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For courses in Physical Geology.
This trusted text--the market's best-seller--makes an often-complex subject accessible to beginning students, with a strong focus on readability and illustrations. It offers a meaningful, non-technical survey that is informative and up to date for learning basic principles & concepts. This revision introduces plate tectonics earlier, to reflect the unifying role that theory plays in understanding Earth.
1. An Introduction to Geology.
The Science of Geology. Geologic Time. The Nature of Scientific Inquiry. A View of Earth. Earth As a System. Early Evolution of Earth. Earth's Internal Structure. The Face of Earth. Rocks and the Rock Cycle.
2. Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Revolution Unfolds.
Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time. The Great Debate. Continental Drift and Paleomagnetism. A Scientific Revolution Begins. Plate Tectonics: The New Paradigm. Divergent Boundaries. Convergent Boundaries. Transform Fault Boundaries. Testing the Plate Tectonics Model. Measuring Plate Motion. What Drives Plate Motions? The Importance of Plate Tectonics.
3. Matter and Minerals.
Minerals: The Building Blocks of Rocks. The Composition of Minerals. The Structure of Minerals. Physical Properties of Minerals. Mineral Groups. The Silicates. Common Silicate Minerals. Important Nonsilicate Minerals.
4. Igneous Rocks.
Magma: The Parent Material of Igneous Rock. Igneous Textures. Igneous Compositions. Naming Igneous Rocks. Origin of Magma. How Magmas Evolve. Partial Melting and Magma Formation.
5. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity.
The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions. Materials Extruded During an Eruption. Volcanic Structures and Eruptive Styles. Living in the Shadow of a Composite Cone. Other Volcanic Landforms. Intrusive Igneous Activity. Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity. Can Volcanoes Change Earth's Climate?
6. Weathering and Soil.
Earth's External Processes. Weathering. Mechanical Weathering. Chemical Weathering. Rates of Weathering. Soil. Controls of Soil Formation. The Soil Profile. Classifying Soils. Soil Erosion.
7. Sedimentary Rocks.
What Is a Sedimentary Rock? Turning Sediment into Sedimentary Rock: Diagenesis and Lithification. Types of Sedimentary Rocks. Detrital Sedimentary Rocks. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks. Classification of Sedimentary Rocks. Sedimentary Environments. Sedimentary Structures
8. Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks.
Metamorphism. Agents of Metamorphism. Metamorphic Textures. Common Metamorphic Rocks. Metamorphic Environments. Metamorphic Zones. Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics.
9. Geologic Time.
Geology Needs a Time Scale. Relative Dating-Key Principles. Correlation of Rock Layers. Fossils: Evidence of Past Life. Dating with Radioactivity. The Geologic Time Scale. Difficulties in Dating the Geologic Time Scale
10. Crustal Deformation.
Structural Geology: A Study of Earth's Architecture. Deformation. Mapping Geologic Structures. Folds. Faults. Joints.
What Is an Earthquake? Earthquake Rupture and Propagation. San Andreas Fault: An Active Earthquake Zone. Seismology. Locating the Source of an Earthquake. Measuring the Size of Earthquakes. Earthquake Destruction. Can Earthquakes Be Predicted? Earthquakes: Evidence for Plate Tectonics.
12. Earth's Interior.
Probing Earth's Interior. Seismic Waves and Earth's Structure. Discovering Earth's Major Boundaries. The Crust. The Mantle. The Core. Earth's Internal Heat Engine.
13. Divergent Boundaries: Origin and Evolution of the Ocean Floor.
An Emerging Picture of the Ocean Floor. Continental Margins. Features of the Deep-Ocean Basins. Anatomy of the Oceanic Ridge. Origin of Oceanic Lithosphere. The Structure of Oceanic Crust. Continental Rifting: The Birth of a New Ocean Basin. Destruction of Oceanic Lithosphere. Opening and Closing Ocean Basins: The Supercontinent Cycle
14. Convergent Boundaries: Mountain Building and the Evolution of the Continents.
Mountain Building. Convergence and Subducting Plates. Subduction and Mountain Building. Continental Collisions. Terranes and Mountain Building. Fault-Block Mountains. Vertical Movements of the Crust. The Origin and Evolution of the Continents.
15. Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity.
A Landslide Disaster in Peru. Mass Wasting and Landform Development. Controls and Triggers of Mass Wasting. Classification of Mass-Wasting Processes. Slump. Rockslide. Debris Flow
16. Running Water.
Earth As a System: The Hydrologic Cycle. Running Water. Streamflow. Changes from Upstream to Downstream. Base Level and Graded Streams. Stream Erosion. Transport of Sediment by Streams. Deposition of Sediment by Streams. Stream Valleys. Incised Meanders and Stream Terraces. Drainage Network. Floods and Flood Control.
Importance of Underground Water. Distribution of Underground Water. The Water Table. Factors Influencing the Storage and Movement of Groundwater. Movement of Groundwater. Springs. Hot Springs and Geysers. Wells. Artesian Wells. Problems Associated with Groundwater Withdrawal. Groundwater Contamination. The Geologic Work of Groundwater.
18. Glaciers and Glaciation.
Glaciers: A Part of Two Basic Cycles. Types of Glaciers. Formation of Glacial Ice. Movement of a Glacier. Glacial Erosion. Landforms Created by Glacial Erosion. Glacial Deposits. Landforms Made of Till.
19. Deserts and Winds.
Distribution and Causes of Dry Lands. Geologic Processes in Arid Climates. Basin and Range: The Evolution of a Desert Landscape. Transportation of Sediment by Wind. Wind Erosion. Wind Deposits.
The Shoreline: A Dynamic Interface. The Coastal Zone. Waves. Wave Erosion. Sand Movement on the Beach. Shoreline Features. Stabilizing the Shore. Coastal Classification. Tides.
21. Energy and Mineral Resources.
Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources. Energy Resources. Coal. Oil and Natural Gas. Some Environmental Effects of Burning Fossil Fuels. Oil Sands and Oil Shale-Petroleum for the Future?. Alternate Energy Sources. Mineral Resources. Mineral Resources and Igneous Processes. Mineral Resources and Metamorphic Processes. Weathering and Ore Deposits. Placer Deposits. Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
22. Planetary Geology.
The Planets: An Overview. Earth's Moon. The Planets: A Brief Tour. Minor Members of the Solar System.
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