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Logic is the art of making inferences, of how to say "therefore". In this book, Richard L. Epstein surveys the five main ways to do that: arguments, proofs, conditionals, cause and effect, and explanations. He
does so in an exceptionally clear and simple way, unifying the most advanced research in a presentation that is suitable for students, scholars, and instructors.
Part I covers arguments, the use of inferences to convince someone that a conclusion is true. In trying to decide whether there are clear standards for saying that an argument is good or bad, a basis for analyzing inferences is given that carries over to other uses of "therefore."
Part II is concerned with how the use of inferences differs when the conclusion is a necessary claim, as in mathematics.
Part III examines claims of the form "if . . . then . . ." and attempts to resolve what is meant by saying that some conditionals are condensed inferences.
Part IV discusses cause and effect. It is often said that the relation of cause to effect is a necessary one. Epstein suggests that we can understand that relation as one of inference from a claim describing the cause to a claim describing the effect.
Some assertions of cause and effect are explanations, which suggests that at least some explanations can be understood as a kind of inference. Which explanations fit into that pattern and what standards can be used to evaluate them are the topics of Part V.
Author Bio
Epstein, Richard L. : Advanced Reasoning Forum
Richard L. Epstein received his B.A. summa cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania in 1969, and his Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1973. After writing two monographs and a research text in mathematics, he made accessible to undergraduates the mathematics, history, and philosophy of the theory of computable functions in his highly acclaimed undergraduate text COMPUTABILITY, written with Walter Carnielli. In the 1980s he began to work more in philosophy, and has published two volumes, PROPOSITIONAL LOGICS and PREDICATE LOGIC, in his series on the semantic foundations of formal logic. His new FIVE WAYS OF SAYING "THEREFORE": ARGUMENTS, PROOFS, CONDITIONALS, CAUSE AND EFFECT, EXPLANATIONS is a major unification of many areas of work in the foundations of reasoning. His text CRITICAL THINKING has been widely adopted to teach the fundamentals of reasoning to undergraduate students, along with his SCIENCE WORKBOOK FOR CRITICAL THINKING. He recently issued the second edition of the shorter POCKET GUIDE TO CRITICAL THINKING. He is currently working with Alex Raffi, the illustrator of Critical Thinking, on a book called AMERICAN GESTURES.Dr. Epstein is a founding member and head (G.A.) of the international organization Advanced Reasoning Forum . He continues to write both research and teaching texts, while walking his two dogs along the Rio Grande in Socorro, New Mexico.
Introduction.
Acknowledgements.
I. ARGUMENTS. Claims. Arguments. Good Arguments. Repairing Arguments. Fallacies. Induction and Deduction. The Strength of an Argument. Probability. Generalizations. Analogies. Reasoning from Hypotheses. "Therefore".
II. PROOFS. Proofs.
III. CONDITIONALS. "IfàThenà". When is a Conditional True?. Modal Logic. Conditionals as Condensed Inferences. "Therefore".
IV. CAUSE AND EFFECT. What is a Cause?. What is the Relation of Cause to Effect?. Examples of Cause and Effect. Cause in Populations. Causal Laws. "Therefore".
V. EXPLANATIONS. What is an Explanation?. Examples of Explanations. "Therefore". Five Ways Of Saying Therefore. Appendices. Rationality. The Metaphysical Basis of Logic. Exercises. Cartoon Characters Used in Examples. Bibliography. Index of Examples. Index.
Logic is the art of making inferences, of how to say "therefore". In this book, Richard L. Epstein surveys the five main ways to do that: arguments, proofs, conditionals, cause and effect, and explanations. He
does so in an exceptionally clear and simple way, unifying the most advanced research in a presentation that is suitable for students, scholars, and instructors.
Part I covers arguments, the use of inferences to convince someone that a conclusion is true. In trying to decide whether there are clear standards for saying that an argument is good or bad, a basis for analyzing inferences is given that carries over to other uses of "therefore."
Part II is concerned with how the use of inferences differs when the conclusion is a necessary claim, as in mathematics.
Part III examines claims of the form "if . . . then . . ." and attempts to resolve what is meant by saying that some conditionals are condensed inferences.
Part IV discusses cause and effect. It is often said that the relation of cause to effect is a necessary one. Epstein suggests that we can understand that relation as one of inference from a claim describing the cause to a claim describing the effect.
Some assertions of cause and effect are explanations, which suggests that at least some explanations can be understood as a kind of inference. Which explanations fit into that pattern and what standards can be used to evaluate them are the topics of Part V.
Author Bio
Epstein, Richard L. : Advanced Reasoning Forum
Richard L. Epstein received his B.A. summa cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania in 1969, and his Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1973. After writing two monographs and a research text in mathematics, he made accessible to undergraduates the mathematics, history, and philosophy of the theory of computable functions in his highly acclaimed undergraduate text COMPUTABILITY, written with Walter Carnielli. In the 1980s he began to work more in philosophy, and has published two volumes, PROPOSITIONAL LOGICS and PREDICATE LOGIC, in his series on the semantic foundations of formal logic. His new FIVE WAYS OF SAYING "THEREFORE": ARGUMENTS, PROOFS, CONDITIONALS, CAUSE AND EFFECT, EXPLANATIONS is a major unification of many areas of work in the foundations of reasoning. His text CRITICAL THINKING has been widely adopted to teach the fundamentals of reasoning to undergraduate students, along with his SCIENCE WORKBOOK FOR CRITICAL THINKING. He recently issued the second edition of the shorter POCKET GUIDE TO CRITICAL THINKING. He is currently working with Alex Raffi, the illustrator of Critical Thinking, on a book called AMERICAN GESTURES.Dr. Epstein is a founding member and head (G.A.) of the international organization Advanced Reasoning Forum . He continues to write both research and teaching texts, while walking his two dogs along the Rio Grande in Socorro, New Mexico.
Table of Contents
Introduction.
Acknowledgements.
I. ARGUMENTS. Claims. Arguments. Good Arguments. Repairing Arguments. Fallacies. Induction and Deduction. The Strength of an Argument. Probability. Generalizations. Analogies. Reasoning from Hypotheses. "Therefore".
II. PROOFS. Proofs.
III. CONDITIONALS. "IfàThenà". When is a Conditional True?. Modal Logic. Conditionals as Condensed Inferences. "Therefore".
IV. CAUSE AND EFFECT. What is a Cause?. What is the Relation of Cause to Effect?. Examples of Cause and Effect. Cause in Populations. Causal Laws. "Therefore".
V. EXPLANATIONS. What is an Explanation?. Examples of Explanations. "Therefore". Five Ways Of Saying Therefore. Appendices. Rationality. The Metaphysical Basis of Logic. Exercises. Cartoon Characters Used in Examples. Bibliography. Index of Examples. Index.