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Earth System History / With CD-ROM

Earth System History / With CD-ROM - 99 edition

ISBN13: 978-0716733775

Cover of Earth System History / With CD-ROM 99 (ISBN 978-0716733775)
ISBN13: 978-0716733775
ISBN10: 0716733773
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 99
Publisher: W.H. Freeman
Published: 1999
International: No

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Earth System History / With CD-ROM - 99 edition

ISBN13: 978-0716733775

Steven M. Stanley

ISBN13: 978-0716733775
ISBN10: 0716733773
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 99
Publisher: W.H. Freeman

Published: 1999
International: No
Summary

Designed for a new generation of readers, Stanley's Earth System History is a reforging of his Exploring Earth and Life Through Time. Adopting an earth system approach throughout, Earth System History shows students how Earth's ecosystem has developed over time and how events in the past provide a perspective for dealing with present and future changes. Clear and concise, this introduction to historical geology is perfect for one-term non-majors courses.

  • Earth system history approach--the text takes a whole-earth approach to the study of geology.
  • "Visual Overviews" provide students with vivid illustrations of the key themes and concepts. Expanded from the Major Events diagrams in the previous edition, Visual Overviews concisely portray major geologic events and cycles. A review question at the end of each chapter challenges the student to use the Visual Overview to synthesize key points of each chapter.
  • "For The Record" boxes offer an in-depth look at an environmental, or resource oriented, evolutionary example in Earth system history. Ranging from the extinction of the dinosaurs to drilling for oil off the shore of New Jersey, "For The Record" offers real-world examples of Earth system history in action.
  • A full-color illustration program includes new three-dimensional block diagrams that illustrate crucial cycles and concepts in Earth system history. Many black-and-white illustrations and photographs from previous editions now appear in full-color.
  • Student CD-ROM (see separate entry)
  • New Chapter 2, "Minerals and Rocks: Composition and Structure," introduces important groups of rocks and rock-forming minerals, explains how they relate to one another within the rock cycle, and includes information on how chemical bonds and structures affect the properties of minerals. The chapter works as a primer for students who haven't taken physical geology and a refresher for those who have.
  • New Chapter 3, "Fossils and the Diversity of Life," reviews the biology and classification of the six kingdoms of organisms and introduces methods of phylogenetic reconstruction. This chapter assumes no background in biology on the student's part, but provides a context for subsequent discussions of the history of life.
  • New Chapter 10, "Major Chemical Cycles," uses an approach never before seen in an introductory textbook. Using simple diagrams and real-world examples, this chapter clearly explains how oxygen and carbon cycles have affected Earth in the past and their possible consequences for the future.
  • New Chapter 20, "The Holocene," describes Earth's complicated emergence from the most recent glacial maximum. This chapter emphasizes climatic and sea-level changes in recent geologic history and their consequences to the environment, offering, in essence, an overview of the state of the earth today.

Author Bio

Stanley, Steven M. : Johns Hopkins University

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 The Earth as a System

Introduces the Earth system approach, emphasizing the rock cycle and the hydrological cycle as well as plate tectonic cycling of materials. Contrasts the gradual and catastrophic processes that shape Earth.

Exploring the Earth System
The Principle of Uniformatiarianism
The Nature and Origin of Rocks
Global Dating of the Rock Record
Imaging the Earth Below
Plate Tectonics
The Water Cycle
Directional Change in Earth's History
Episodic Change in Earth's History

Chapter 2. Rock-Forming Minerals and Rocks

*NEW* A review for students who have completed a course in physical geology or a primer for those with no background in physical geology. Introduces important groups of rocks and rock-forming minerals and explains how they relate to one another within the rock cycle. Includes information on how chemical bonds and structures affect the properties of minerals.

The Structure of Minerals
Visual Overview: Rocks and Their Origins
The Properties of Minerals
Types of Rock
For the Record 2-1: Why Our Buildings Are made from Fossils

Chapter 3. The Diversity of Life

*NEW* Reviews the biology and classification of the six kingdoms of organisms and introduces methods of phylogenetic reconstruction. Provides a context for subsequent discussions of the history of life.

Visual Overview: The Six Kingdoms
Fossils
Kingdoms of Organisms
Identifying Clades and Their Relationships
Prokaryotes: The Two Kingdoms of Bacteria
The Protist and Fungus Kingdoms
The Plant Kingdom
The Animal Kingdom
For the Record 3-1: Bringing Some Very Old Vertebrates to Light

Chapter 4. Environments and Life

Includes an expanded discussion of the influence of topography on climate and a new treatment of thermal regimes of shallow seas.

Visual Overview: The Distribution of Environments and Life on Earth
The Principles of Ecology
The Atmosphere
The Terrestrial Realm
The Marine Realm
For the Record 4-1: The Fragile Reef

Chapter 5. Sedimentary Environment

Includes a new discussion of the use of fossils to delinate sedimentary environments.

Visual Overview: Depositional Environments and Accumulation of Sediments
Soil Environments
The Depositional Environments of Freshwater Lakes and Glaciers
Deserts and Arid Basins
River Systems as Depositional Environments
For the Record 5-1: The Shrinking Mississippi Delta
Marine Depositional Environments

Chapter 6. Correlation and Dating of the Rock Record

Introduces the field of stratigraphy by showing how it arose as a branch of geology. Integrates the definition of formal stratigraphic units with discussions of stratigraphic concepts.

The Geologic Time Scale
Visual Overvew: Methods of Stratigraphic Correlation
Stratigraphic Units
Early Estimates of Earth's Absolute Age
Radioactivity and Absolute Ages
Dating by Other Stratigraphic Features
For the Record 6-1: Searching for Oil Off Southern New Jersey


Chapter 7. Evolution and the Fossil Record

Invokes the origin of whales to exemplify the origins of higher taxa. Contains a new introduction to major mass extinctions.

Visual Overview: The Evolution of Life
Charles Darwin's Contribution
Genes, DNA, and Chromosomes
Populations, Species, and Speciation
Extinction
Rates of Origination and Extinction of Taxa
For the Record 7-1: The Coming Mass Extinction
Evolutionary Convergence
Evolutionary Trends


Chapter 8. The Theory of Plate Tectonics

Integrates an introduction to the basic kinds of faults with a discussion of plate tectonics.

The History of Opinion about Continental Drift
Visual Overview: Elements of Plate Tectonics
A Twentieth-Century Pioneer: Alfred Wegener
Alexander Du Toit and the Gondwanaland Sequence
The Rise of Plate Tectonics
Faulting and Volcanism along Plate Boundaries
For the Record 8-1: The Ring of Fire

Chapter 9. Continental Tectonics and Mountain Chains

Integrates an introduction to basic types of folding with a discussion of mountain building.

Visual Overview: Formation and Deformation of Continental Margins
The Rifting of Continents
Bending and Flowing of Rocks
Mountain Building
The Andes: Mountain Building without Continental Collsiion
For the Record 9-1: Where Earth Shakes
The Himalayas
Suturing of Small Landmasses to Continents
Tectonics of Continental Interiors

Chapter 10. Major Chemical Cycles

*NEW* Examines the oxygen and carbon cycles and describes the factors that govern levels of atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide. Uses simple diagrams and real-world examples to clearly explain the effects of chemical cycles in the past and their possible consequences for the future.

Reservoirs
Visual Overview: Key Chemical Cycles in Earth System History
Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen, and Biological Processes
The Use of Isotopes to Study Global Cycles
Phanerozoic Trends in Atmospheric CO2
Oxygen Isotopes, Climate, and the Water Cycle
For the Record 10-1: Seawater Chemistry and Chalk

Chapter 11. The Archean Eon of Precambrian Time

Presents the widely favored explanation of the origin of the moon as the result of an asteroid impact and the likely origin of life in the heated zone along a mid-ocean ridge.

Visual Overview: Major Events of the Archean Eon
The Ages of the Planets and the Universe
The Origin of the Solar System
The Origin of Earth and Its Moon
When the World Was Young
For the Record 11-1: The Threat from Outer Space
The Origin of Continents
Archean Rocks
Large Cratons Appear
Archean Life


Chapter 12. The Proterozoic Eon of Precambrian Time

Presents new evidence about major events near the end of the Proterozoic Eon, including the assembly of a supercontinent, profound glaciation, the possible buildup of atmospheric oxygen, and the explosive diversification of multicellular organisms.

Visual Overview: Major Events of the Precambrian Eon
A Modern Style of Orogeny
Global Events between 2.5 Billion and 1 Billion Years Ago
The Neoproterozoic Era
The Expansion and Contraction of Continents
The Assembly of North America
For the Record 12-1: A Mountain of Gold
The Assembly and Breakup of Supercontinents

Chapter 13. The Early Paleozoic World

Visual Overview: Major Events of the Early Paleozoic
The Cambrian Explosion of Life
For the Record 13-1: What Does It Take to Survive?
Ordovician Life
The Paleogeography of the Cambrian World
Episodic Mass Extinctions of Trilobites
Ordovician Paleogeography
Glaciation and Sea-Level Lowering
A Great Mass Extinction
Regional Examples

Chapter 14. The Middle Paleozoic World

Visual Overview: Major Events of the Middle Paleozoic
A New Expansion of Life
For the Record 14-1: Jaws, Evolution, and Genetic Engineering
Paleogeography
Regional Examples

Chapter 15. The Late Paleozoic World

Visual Overview: Major Events of the Late Paleozoic World
Life
For the Record 15-1: Wetlands, Then and Now
The Paleogeography of the Late Paleozoic World
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carboniferous-Permian Climate
The Late Permian Extinctions
Regional Examples

Chapter 16. The Early Mesozoic Era

Includes new evidence that the arrival of a meteorite brought the Mesozoic Era to an end.

Visual Overview: Major Events of the Early Mesozoic
Life in the Oceans: A New Biota
Life on the Land
For the Record 16-1: Who Were the Dinosaurs?
The Paleogeography of the Early Mesozoic World
Mass Extinctions
North America and the Early Mesozoic Era

Chapter 17. The Cretaceous World

Visual Overview: Major Events of the Cretaceous
Life
For the Record 17-1: The Meek Did Inherit the Earth
The Paleogeography of the Cretaceous World
The Terminal Cretaceous
North America and the Cretaceous World
The Chalk Seas of Europe

Chapter 18. The Paleogene World

Visual Overview: Major Events of the Paleogene
Worldwide Events
For the Record 18-1: Global Warming in the Eocene
Regional Events

Chapter 19. The Neogene World

Visual Overview: Major Events of the Neogene
Worldwide Events
For the Record 19-1: The Biggest Flood on Record
Regional Events
Human Evolution

Chapter 20. The Holocene

Describes Earth's complicated emergence from the most recent glacial maximum. Emphasizes changes in climate and sea level in recent history, and their consequences for the environment.

Visual Overview: Major Events of the Holocene
The Retreat of Glaciers
Abrupt Global Events of the Early Holocene
The First Americans
Sudden Extinction of Large Mammals
Climatic Fluctuations of the Last 10,000 Years
Sea Level
The Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries: The Impact of Humans
For the Record 20-1: A Future Meltdown in Antartica

Appendix: Stratigraphic Stages
Glossary
Credits
Index

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Earth System History - 2nd edition

ISBN13: 978-0716739074
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