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Foundations of College Chemistry, Alternate Edition

Foundations of College Chemistry, Alternate Edition - 7th edition

ISBN13: 978-0470004289

Cover of Foundations of College Chemistry, Alternate Edition 7TH 00 (ISBN 978-0470004289)
ISBN13: 978-0470004289
ISBN10: 0470004282
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 7TH 00
Publisher: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
Published: 2000
International: No

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Foundations of College Chemistry, Alternate Edition - 7TH 00 edition

ISBN13: 978-0470004289

Morris Hein and Susan Arena

ISBN13: 978-0470004289
ISBN10: 0470004282
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 7TH 00
Publisher: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.

Published: 2000
International: No
Summary

This alternate edition covers the first 17 chapters of the main text. Three chapters omitted: nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry.

This book's open format and patient writing style makes chemistry accessible to all beginning students. The authors help students understand topics, boosting their confidence with problems and exercise sets. The practical aspects of chemistry are emphasized early in the book, leaving the more theoretical aspects for later. Chemistry is presented as a vital, coherent, and interesting subject.

Features:

  • The Chemistry Place, a subscription Web resource for educators and students, is now available with this text. The site is created by Peregrine Publishers in partnership with leading educators. Susan Arena is a Faculty Director for The Chemistry Place.
       
  • Student resources at The Chemistry Place include Learning Activities, ChemCoach tutorials, Chemistry in Your Life, and a Reference Section including Research News, Best of the Web, Scientific American Connection and a glossary. Students can also create custom practice tests correlated to their text with TestFlight. They also have access to a Bulletin Board where they can get help from their peers.
       
  • Students receive access to InfoTrac College Edition--a fully searchable online university library that includes full articles from more than 600 periodicals. InfoTrac College Edition allows anytime, anywhere access to thousands of articles from such periodicals as Discover and Science World. Students can print complete articles and join in online chat sessions.
       
  • Several of the Chemistry in Action segments have been refreshed with timely new essays, featuring contemporary topics such as hydrogen pound cars and household pollution.
       
  • Putting It Together is a new review section that summarizes every 3-4 chapters with additional conceptually oriented exercises. These have been created to increase student retention of important concepts and stimulate critical thinking
       
  • Illustrations for molecules and chemical reactions have been greatly enhanced to improve students' ability to visualize these dynamic objects.
       
  • This edition includes substantially more information on the use of calculators. A new appendix provides instructions for using a variety of common scientific calculators.
       
  • All text material has been thoroughly reviewed to make sure that all coverage is current and relevant to today's scientific community. Chapters covering Solutions and Equilibrium have been updated considerably.
       
  • The number of additional exercises provided at the end of each chapter has been increased.
       
  • The book's logical organization emphasizes the practical aspects of chemistry before the more abstract theoretical elements are introduced. This sequence is especially appropriate for first-time chemistry students. For example, beginning with atoms, molecules, and reactions - all a part of chemical matter - allows students to develop a basic understanding of chemical properties before moving on.
       
  • The book's problem-solving approach was specifically developed for the needs of today's preparatory chemistry students. Hein/Arena's encouraging, step-by-step approach, introduced immediately in Chapter 2, allows students to progress naturally from exercises using simple mathematical procedures to more complex problems.
       
  • Chemistry in Action features, interwoven regularly throughout each chapter, bring chemistry to life. These practical applications include engaging scenarios and vignettes featuring fast food, 'Fast Energy or Fast Fat'; carbon dioxide asphyxiation, 'Killer Lakes'; sour candy, 'Pucker Power'; and chlorophyll, "Autumn Leaf Color."
       
  • Chapter Openers include dynamic four-color photos that relate real-life examples to the content for the chapter. In addition, a bulleted chapter overview and introductory paragraph appropriately provide a foundation for the coming material.
       
  • Key terms are bolded, and highlighted in the margins when initially introduced. There is also a glossary in the text, as well as a summary of key terms at the end of each chapter. All elements are provided to help students manage the new vocabulary associated with chemistry.
       
  • Concepts in Review summarizes major topics within the chapter.
       
  • Key Terms emphasize terms defined within the context of the chapter.
       
  • End of Chapter Questions refer to tables, figures, key words and key concepts defined within the chapter.
       
  • Paired Exercises include parallel exercises presented side by side, so students can be certain to have mastered particular skills. Answers to the even-numbered exercise of the pair are included in an appendix.
       
  • Additional Exercises are provided to further challenge students and reinforce their comprehension of chapter concepts.
       
  • Other useful tools for students include a comprehensive Review of Mathematics in an appendix, along with a convenient Units of Measurement table found on the end-sheets.
       
  • Answers to all Practice Problems are provided at the end of the chapter allowing students to check their work immediately. This instantaneous feedback is highly motivating for students.

Author Bio

Hein, Morris : Mt. San Antonio College

Arena, Susan : University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Table of Contents

This alternate edition covers the first 17 chapters of the main text. Three chapters omitted: nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry.


1. AN INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY.

Why Study Chemistry?
The Nature of Chemistry.
The Process of Chemistry.
The Scientific Method.
Relationship of Chemistry to Other Sciences and Industry.
Risks and Benefits.
Key Terms.

2. STANDARDS FOR MEASUREMENT.

Mass and Weight.
Measurement and Significant Figures.
Rounding Off Numbers.
Scientific Notation of Numbers.
Significant Figures in Calculations.
The Metric System.
Measurement of Length.
Problem Solving.
Measurement of Mass.
Measurement of Volume.
Measurement of Temperature.
Density.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.

3. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER.

Matter Defined.
Physical States of Matter.
Substances and Mixtures.
Elements.
Distribution of Elements.
Names of the Elements.
Symbols of the Elements.
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids.
Compounds.
Elements That Exist as Diatomic Molecules.
Chemical Formulas.
Mixtures.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.

4. PROPERTIES OF MATTER.

Properties of Substances.
Physical Changes.
Chemical Changes.
Conservation of Mass.
Energy.
Heat: Quantitative Measurement.
Energy in Chemical Changes.
Conservation of Energy.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.
Putting It Together: Review for Chapters 1-4.

5. EARLY ATOMIC THEORY AND STRUCTURE.

Early Thoughts.
Dalton's Model of the Atom.
Composition of Compounds.
The Nature of Electric Charge.
Discovery of Ions.
Subatomic Parts of the Atom.
The Nuclear Atom.
General Arrangement of Subatomic Particles.
Atomic Numbers of the Elements.
Isotopes of the Elements.
Atomic Mass.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.

6. NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

Common and Systematic Names.
Elements and Ions.
Writing Formulas from Names of Compounds.
Binary Compounds.
Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions.
Acids.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.
Putting It Together: Review for Chapters 5-6.

7. QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION OF COMPOUNDS.

The Mole.
Molar Mass of Compounds.
Percent Composition of Compounds.
Empirical Formula versus Molecular Formula.
Calculating Empirical Formulas.
Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.

8. CHEMICAL EQUATIONS.

The Chemical Equation.
Writing and Balancing Equations.
What Information Does an Equation Tell Us?
Types of Chemical Equations.
Heat in Chemical Reactions.
Global Warming: The Greenhouse Effect.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.

9. CALCULATIONS FROM CHEMICAL EQUATIONS.

A Short Review.
Introduction to Stoichiometry: The Mole-Ratio Method.
Mole-Mole Calculations.
Mole-Mass Calculations.
Mass-Mass Calculations.
Limiting-Reactant and Yield Calculations.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.
Putting It Together: Review for Chapters 7-9.

10. MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE.

A Brief History.
Electromagnetic Radiation.
The Bohr Atom.
Energy Levels of Electrons.
Atomic Structures of the First Eighteen Elements.
Electron Structures and the Periodic Table.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.

11. CHEMICAL BONDS: THE FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS FROM ATOMS.

Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties.
Lewis Structures of Atoms.
The Ionic Bond: Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another.
Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds.
The Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons.
Electronegativity.
Lewis Structures of Compounds.
Complex Lewis Structures.
Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions.
Molecular Shape.
The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.
Putting It Together: Review for Chapters 10-11.

12. THE GASEOUS STATE OF MATTER.

General Properties.
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory.
Measurement of Pressure of Gases.
Dependence of Pressure on Number of Molecules and Temperature.
Boyle's Law.
Charles' Law.
Gay-Lussac's Law.
Standard Temperature and Pressure.
Combined Gas Laws.
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures.
Avogadro's Law.
Mole-Mass-Volume Relationships of Gases.
Density of Gases.
Ideal Gas Equation.
Gas Stoichiometry.
Real Gases.
Air Pollution.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.

13. WATER AND THE PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS.

What Is a Liquid?
Evaporation.
Vapor Pressure.
Surface Tension.
Boiling Point.
Freezing Point or Melting Point.
Changes of State.
Occurrence of Water.
Physical Properties of Water.
Structure of the Water Molecule.
The Hydrogen Bond.
Formation and Chemical Properties of Water.
Hydrates.
Hygroscopic Substances.
Natural Waters.
Water Pollution.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.

14. SOLUTIONS.

General Properties of Solutions.
Solubility.
Factors Related to Solubility.
Rate of Dissolving Solids.
Solutions: A Reaction Medium.
Concentration of Solutions.
Colligative Properties of Solutions.
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.
Putting It Together: Review for Chapters 12-14.

15. ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS.

Acids and Bases.
Reactions of Acids.
Reactions of Bases.
Salts.
Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes.
Dissociation and Ionization of Electrolytes.
Strong and Weak Electrolytes.
Ionization of Water.
Introduction to pH.
Neutralization.
Writing Net Ionic Equations.
Acid Rain.
Colloids: An Introduction.
Properties of Colloids.
Applications of Colloidal Properties.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.

16. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM.

Reversible Reactions.
Rates of Reaction.
Chemical Equilibrium.
Le Chatelier's Principle.
Effect of Concentration on Equilibrium.
Effect of Volume on Equilibrium.
Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium.
Effect of Catalysts on Equilibrium.
Equilibrium Constants.
Ion Product Constant for Water.
Ionization Constants.
Solubility Product Constant.
Hydrolysis.
Buffer Solutions: The Control of pH.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.

17. OXIDATION-REDUCTION.

Oxidation Number.
Oxidation-Reduction.
Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations.
Balancing Ionic Redox Equations.
Activity Series of Metals.
Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells.
Concepts in Review.
Key Terms.
Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.
Putting It Together: Review for Chapters 15-17.


APPENDICES.
Appendix I: Mathematical Review.
Appendix II: Using a Scientific Calculator.
Appendix III: Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures.
Appendix IV: Units of Measurement.
Appendix V: Solubility Table.
Appendix VI: Answers to Even-Numbered Questions and Exercises.
GLOSSARY.
INDEX

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