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Summary: Saves work for teachers--motivates students Now a new introductory text explains cell biology at a level that is easy to grasp for students with a minimal knowledge of biology. The detailed, easy-to-follow text provides students with important background information and the basics necessary to understand cell biology. Teachers can spend less ...show more time explaining fundamentals and can focus on more sophisticated concepts. In addition, a profusion of detailed step-by-step full-color diagrams, electron micrographs and photographs reveal and clarify important principles and processes.
An easy-to-grasp introduction to cell biology The new text has been carefully geared to introductory students, without any sacrifice of scientific rigor. The book's conceptual approach, in which the essential facts are presented in their biological context, is ideal for engaging and motivating students new to molecular and cell biology. The book is written especially for undergraduates in biological sciences, but its content can be easily understood and absorbed by advanced high-school students who need a basic introduction to the essential topics in modern biology. ...show less
Chapter 1 Introduction to Cells Cells Under the Microscope The Invention of the Light Microscope Led to the Discovery of Cells Cells, Organelles, and Even Molecules Can Be Seen Under the Microscope The Eucaryotic Cell The Nucleus Is the Information Store of the Cell Mitochondria Generate Energy from Food to Power the Cell Chloroplasts Capture Energy from Sunlight Internal Membranes Create Intracellular Compartments with Different Functions The Cytosol Is a Concentrated Aqueous Gel of Large and Small Molecules The Cytoskeleton Is Responsible for Cell Movements Unity and Diversity of Cells Cells Vary Enormously in Appearance and Function Living Cells All Have a Similar Basic Chemistry All Present-Day Cells Have Apparently Evolved from the Same Ancestor Bacteria Are the Smallest and Simplest Cells Molecular Biologists Have Focused on E. coli Giardia May Represent an Intermediate Stage in the Evolution of Eucaryotic Cells Brewer's Yeast Is a Simple Eucaryotic Cell Single-celled Organisms Can Be Large, Complex, and Fierce: The Protozoans Arabidopsis Has Been Chosen Out of 300,000 Species as a Model Plant The World of Animals Is Represented by a Fly, a Worm, a Mouse, and Homo Sapiens Cells in the Same Multicellular Organism Can Be Spectacularly Different Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 2 Chemical Components of Cells Chemical Bonds Cells Are Made of Relatively Few Types of Atoms The Outermost Electrons Determine How Atoms Interact Ionic Bonds Form by the Gain and Loss of Electrons Covalent Bonds Form by the Sharing of Electrons There Are Different Types of Covalent Bonds Water Is the Most Abundant Substance in Cells Some Polar Molecules Form Acids and Bases in Water Molecules in Cells A Cell Is Formed from Carbon Compounds Cells Contain Four Major Families of Small Organic Molecules Sugars Are Energy Sources for Cells and Subunits of Polysaccharides Fatty Acids Are Components of Cell Membranes Amino Acids Are the Subunits of Proteins Nucleotides Are the Subunits of DNA and RNA Macromolecules Contain a Specific Sequence of Subunits Noncovalent Bonds Specify the Precise Shape of a Macromolecule Noncovalent Bonds Allow a Macromolecule to Bind Other Selected Molecules Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 3 Energy, Catalysis, and Biosynthesis Catalysis and the Use of Energy by Cells Biological Order Is Made Possible by the Release of Heat Energy from Cells Photosynthetic Organisms Use Sunlight to Synthesize Organic Molecules Cells Obtain Energy by the Oxidation of Biological Molecules Oxidation and Reduction Involve Electron Transfers Enzymes Lower the Barriers That Block Chemical Reactions How Enzymes Find Their Substrates: The Importance of Rapid Diffusion The Free-Energy Change for a Reaction Determines Whether It Can Occur The Concentration of Reactants Influences AG For Sequential Reactions, ^G* Values Are Additive Activated Carrier Molecules and Biosynthesis The Formation of an Activated Carrier Is Coupled to an Energetically Favorable Reaction ATP Is the Most Widely Used Activated Carrier Molecule Energy Stored in ATP Is Often Harnessed to Join Two Molecules Together NADH and NADPH Are Important Electron Barriers There Are Many Other Activated Carrier Molecules in Cells The Synthesis of Biological Polymers Requires an Energy Input Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 4 How Cells Obtain Energy from Food The Breakdown of Sugars and Fats Food Molecules Are Broken Down in Three Stages to Produce ATP Glycolysis Is a Central ATP-producing Pathway Fermentations Allow ATP to Be Produced in the Absence of Oxygen Glycolysis Illustrates How Enzymes Couple Oxidation to Energy Storage Sugars and Fats Are Both Degraded to Acetyl CoA in Mitochondria The Citric Acid Cycle Generates NADH by Oxidizing Acetyl Groups to CO2 Electron Transport Drives the Synthesis of the Majority of the ATP in Most Cells Storing and Utilizing Food Organisms Store Food Molecules in Special Reservoirs Many Biosynthetic Pathways Begin with Glycolysis or the Citric Acid Cycle Metabolism Is Organized and Regulated Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 5 Protein Structure and Function The Shape and Structure of Proteins The Shape of a Protein Is Specified by Its Amino Acid Sequence Proteins Fold into a Conformation of Lowest Energy Proteins Come in a Wide Variety of Complicated Shapes The a Helix and the B Sheet Are Common Folding Patterns Proteins Have Several Levels of Organization Few of the Many Possible Polypeptide Chains Will Be Useful Proteins Can Be Classified into Families Larger Protein Molecules Often Contain More Than One Polypeptide Chain Proteins Can Assemble into Filaments, Sheets, or Spheres A Helix Is a Common Structural Motif in Biological Structures Some Types of Proteins Have Elongated Fibrous Shapes Extracellular Proteins Are Often Stabilized by Covalent Cross-Linkages How Proteins Work Proteins Bind to Other Molecules The Binding Sites of Antibodies Are Especially Versatile Binding Strength Is Measured by the Equilibrium Constant Enzymes Are Powerful and Highly Specific Catalysts Lysozyme Illustrates How an Enzyme Works Vmax and KM Measure Enzyme Performance Tightly Bound Small Molecules Add Extra Functions to Proteins The Catalytic Activities of Enzymes Are Regulated Allosteric Enzymes Have Two Binding Sites That Interact A Conformational Change Can Be Driven by Protein Phosphorylation GTP-binding Proteins Can Undergo Dramatic Conformational Changes Motor Proteins Produce Large Movements in Cells Proteins Often Form Large Complexes That Function as Protein Machines Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 6 DNA The Structure and Function of DNA Genes Are Made of DNA A DNA Molecule Consists of Two Complementary Chains of Nucleotides The Structure of DNA Provides a Mechanism for Heredity DNA Replication DNA Synthesis Begins at Replication Origins New DNA Synthesis Occurs at Replication Forks The Replication Fork Is Asymmetrical DNA Polymerase Is Self-correcting Short Lengths of RNA Act as Primers for DNA Synthesis Proteins at a Replication Fork Cooperate to Form a Replication Machine DNA Repair Changes in DNA Are the Cause of Mutations A DNA Mismatch Repair System Removes Replication Errors That Escape from the Replication Machine DNA Is Continually Suffering Damage in Cells The Stability of Genes Depends on DNA Repair The High Fidelity with Which DNA Is Maintained Means That Closely Related Species Have Proteins with Very Similar Sequences Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 7 From DNA to Protein From DNA to RNA Portions of DNA Sequence Are Transcribed into RNA Transcription Produces RNA Complementary to One Strand of DNA Several Types of RNA Are Produced in Cells Signals in DNA Tell RNA Polymerase Where to Start and Finish Eucaryotic RNAs Undergo Processing in the Nucleus Eucaryotic Genes Are Interrupted by Noncoding Sequences Introns Are Removed by RNA Splicing mRNA Molecules Are Eventually Degraded by the Cell The Earliest Cells May Have Had Introns in Their Genes From RNA to Protein An mRNA Sequence Is Decoded in Sets of Three Nucleotides tRNA Molecules Match Amino Acids to Codons in mRNA Specific Enzymes Couple tRNAs to the Correct Amino Acid The RNA Message Is Decoded on Ribosomes Codons in mRNA Signal Where to Start and to Stop Protein Synthesis Proteins Are Made on Polyribosomes Carefully Controlled Protein Breakdown Helps Regulate the Amount of Each Protein in a Cell There Are Many steps Between DNA and Protein RNA and the Origins of Life Simple Biological Molecules Can Form Under Prebiotic Conditions RNA Can Both Store Information and Catalyze Chemical Reactions RNA Is Thought to Predate DNA in Evolution Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 8 Chromosomes and Gene Regulation The Structure of Eucaryotic Chromosomes Eucaryotic DNA Is Packaged into Chromosomes Chromosomes Exist in Different States Throughout the Life of a Cell Specialized DNA Sequences Ensure That Chromosomes Replicate Efficiently Nucleosomes Are the Basic Units of Chromatin Structure Chromosomes Have Several Levels of DNA Packing Interphase Chromosomes Contain Both Condensed and More Extended Forms of Chromatin Position Effects on Gene Expression Reveal Differences in Interphase Chromosome Packing Interphase Chromosomes Are Organized Within the Nucleus Gene Regulation Cells Regulate the Expression of Their Genes Transcription Is Controlled by Proteins binding to Regulatory DNA Sequences Repressors Turn Genes Off and Activators Turn Them On Initiation of Eucaryotic Gene Transcription Is a Complex Process Eucaryotic RNA Polymerase Requires General Transcription Factors Eucaryotic Gene Regulatory Proteins Control Gene Expression from a Distance Packing of Promoter DNA into Nucleosomes Can Affect Initiation of Transcription Eucaryotic Genes Are Regulated by Combinations of Proteins The Expression of Different Genes Can Be Coordinated by a Single Protein Combinatorial Control Can Create Different Cell Types Stable Patterns of Gene Expression Can Be Transmitted to Daughter Cells The Formation of an Entire Organ Can Be Triggered by a Single Gene Regulatory Protein Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 9 Genetic Variation Genetic Variation in Bacteria The Rapid Rate of Bacterial Division Means That Mutation Will Occur Over a Short Time Period Mutation in Bacteria Can Be Selected by a Change in Environmental Conditions Bacterial Cells Can Acquire Genes from Other Bacteria Bacterial Genes Can Be Transferred by a Process Called Bacterial Mating Some Bacteria Can Take Up DNA from Their Surroundings Gene Exchange Occurs by Homologous Recombination Between Two DNA Molecules of Similar Nucleotide Sequence Genes Can Be Transferred Between Bacteria by Bacterial Viruses Transposable Elements Create Genetic Diversity Sources of Genetic Change in Eucaryotic Genomes Random DNA Duplications Create Families of Related Genes Genes Encoding New Proteins Can Be Created by the Recombination of Exons A Large Part of the DNA of Multicellular Eucaryotes Consists of Repeated, Noncoding Sequences About 10% of the Human Genome Consists of Two Families of Transposable Sequences The Evolution of Genomes Has Been Accelerated by Transposable Elements Viruses Are Fully Mobile Genetic Elements That Can Escape from Cells Retroviruses Reverse the Normal Flow of Genetic Information Retroviruses That Have Picked Up Host Genes Can Make Cells Cancerous Sexual Reproduction and the Reassortment of Genes Sexual Reproduction Gives a Competitive Advantage to Organisms in an Unpredictably Variable Environment Sexual Reproduction Involves Both Diploid and Haploid Cells Meiosis Generates Haploid Cells from Diploid Cells Meiosis Generates Enormous Genetic Variation Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 10 DNA Technology How DNA Molecules Are Analyzed Restriction Nucleases Cut DNA Molecules at Specific Sites Gel Electrophoresis Separates DNA Fragments of Different Sizes The Nucleotide Sequence of DNA Fragments Can Be Determined Nucleic Acid Hybridization DNA Hybridization Facilitates the Prenatal Diagnosis of Genetic Diseases In Situ Hybridization Locates Nucleic Acid Sequences in Cells or on Chromosomes DNA Cloning DNA Ligase joins DNA Fragments Together to Produce a Recombinant DNA Molecule Bacterial Plasmids Can Be Used to Clone DNA Human Genes Are Isolated by DNA Cloning cDNA Libraries Represent the mRNA Produced by a Particular Tissue Hybridization Allows Even Distantly Related Genes to Be Identified The Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplifies Selected DNA Sequences DNA Engineering Completely Novel DNA Molecules Can Be Constructed Rare Cellular Proteins Can Be Made in Large Amounts Using Cloned DNA RNAs Can Be Produced by Transcription in Vitro Mutant Organisms Best Reveal the Function of a Gene Transgenic Animals Carry Engineered Genes Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 11 Membrane Structure The Lipid Bilayer Membrane Lipids Form Bilayers in Water The Lipid Bilayer Is a Two-dimensional Fluid The Fluidity of a Lipid Bilayer Depends on Its Composition The Lipid Bilayer Is Asymmetrical Lipid Asymmetry Is Generated Inside the Cell Lipid Bilayers Are Impermeable to Solutes and Ions Membrane Proteins Membrane Proteins Associate with the Lipid Bilayer in Various Ways A Polypeptide Chain Usually Crosses the Bilayer as an a Helix Membrane Proteins Can Be Solubilized in Detergents and Purified The Complete Structure Is Known for Very Few Membrane Proteins The Plasma Membrane Is Reinforced by the Cell Cortex The Cell Surface Is Coated with Carbohydrate Cells Can Restrict the Movement of Membrane Proteins Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 12 Membrane Transport The Ion Concentrations Inside a Cell Are Very Different from Those Outside Carrier Proteins and Their Functions Solutes Cross Membranes by Passive or Active Transport Electrical Forces as Well as Concentration Gradients Can Drive Passive Transport Active Transport Moves Solutes Against Their Electrochemical Gradients Animal Cells Use the Energy of ATP Hydrolysis to Pump Out Na+ The Na+-K+ Pump Is Driven by the Transient Addition of a Phosphate Group Animal Cells Use the Na+ Gradient to Take Up Nutrients Actively The Na+-K+ Pump Helps Maintain the Osmotic Balance of Animal Cells Intracellular Ca2+ Concentrations Are Kept Low by Ca2+ Pumps H+ Gradients Are Used to Drive Membrane Transport in Plants, Fungi, and Bacteria Ion Channels and the Membrane Potential Ion Channels Are Ion Selective and Gated Ion Channels Randomly Snap Between Open and Closed States Voltage-gated Ion Channels Respond to the Membrane Potential The Membrane Potential Is Governed by Membrane Permeability to Specific Ions Ion Channels and Signaling in Nerve Cells Action Potentials Provide for Rapid Long-Distance Communication Action Potentials Are Usually Mediated by Voltage-gated Na+ Channels Voltage-gated Ca2+ Channels Convert Electrical Signals into Chemical Signals at Nerve Terminals Transmitter-gated Channels in Target Cells Convert Chemical Signals Back into Electrical Signals Neurons Receive Both Excitatory and Inhibitory inputs Synaptic Connections Enable You to Think, Act, and Remember Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 13 Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Cells Obtain Most of Their Energy by a Membrane-based Mechanism Mitochondria and Oxidative Phosphorylation A Mitochondrion Contains Two Membrane- bounded Compartments High-Energy Electrons Are Generated via the Citric Acid Cycle Electrons Are Transferred Along a Chain of Proteins in the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane The Proton Gradient Drives ATP Synthesis Coupled Transport Across the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Is Driven by the Electrochemical Proton Gradient Proton Gradients Produce Most of the Cell's ATP The Rapid Conversion of ADP to ATP in Mitochondria Maintains a High ATP : ADP Ratio in Cells Electron-Transport Chains and Proton Pumping Protons Are Readily Moved by the Transfer of Electrons The Redox Potential Is a Measure of Electron Affinities Electron Transfers Release Large Amounts of Energy Metals Tightly Bound to Proteins Form Versatile electron Carriers Protons Are Pumped Across the Membrane by the Three Respiratory,Enzyme Complexes Respiration Is Amazingly Efficient Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis Chloroplasts Resemble Mitochondria but Have an Extra Compartment Chloroplasts Capture Energy from Sunlight and Use It to Fix Carbon Excited Chlorophyll Molecules Funnel Energy into a Reaction Center Light Energy Drives the Synthesis of ATP and NADPH Carbon Fixation Is Catalyzed by Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Carbon Fixation in Chloroplasts Generates Sucrose and Starch The Genetic Systems of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Reflect Their Procaryotic Origin Our Single-celled Ancestors RNA Sequences Reveal Evolutionary History Ancient Cells Probably Arose in Hot Environments Methanococcus Lives in the Dark, Using Only Inorganic Materials as Food Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 14 Intracellular Compartments and Transport Membrane-bounded Organelles Eucaryotic Cells Contain a Basic Set of Membrane-bounded Organelles Membrane-bounded Organelles Evolved in Different Ways Protein Sorting Proteins Are Imported into Organelles by Three Mechanisms Signal Sequences Direct Proteins to the Correct Compartment Proteins Enter the Nucleus Through Nuclear Pores Proteins Unfold to Enter Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Proteins Enter the Endoplasmic Reticulum While Being Synthesized Soluble Proteins Are Released into the ER Lumen Start and Stop Signals Determine the Arrangement of a Transmembrane Protein in the Lipid Bilayer Vesicular Transport Transport Vesicles Carry Soluble Proteins and Membrane Between Compartments Vesicle Budding Is Driven by the Assembly of a Protein Coat The Specificity of Vesicle Docking Depends on SNAREs Secretory Pathways Most Proteins Are Covalently Modified in the ER Exit from the ER Is Controlled to Ensure Protein Quality Proteins Are Further Modified and Sorted in the Golgi Apparatus Secretory Proteins Are Released from the Cell by Exocytosis Endocytic Pathways Specialized Phagocytic Cells Ingest Large Particles Fluid and Macromolecules Are Taken Up by Pinocytosis Receptor-mediated Endocytosis Provides a Specific Route into Animal Cells Endocytosed Macromolecules Are Sorted in Endosomes Lysosomes Are the Principal Sites of Intracellular Digestion Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 15 Cell Communication General Principles of Cell Signaling Signals Can Act over Long or Short Range each Cell Responds to a Limited Set of Signals Receptors Relay Signals via Intracellular Signaling Pathways Some Signal Molecules Can Cross the Plasma Membrane Nitric Oxide Can Enter Cells to Activate Enzymes Directly There Are Three Main Classes of Cell-Surface Receptors Ion-Channel-linked Receptors Convert Chemical Signals into Electrical Ones Intracellular Signaling Cascades Act as a Series of Molecular Switches G-Protein-linked Receptors Stimulation of G-Protein-linked Receptors Activates G-Protein Subunits Some G Proteins Regulate Ion Channels Some G Proteins Activate Membrane-bound Enzymes The Cyclic AMP Pathway Can Activate Enzymes and Turn On Genes The Pathway Through Phospholipase C Results in a Rise in Intracellular Ca2+ A Ca2+ Signal Triggers Many Biological Processes Intracellular Signaling Cascades Can Achieve Astonishing Speed, Sensitivity, and Adaptability: Photoreceptors in the Eye Enzyme-linked Receptors Activated Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Assemble a Complex of Intracellular Signaling Proteins Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Activate the GTP-binding Protein Ras Protein Kinase Networks Integrate Information to Control Complex Cell Behaviors Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 16 Cytoskeleton Intermediate Filaments Intermediate Filaments Are Strong and Durable Intermediate Filaments Strengthen Cells Against Mechanical Stress Microtubules Microtubules Are Hollow Tubes with Structurally Distinct Ends Microtubules Are Maintained by a Balance of Assembly and Disassembly The Centrosome Is the Major Microtubule- organizing Center in Animal Cells Growing Microtubules Show Dynamic Instability Microtubules Organize the Interior of the Cell Motor Proteins Drive Intracellular Transport Organelles Move Along Microtubules Cilia and Flagella Contain Stable Microtubules Moved by Dynein Actin Filaments Actin Filaments Are Thin and Flexible Actin and Tubulin Polymerize by Similar Mechanisms Many Proteins Bind to Actin and Modify Its Properties An Actin-rich Cortex Underlies the Plasma Membrane of Most Eucaryotic Cells Cell Crawling Depends on Actin Actin Associates with Myosin to Form Contractile Structures During Muscle Contraction Actin Filaments Slide Against Myosin Filaments Muscle Contraction Is Triggered by a Sudden Rise in Ca2+ Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 17 Cell Division Overview of the Cell Cycle The Eucaryotic Cell Cycle Is Divided into Four Phases The Cytoskeleton Carries Out Both Mitosis and Cytokinesis Some Organelles Fragment at Mitosis Mitosis The Mitotic Spindle Starts to Assemble in Prophase Chromosomes Attach to the Mitotic Spindle at Prometaphase Chromosomes Line Up at the Spindle Equator at Metaphase Daughter Chromosomes Segregate at Anaphase The Nuclear Envelope Re-forms at Telophase Cytokinesis The Mitotic Spindle Determines the Plane of Cytoplasmic Cleavage The Contractile Ring of Animal Cells Is Made of Actin and Myosin Cytokinesis in Plant Cells Involves New Cell-Wall Formation Meiosis Homologous Chromosomes Pair Off During Meiosis Meiosis Involves Two Cell Divisions Rather Than One Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 18 Cell-Cycle Control and Cell Death The Cell-Cycle Control System A Central Control System Triggers the Major Processes of the Cell Cycle The Cell-Cycle Control System Is Based on Cyclically Activated Protein Kinases MPF Is the Cyclin-Cdk Complex That Controls Entry into M Phase Cyclin-dependent Protein Kinases Are Regulated by the Accumulation and Destruction of Cyclin The Activity of Cdks Is Further Regulated by Their Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation Different Cyclin-Cdk Complexes Trigger Different Steps in the Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle Can Be Halted in G1 by Cdk Inhibitor Proteins Cells Can Dismantle Their Control System and Withdraw from the Cell Cycle Control of Cell Numbers in Multicellular Organisms Cell Proliferation Depends on Signals from Other Cells Animal Cells Have a Built-in Limitation on the Number of Times They Will Divide Animal Cells Require Signals from Other Cells to Avoid Programmed Cell Death Programmed Cell Death Is Mediated by an Intracellular Proteolytic Cascade Cancer Cells Disobey the Social Controls on Cell Proliferation and Survival Essential Concepts Questions Chapter 19 Tissues Extracellular Matrix and Connective Tissues Plant Cells Have Tough External Walls Cellulose Fibers Give the Plant Cell Wall Its Tensile Strength Animal Connective Tissues Consist Largely of Extracellular Matrix Collagen Provides Tensile Strength in Animal Connective Tissues Cells Organize the Collagen That They Secrete Integrins Couple the Matrix Outside a Cell to the Cytoskeleton Inside It Gels of Polysaccharide and Protein Fill Spaces and Resist Compression Epithelial Sheets and Cell-Cell Junctions 605 Epithelial Sheets Are Polarized and Rest on a Basal Lamina Tight Junctions Make an Epithelium Leak- proof and Separate Its Apical and Basal Surfaces Cytoskeleton-linked Junctions Bind Epithelial Cells Robustly to One Another and to the Basal Lamina Gap Junctions Allow Ions and Small Molecules to Pass from Cell to Cell Tissue Maintenance and Renewal, and Its Disruption by Cancer Different Tissues Are Renewed at Different Rates Stem Cells Generate a Continuous Supply of Terminally Differentiated Cells Mutations in a Single Dividing Cell Can Cause It and Its Progeny to Violate the Normal Controls Cancer Is a Consequence of Mutation and Natural Selection Within the Population of Cells That Form the Body Cancer Requires an Accumulation of Mutations Development Programmed Cell Movements Create the Animal Body Plan Cells Switch On Different Sets of Genes According to Their Position and Their History Diffusible Signals Can Provide Cells with Positional Information Studies in Drosophila Have Given a Key to Vertebrate Development Similar Genes Are Used Throughout the Animal Kingdom to Give Cells an Internal Record of Their Position Essential Concepts Questions
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