Prevention.
Drugs...In Focus 18.1 - A Test Kit for Drugs in the Home: Whom Do You Trust?
The Triple Threat: Stress, Boredom, and Spending Money.
Multicultural Issues in Primary and Secondary Prevention.
Yes, You: ATOD Prevention and the College Student ! Health Line
18.3 The Folsom Field Beer Ban.
Where You Can Go for Help.
Portrait - Meredith Poulten: A Counselor on the Front Lines.
Point/Counterpoint Debate V Should We DARE or Shouldnt We?
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