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Essentials of Meteorology : An Invitation to the Atmosphere / With CD-ROM

Essentials of Meteorology : An Invitation to the Atmosphere / With CD-ROM - 2nd edition

ISBN13: 978-0534372033

Cover of Essentials of Meteorology : An Invitation to the Atmosphere / With CD-ROM 2ND 98 (ISBN 978-0534372033)
ISBN13: 978-0534372033
ISBN10: 0534372031
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 2ND 98
Publisher: Wadsworth, Inc
Published: 1998
International: No

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Essentials of Meteorology : An Invitation to the Atmosphere / With CD-ROM - 2ND 98 edition

ISBN13: 978-0534372033

C. Donald Ahrens

ISBN13: 978-0534372033
ISBN10: 0534372031
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 2ND 98
Publisher: Wadsworth, Inc

Published: 1998
International: No

Table of Contents

Preface


Chapter 1 The Earth's Atmosphere

Overview of the Earth's Atmosphere
Composition of the Atmosphere
The Early Atmosphere
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere
A Brief Look at Air Pressure and Air
Density
Layers of the Atmosphere
Focus on Instruments: The Radiosonde
The Ionosphere
The Ozone Dilemma in the Stratosphere
Weather and Climate
Focus on a Special Topic: The Ozone Hole
A Satellite's View of the Weather
Storms of all Sizes
A Look at a Weather Map
Weather and Climate in Our Lives
Focus on a Special Topic: Meteorology-A Brief History
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
World Wide Web Activities

Chapter 2 Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere

Temperature and Heat Transfer
Temperature Scales
Latent Heat-the Hidden Warmth
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Focus on a Special Topic: Rising Air
Cools and Sinking Air Warms
Balancing Act-Absorption, Emission, and Equilibrium
Focus on a Special Topic: Sun Burning and UV Rays
Selective Absorbers and the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect
Enhancement of the Greenhouse Effect
Warming the Air from Below
Incoming Solar Energy
The Earth's Annual Energy Balance
Why the Earth has Seasons
Focus on an Observation: The Aurora-A
Dazzling Light Show
Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere
Focus on an Issue: Is December 22 Really
the First Day of Winter?
Seasons in the Southern Hemisphere
Local Seasonal Variations
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
World Wide Web Activities

Chapter 3 Air Temperature

Daily Temperature Variations
Daytime Warming
Nighttime Cooling
Focus on a Special Topic: Record High Temperatures
Cold Air Near the Surface
Focus on a Special Topic: Record Low Temperatures
Protecting Crops from the Cold Night Air
The Controls of Temperature
Air Temperature Data
Daily, Monthly, and Yearly Temperatures
The Use of Temperature Data
Air Temperature and Human Comfort
Focus on an Observation: A Thousand
Degrees and Freezing to Death
Measuring Air Temperature
Focus on Instruments: Thermometers Should
be Read in the Shade
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
World Wide Web Activities

Chapter 4 Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds

Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere
Evaporation, Condensation, and Saturation
Humidity
Vapor Pressure
Relative Humidity
Relative Humidity and Dew Point
Relative Humidity and Human Discomfort
Measuring Humidity
Focus on a Special Topic: Humid Air and
Dry Air Do Not Weigh the Same
Dew and Frost
Fog
Foggy Weather
Clouds
Classification of Clouds
Focus on a Special Topic: Fog Dispersal
Cloud Identification
High Clouds
Middle Clouds
Low Clouds
Clouds with Vertical Development
Some Unusual Clouds
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
World Wide Web Activities

Chapter 5 Cloud Development and Precipitation

Atmospheric Stability
Determining Stability
Stable Air
Unstable Air
Conditionally Unstable Air
Cloud Development and Stability
Convection and Clouds
Topography and Clouds
Precipitation Process
Collision and Coalescence Process
Ice-Crystal Process
Cloud Seeding and Precipitation
Precipitation in Clouds
Focus on an Issue: Does Cloud Seeding Enhance Precipitation?
Precipitation Types
Rain
Snow
Focus on a Special Topic: Are Raindrops Tear-Shaped?
Sleet and Freezing Rain
Snow Grains and Snow Pellets
Hail
Focus on an Application: Aircraft Icing
Measuring Precipitation
Instruments
Weather Radar and Precipitation
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
World Wide Web Activities

Chapter 6 Air Pressure and Winds

Atmospheric Pressure
Focus on a Special Topic: The Atmosphere
Obeys the Gas Law
Measuring Air Pressure
Barometers
Pressure Readings
Surface and Upper-Air Charts
Focus on a Special Topic: Isobaric Maps
Why the Wind Blows
Newton's Laws of Motion
Forces That Influence the Wind
Pressure Gradient Force
Coriolis Force
Wind Flow Aloft
Geostrophic Wind
Curved Winds Around Lows and Highs
Focus on an Observation: Estimating Wind
Direction and Pressure Patterns Aloft
Surface Winds
Focus on a Special Topic: Winds Aloft in the Southern Hemisphere
Winds and Vertical Air Motions
Measuring and Determining Winds
The Influence of Prevailing Winds
Focus on an Issue: Wind Power
Wind Instruments
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
World Wide Web Activities

Chapter 7 Atmospheric Circulations

Scales of Atmospheric Motion
Eddies--Big and Small
Local Wind Systems
Thermal Circulations
Focus on an Application: Eddies and ''Air Pockets''
Sea and Land Breezes
Seasonally Changing Winds--the Monsoon
Mountain and Valley Breezes
Katabatic Winds
Chinook (Foehn) Winds
Focus on a Special Topic: Snow Eaters and
Rapid Temperature Changes
Santa Ana Winds
Desert Winds
Global Winds
General Circulation of the Atmosphere
Single-Cell Model
Three-Cell Model
Average Surface Winds and Pressure: The Real World
The General Circulation and Precipitation Patterns
Westerly Winds and the Jet Stream
Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans
Winds and Upwelling
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
World Wide Web Activities

Chapter 8 Air Masses, Fronts, and Middle

Latitude Storms
Air Masses
Source Regions
Classification
Air Masses of North America
cP (Continental Polar) and cA
(Continental Arctic) Air Masses
Focus on a Special Topic: Lake-effect Snows
mP (Maritime Tropical) Air Masses
cT (Continental Tropical) Air Masses
Fronts
Stationary Fronts
Cold Fronts
Warm Fronts
Occluded Fronts
Middle Latitude Cyclones
Polar Front Theory
Developing Cyclones and Anticyclones
Focus on a Special Topic: Northeasters
The Role of Convergence and Divergence
Waves in the Westerlies
Focus on a Special Topic: A Closer Look
at Convergence and Divergence
The Role of the Jet Stream
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
World Wide Web Activities

Chapter 9 Weather Forecasting

Acquisition of Weather Information
Weather Forecasting Tools
Focus on a Special Topic: Watches and Warnings
The Computer and Weather Forecasting
The Use of Minicomputers
Satellites and Weather Forecasting
Methods of Weather Forecasting
Accuracy and Skill in Weather Forecasting
Predicting the Weather from Local Signs
Weather Forecasting Using Surface Charts
Focus on an Observation: TV
Weathercasters-How Do They Do It?
Determining the Movement of Weather Systems
A Forecast for Six Cities
Weather Forecast for Augusta, Georgia
Rain or Snow for Washington, DC? Big Snow
Storm for Chicago
Mixed Bag of Weather for Memphis
Cold Wave for Dallas
Clear but Cold for Denver
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
World Wide Web Activities

Chapter 10 Thunderstorms and Tornadoes

What are Thunderstorms?
Ordinary (Air-mass) Thunderstorms
Severe Thunderstorms
The Gust Front and Microburst
Supercell and Squall-line Thunderstorms
The Dryline
Floods and Flash Floods
Focus on a Special Topic: Terrifying
Flash Flood in the Big Thompson Canyon
Mesoscale Convective Complexes

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