Summary: Firmly established as the standard text for undergraduate courses in ethics, this concise, lively book takes the reader on an in-depth tour of the major moral theories, always illustrating abstract ideas with concrete examples. Separate, self-contained chapters examine such theories as Egoism, Kantianism, Utilitarianism, Virtue Ethics, and the Social Contract Theory. Through this conceptual framework, the text addresses timely and provocative issues, including abortion, racism, eutha
nasia, poverty, marijuana, homosexuality, the death penalty, and vegetarianism. The text's versatility makes it an ideal choice for use not only in ethical theory courses, but also in applied ethics courses of all kinds.
Summary: Firmly established as the standard text for undergraduate courses in ethics, this concise, lively book takes the reader on an in-depth tour of the major moral theories, always illustrating abstract ideas with concrete examples. Separate, self-contained chapters examine such theories as Egoism, Kantianism, Utilitarianism, Virtue Ethics, and the Social Contract Theory. Through this conceptual framework, the text addresses timely and provocative issues, including abortion, racism, euthanasia, poverty, marijuana, homosexuality, the death penalty, and vegetarianism. The text's versatility makes it an ideal choice for use not only in ethical theory courses, but also in applied ethics courses of all kinds. ...show less
Edition/Copyright:6TH 10 Cover: Paperback Publisher:McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Published: 02/27/2009 International: No
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Table of Contents
Preface About the Second Edition 1 What is Morality? 1 1.1 The Problem of Definition 1.2 An Example of Moral Reasoning: Baby Jane Doe 1.3 Reason and Impartiality 1.4 The Minimum Conception of Morality 2 The Challenge of Cultural Relativism 15 2.1 How Different Cultures Have Different Moral Codes 2.2 Cultural Relativism 2.3 The Cultural Differences Argument 2.4 The Consequences of Taking Cultural Relativism Seriously 2.5 Why There Is Less Disagreement Than It Seems 2.6 How All Cultures Have Some Values in Common 2.7 What Can Be Learned from Cultural Relativism 3 Subjectivism in Ethics 30 3.1 The Basic Idea of Ethical Subjectivism 3.2 The Evolution of the Theory 3.3 The First Stage: Simple Subjectivism 3.4 The Second Stage: Emotivism 3.5 Emotivism, Reason, and "Moral Facts" 3.6 The Example of Homosexuality 4 Does Morality Depend on Religion? 44 4.1 The Presumed Connection Between Morality and Religion 4.2 The Divine Command Theory 4.3 The Theory of Natural Law 4.4 Christianity and the Problem of Abortion 5 Psychological Egoism 62 5.1 Is Unselfishness Possible? 5.2 The Strategy of Reinterpreting Motives 5.3 Two Arguments in Favor of Psychological Egoism 5.4 Clearing Away Some Confusions 5.5 The Deepest Error in Psychological Egoism 6 Ethical Egoism 75 6.1 Is There a Duty to Contribute for Famine Relief? 6.2 Three Arguments in Favor of Ethical Egoism 6.3 Three Arguments Against Ethical Egoism 7 The Utilitarian Approach 90 7.1 The Revolution in Ethics 7.2 First Example: Euthanasia 7.3 Second Example: Nonhuman Animals 8 The Debate Over Utilitarianism 102 8.1 The Resilience of the Theory 8.2 Is Happiness the Only Thing That Matters? 8.3 Are Consequences All That Matter? 8.4 The Defense of Utilitarianism 8.5 What Is Correct and What Is Incorrect in Utilitarianism 9 Are There Absolute Moral Rules? 117 9.1 Kant and The Categorical Imperative 9.2 Absolute Rules and the Duty Not to Lie 9.3 Conflicts Between Rules 9.4 Another Look at Kant's Basic Idea 10 Kant and Respect for Persons 127 10.1 The Idea of "Human Dignity" 10.2 Retribution and Utility in the Theory of Punishment 10.3 Kant's Retributivism 11 The Idea of a Social Contract 139 11.1 Hobbes's Argument 11.2 The Prisoner's Dilemma 11.3 Some Advantages of the Social Contract Theory of Morals 11.4 The Problem of Civil Disobedience 11.5 Difficulties for the Theory 12 The Ethics of Virtue 159 12.1 The Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Right Action 12.2 Should We Return to the Ethics of Virtue? 12.3 The Virtues 12.4 Some Advantages of Virtue Ethics 12.5 The Incompleteness of Virtue Ethics 13 What Would a Satisfactory Moral Theory Be Like? 180 13.1 Morality Without Hubris 13.2 The Moral Community 13.3 Justice and Fairness Suggestions for Further Reading 194 Notes on Sources 202 Index 207
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