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Exploring Child Welfare : A Practice Perspective

Exploring Child Welfare : A Practice Perspective - 5th edition

ISBN13: 978-0205672769

Cover of Exploring Child Welfare : A Practice Perspective 5TH 09 (ISBN 978-0205672769)
ISBN13: 978-0205672769
ISBN10: 0205672760
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 5TH 09
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Published: 2009
International: No

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Exploring Child Welfare : A Practice Perspective - 5TH 09 edition

ISBN13: 978-0205672769

Cynthia Crosson-Tower

ISBN13: 978-0205672769
ISBN10: 0205672760
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 5TH 09
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Published: 2009
International: No
Summary

Exploring Child Welfare provides an overall look at the provision of services for children and their families, from services that enhance and support family life to those that substitute for the child's own home.



The Fourth Edition of this accessible and engaging text continues to reflect the author's strong practice perspective and incorporates new developments in welfare reform and child welfare services. The author bases her work on more than 30 years of experience in almost all areas of children's services, including protective services, foster care, adoption, court services, residential treatment and school-based services.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents Preface

1 Children: Our Most Important Resource A Brief History of Child Welfare Abortion, Indanticide, and Abandonment Child Labor and Education Responsibility for Children Advocacy in the Provision of Services for Children The Current Picture of Child Welfare Services Impact of Current Child Welfare Practices on Children Services in the Twenty-First Century Providing Services for Children Today Summary Exploration Questions References

2 The Changing Family The Responsibilities and Rights of the Family The Setting for Today's Family Profile of Today's Family Family Roles and Rules Communication Patterns Observaton of the Family as a System Types of Families The Emotional Climate of Families The Impact of Culture on Families Families with Anglo-European Roots Families with Native American Roots Families with African American Roots Families with Hispanic Roots Families with Asian Roots Families with Middle Eastern Roots The Family Life Cycle Stresses on Families Parental/Family Dysfunction Role Definition and Inequality Parent-Child Relations Disability When Families Need Help Trends Economic Stressors The Optional Status of Marriage The Vanishing Father Blended Famiies Resolution of Childhood Conflicts Changes in Family Control Summary Exploration Questions References

3 Children and Poverty (by Judy A. Noel and Dee L. Whyte) Characteristics of Poor Children Poverty Defined Why Children Live in Poverty Consequences of Growing Up in Poverty Life Stressor Factors Health and Health Care Factors Nutritional Factors Environmental Factors Educational Factors Recent Efforts to Fight Poverty Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) Child Tax Credit Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Minimum Wage Increase State Child Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) The Economics of Poverty Reducing Child Poverty Attitudinal Changes Complex Combination of Two-Generational Startegies An Important Footnote Summary Exploration Questions References

4 Current Societal Problems and Their Impact on Children: Violence, Additiction, and Homelessness Children and Violence War in the Streets Violence in Relationships The School as War Zone The Home as a War Zone Children and Substance Abuse Addicted Parents Addicted Children and Adolescents Effects and Treatment of Adolescent Drug Abuse Homeless Families Causes of Homelessness Homeless Families and Children Effects of Homelessness on Children Homeless and Runaway Youths Changing View of Runaway and Homeless Youths Problems and Solutions for Runaway/Homeless Youths Summary Exploration Questions References

5 Early Education and Care: School-Based Services (by Denise A. O'Connell, Maureen C. Moorehouse, Elaine Francis, Mary Ann Hanley, and Matthew D. Porter) Early Education and Care Serving Infants and Preschool Children A Brief History of Daycare Provision Examining the Goals of Daycare Provision Types of Daycare School-Based Programs Philosophy of Education Student Support Programs: Addressing Academic, Social, and Emotional Needs A Team Approach: Parents and Professionals as Partners Controversial Issues and Dilemmas in the Provision of Services Trends in the Provision of Educational Services Summary Exploration Questions References

6 Counseling for Families and Children (by Lloyd T. Williams) What is Counseling? Basic Assumptions When a Familie Might Seek Counseling Self-Referrals Referrals by Outside Agencies Attitudes about Receiving Counseling Self-Referred Clients Clients Referred from Outside Agencies Attitudes about Having a Problem Ethnic and Cross-Cultural Considerations Changing Attitudes about Counseling Medical Model versus Holistic Model The Impact of Feminism Types of Counseling The Professions Settings The Counseling Process Assessment, Differential Diagnosis, and Treatment Planning Modalities The Experience of Counseling Consumer Perspective Professional Perspective Trends in Counseling Services External Focuses Internal Focuses Evolving Frontiers in Theory and Practice Ethical Considerations in Counseling Confidentiality The Dilemma of Diagnosis Training Value System Differences Counselor/Client Boundaries Power Counseling as a Healing Art versus the Business of Mental Health Band-Aids versus Commitment to Social Change Summary Exploration Questions References

7 Protecting Children When Families Cannot: Child Abuse and Neglect Historical View Societal Role of Children Child Neglect throughout History Child Labor and Maltreatment Sexual Moves and Abuses Efforts to Control Child Abuse Maltreatment Defined Physical Abuse Phsycial Neglect Sexual Abuse Emotional or Physchological Abuse Reporting Child Maltreatment Intake Assessment Case Management and Treatment Court Intervention in Protective Cases Juvenille or Civil Court Criminal Court The Effect of Court Involvement on Children The Role of the Protective Services Worker Future of Protective Services Narrowing of Services Summary Exploration Questions References

8 Family Perservation or Child Placement?: Serving the Child's Best Interests Brief History of Family-Based Services Almshouses and Charities Scientific Philanthropy Settlement House Influence Mothers' Pensions Public Child Welfare Services The Emerging Concept of Permenency Planning Demonstrating Effectiveness of Family-Based Services Types of Family-Based Services Family Support Services Family Preservation Services Kinship Care, Family Presevation or Child Placement? Family Preservation Worker Perserve the Family or Place the Child? Shaping the Future of Family-Based Services Screening of At-Risk Clients Attention to Cultural Diversity Selection and Training of Workers Supervision and Consultation Operationalism of Program Design Goals Building Community Supports Evaluation and Research Summary Exploration Questions References

9 Court Services on Behald of Children (by Judy A. Noel) Historical Perspective The Child Savers Reform School Movement The Concept of Parens Patriae The Emergence of Juvenille Court Situations Warranting Juvenille Court Intervention Delinquency Statues Offenses Dependency, Abuse, and Neglect Related Situations Involving Court Interventions Factors Influencing Court Intervention The Rights of Juvenilles Advocating for Children Juvenille Court Process and Procedures Intake Stage Adjudication Stage Disposition Stage The Role of the Social Worker and the Court Consumer Perspective Alternative Approaches to Court Intervention Diversion Treatment of Juvenille Offenders Trends Should There Be a Separate Juvenille Court? Should Status Offenders Come under the Jurisdiction of the Juvenille Court? What Should Be Done with Serious Offenders? Summary Exploration Questions References

10 Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting (by Lynne Kellner) Definition of Terms Historical Perspective Through the Eyes of Society: Myths Revisited Welfare Mothers Medical Concerns Development of the Children Demographics Teens at Risk Family Function Socioeconomic Status Previous Sexual Abuse and Date Rape Educational and Behavioral Difficulties How Teens Make Decisions about Fertility and Childbearing Fathers A Teen's View Services: Primary Prevention Programs Focusing on Sexual Antecedents Programs Focusing on Nonsexual Antecendents Programs Focusing on Sexual and Nonsexual Antecedents Culturally Sensitive Interventions Services: Secondary Prevention Teen Parents and Their Families Keeping Fathers Involved Child Care Parenting Programs Residential Programs Trends in Teen Pregnancy Prevention Legislative Initiatives Focus on Research Philosophical Research The Media Summary Exploration Questions References

11 Children in Family Foster Care History of Family Foster Care Early Beginnings Foster Care in Recent Years The Nature of Foster Care Today Types of Foster Homes Reasons Children Come into Foster Care Foster Parents Recruitment Homestudy and Training Placement and Follow-Up Stresses of Being a Foster Parent Foster Parents as Part of the Team Birth Parents with Children in Foster Care Attitudes and Reactions Rights and Responsibilites of Birth Parents When Children Return Home Children in Foster Care Feelings about Placement and Separation Feelings about Natural Parents Feelings about Foster Parents Life in Foster Care Leaving Foster Care The Role of the Foster Care Social Worker The Future of Foster Care Political Influences Trends Summary Exploration Questions References

12 The Adoption of Children The History of Adoption Definitions and Assumptions Types of Adoption Issues in Adoption Today Decreased Number of Adoptable Children Changes in Types of Children Available for Adoption Controversy over Agency-Assisted versus Independent Adoptions Adoption Disruptions and the Need for Follow-Up Openness in Adoption Effects of Adoption on Children Adoptive Participants Birth Parents Children Available for Adoption Adoptive Applicants The Adoptive Process The Homestudy Placement and Legalization Postlegalization Services Adoption Disruption The Role of the Adoption Worker The Search Supporters of the Search Who Searches Search Outcome Sealed Records Consent Contracts Trends Children Available for Adoption Permanency Planning Placement Services for Adolescents Resources Available Lifelong Services Summary Exploration Questions References

13 Children in Residential Settings Historical Perspective Assumptions about Residential Care Types of Residential Settings Diagnostic Services Intense Therapeutic Services for Dependent Children Residential Treatment Centers Rehabilitative or Secure Treatment for Delinquents Centers for Children with Severe Special Needs Children in Residential Settings Reasons for Referral Adjustment to Placement Life in a Residential Setting Components of a Residential Setting Token Economy and Phase System The Influence of Peer Culture Handling Crises in Residential Settings Sexually Acting Out in Residential Care Sexual Abuse of Children in Residential Care Working with Families of Children in Residential Care Motivation of Parents Types of Family Treatment Problems in Working with Families The Role of Staff in a Residential Setting Residential Staff Educational Staff Clinical Staff Other Staff Functions The Frustrations of Staff Termination Return Home Placement in a Foster Home or a Less Restrictive Environment Placement in a More Restrictive Setting Hospitalization Independent Living Problems within Residential Settings Staff Issues Abuse in Residential Settings Problems for Residential Centers within the Community Community Support Detriments to Residentially Placed Youths' Education Trends Population Served Requires a Change in Emphasis Restriction in Funding More Effective Evaluation Family Involvement Summary Exploration Questions References

14 Our Children's Future What is in Our Children's Future? Children's Status Children in Poverty Children at Risk Children and Health Children and Education Preparing Those Who Help Children Child Welfare in the Twenty-First Century Summary Exploration Questions References Name Index Subject Index

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