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Students come to a general chemistry course with a variety of backgrounds and interests. Most plan to become scientists, engineers, or professionals in medicine or other areas of the life sciences. Part of the task of the chemistry instructor is convincing students that knowledge of chemistry is essential to a true understanding of fields that range from cell biology to medicine to materials science. Indeed, the chemical properties and principles students learn in this course will pervade almost every aspect of their personal and professional lives. In this text, we have tried to provide students with core principles and interesting applications of chemistry. We believe that such knowledge will both help them in their professions and enrich their everyday lives. In addition to establishing the relevance of chemistry to broader concerns, a textbook can enhance students' success in the study of chemistry by satisfying other needs: the need for background material and a second voice for students to hear; help in visualizing chemical phenomena, both what students can see with their eyes and what they must learn to see with their minds' eyes; and help in formulating strategies for solving problems, the basis on which their knowledge will so often be tested. In crafting the third edition of this text, we have strived to strike a necessary balance in meeting these basic needs.
A Balanced Coverage of the Major Areas of General Chemistry
A major goal of ours in writing this text has been to provide a truly general course that integrates all the major areas of chemistry. Physical principles, inorganic compounds, and analytical techniques are addressed repeatedly. As in the previous editions, organic chemistry is appropriately incorporated throughout the text. Thus, some simple organic chemistry is introduced in Chapter 2 and used thereafter to describe physical properties of substances, aspects of chemical bonding, acid-base chemistry, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Biochemistry is introduced in Chapter 6 in a discussion of carbohydrates and fats as fuels for our bodies; it is used frequently in following chapters where appropriate. We have enhanced our treatment of analytical chemistry in this third edition, with details on types of titrations, descriptions of analytical tools, and new problems that are analytical specific, such as the Kjeldahl method for nitrogen, weight titrations, and limestone analysis.
As in the second edition, Chapter 23, titled "Chemistry and Life: More About Organic, Biological, and Medicinal Chemistry," brings together the core organic chemistry concepts introduced in earlier chapters, expands on them in those cases where the earlier introduction was necessarily brief, and then discusses the chemistry of selected biomolecules and medicinal compounds. In this way, we have tried to provide a useful set of core material to those who will never take 4xl organic chemistry course, while also offering a broader-than-usual preparation for students who will enroll in organic chemistry courses.
A Balanced Organization
The first 18 chapters of the text emphasize chemical principles, but the principles are illustrated throughout with significant applications and concrete examples from descriptive chemistry. Chapter 20 (The s-Block Elements), Chapter 21 (The p-Block Elements), and Chapter 22 (The d-Block Elements and Coordination Chemistry) provide a systematic treatment of descriptive chemistry, but with an emphasis on how the properties of substances relate to the principles learned earlier in the text. Chapter 19 (Nuclear Chemistry), Chapter 23 (Chemistry and Life), Chapter 24 (Chemistry of Materials), and Chapter 25 (Environmental Chemistry) are fairly independent, free standing chapters. These chapters can serve as capstones to a general chemistry course, for each revisits the basic principles of earlier chapters to cover topics in which students generally have a strong interest. These chapters can be studied, in whole or in part, in just about any order.
A Balanced Approach to Problem Solving
Problem-solving skills and the ability to think critically are essential for success in today's world. We provide ample opportunities for practicing these skills. For every type of problem we provide Examples that are carefully worked out, step-by-step, to guide students in solving similar problems.
Two problem-solving tools accompany the Examples. Problem-Solving Notes provide ready reference and help for students as they study specific Examples: The notes highlight relevant problem-solving techniques, help students understand and test the assumptions used to solve a worked Example, provide helpful hints, and encourage students to check their answers. Also, in the early chapters, particularly Chapter 3 (Stoichiometry), the various terms in a series of related calculations may be annotated. These annotations present a brief rationale for each calculation; we hope they will help students focus on "why" as well as "how:"
The Examples are followed by Exercises that students can use to practice their understanding of the methods illustrated. In most cases, two Exercises are given, labeled A and B. The goal in an A Exercise is to apply to a similar situation the method outlined in the Example. In a B Exercise, students often must combine that method with other ideas previously learned. Many of the B Exercises provide a context closer to that in which chemical knowledge is applied, and they thus serve as a bridge between the worked Examples and the more challenging problems at the end of the chapter.
The ability to plug numbers into an equation and get an answer, in itself, is seldom enough to attain mastery of a concept. For example, students should generally be able to judge whether an answer is reasonable, and in some cases, to obtain a reasonable estimate of an answer without doing a detailed calculation. To assist in the acquisition of these skills, we offer worked-out Estimation Examples followed by Estimation Exercises. Examples and Exercises of this type are found throughout the text.
Students also need to develop insights into chemical concepts that are often best demonstrated by an ability to solve problems of a qualitative nature. To emphasize this aspect of problem solving, we provide guided Conceptual Examples followed by Conceptual Exercises.
Through the different types of Examples and Exercises described, students of this text should gain a balanced set of skills in chemical problem solving. As additional reinforcement, the text offers four kinds of end-of-chapter exercises:
Review Questions are intended to provide a qualitative measure of student understanding of the main ideas introduced in the chapter. Answers to a few of the Review Questions are given in Appendix F (Answers to Selected Problems).
Problems are arranged by topic; they test mastery of the problem-solving techniques discussed in the chapter. The Problems are arranged in matched pairs, with answers to odd-numbered problems given in Appendix F.
Additional Problems are not grouped by type. Some are more challenging than the Problems, often requiring a synthesis of ideas from more than one chapter. Others pursue an idea further than is done in the text, or introduce new ideas. Answers to all of the odd-numbered Additional Problems are given in Appendix F.
A new category of exercises, Apply Your Knowledge, offers a small selection of applied, multiconceptual, and/or challenging problems designed for interested and well-prepared students. Answers to odd-numbered Apply Your Knowledge problems are given in Appendix F.
e-Media Problems specifically address interactive elements in the Companion Website, the electronic companion to this book. Typically, these problems can't be worked without reference to the Companion Website.
Some of the end-of-chapter Problems and Additional Problems are of an estimation or conceptual type, mirroring similar types of exercises within each chapter. We do not specifically label these questions as we do in the body of the chapter, however, because we want to give students experience in recognizing different types of problems as well as solving them.
A Balance of Print, Visual, and Media Presentation
Difficulty seeing the unseeable and imagining things in tree dimensions is cited among the top three barriers confronting students in a general chemistry course. (The other two are poor study habits and poor math skills, both of which are addressed by specific print and media supplements to this text; see following.) In this book, we use drawings, computer graphics, and photographs to help students visualize chemical phenomena at both the microscopic (molecular) and macroscopic (visible) levels. Users of this text also have available the media resources, which include hundreds of animations, simulations, exercises and molecular models that students can interactively explore on their computers.
This New Edition: Achieving Further Balance
We have revised the previous edition in specific ways in response to reviewer suggestions. We have:
rewritten explanations of a few difficult topics to be carefully paced and appropriate to the background of the typical student.
revised Chapter 17 to more clearly emphasize the molecular view of thermodynamics. Related concepts such as Raoult's law and colligative properties are rationalized using this molecular-thermodynamic approach.
enhanced the treatment of analytical chemistry.
updated the material throughout to reflect the latest science while retaining the relaxed, easy-to-read style of the second edition, including learning aids such as voice balloons in problem-solving strategies. We have continued the use of conceptual exercises that require the student to reflect on what has been learned. We have also retained the estimation exercises, which minimize the "plug-and-chug" approach to problem solving and encourage student analysis of numerical answers.
added a number of new and more challenging end-of-chapter problems to each chapter. These include conceptual problems, visualization problems with accompanying art, data-based problems that require the student to analyze and select the appropriate data to be used, real-world problems that include raw data from actual laboratory experiments, and problems requiring students to synthesize concepts and skills acquired in earlier chapters.
included more than 30 new pieces of art, many of which visually relate macroscopic, observable phenomena to microscopic (molecular/atomic) behavior., Phenomena so represented include general gas behavior, effusion, the critical point, equilibrium, the common ion effect, and ion exchange.
added a number of new feature essays and modified several others, including: Green Chemistry: Atom Economy (Chapter 3), Titrations: Variation on a Theme (Chapter 4), Boyle's Law and Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives (Chapter 5), Twos Accidental Discoveries with Far-Reaching Consequences (Chapter 7), Fireworks and Spectra (Chapter 7), Bonding in Biological Molecules (Chapter 9), The Gecko's Toe (Chapter 11), Activity and Concentration (Chapter 12), Fire: and Fire Suppression (Chapter 13), Less Soluble? No, More Soluble! (Chapter 16), The Origins of Thermodymanics (Chapter 17), Analogies to Entropy and Entropy Change (Chapter 17), Uranium for Peace and War, (Chapter 19), The Chemist's Toolbox (Chapter 23), Epoxies (Chapter 24), and Phytoremediation (Chapter 25).
introduced new application notes to stress new and interesting applications of chemical principles. For example, in Chapter 13 new Application Notes relate the idea of a rate-determining step to the development of drugs that lower blood cholesterol levels and the use of catalysts in developing greener chemical syntheses. In Chapter 21 a new Application Note describes the use of the thermite reaction in the Allied invasion of France in 1944, and in Chapter 22 new Application Notes describe a new electrochemical process for the production of titanium and the use of potassium permanganate as a disinfectant. In addition, several feature essays, Application Notes, and the text were modified to emphasize the idea of green chemistry.
In summary, we have tried to combine our collective experience in teaching and writing for various audiences to produce a textbook that strikes a balance between the principles that give meaning to chemistry and the applications that make it come alive.
Supplements For the Instructor
Annotated Instructor's Edition (0-13-061996-5) with annotations by Terry W. McCreary of Murray State University. This special edition of the text includes the entire student text plus marginal icons and annotations to aid instructors in preparing their lectures. Included are suggestions for lecture demonstrations, teaching tips, common student misconceptions, and indications of which graphics in the textbook are available as overhead transparencies. Some of the notes relate to Apply Your Knowledge problems that can be taken up in advance of the chapter where they appear. The AIE also includes cross-references to all figures, demonstrations, and animations available in electronic form on the MediaPortfolio CD-ROM.
Instructor's Resource Manual (0-13-061998-1) by Marie Hankins, University of Southern Indiana and Robert K. Wismer, Millersville University. This book provides chapter-by-chapter lecture outlines, teaching tips, common student misconceptions, background references, and suggested lecture demonstrations for in-class use.
Solutions Manual (0-13-066446-4) by C. Alton Hassell of Baylor University contains worked-out solutions to all in-chapter, end-of-chapter, review, conceptual, and estimation exercises and problems.
Transparencies (0-13-061997-3) Over 200 full-color transparencies chosen from the text put principles into visual perspective and save you time while you are preparing your lectures.
Test Item File (0-13-061999-X) by Michael Mosher of University of Nebraska, Kearney. This printed test bank includes over 1400 questions written exclusively for the Hill & Petrucci text, with all answers section-referenced to the text.
TestGen-EQ (0-13-061990-6) The computerized version of the Test Item File is available on a dual-platform CD-ROM. The software available with this database allows you to create and tailor exams to your specific needs.
MediaPortfolio CD (0-13-062003-3) An instructor CD-ROM that contains almost all of the art from the text, more than 20 lab demonstration video segments, and more than 50 animations of core concepts. Using the included MediaPortfolio software, instructors can browse for figures and other media elements by thumbnail and description as well as search by key word or title. The images and videos can be cut and pasted, or dragged into your lecture presentation or other documents.
For the Student
Study Guide (0-13-062005-X) by Dixie J. Goss of Hunter College. This book is keyed to the main text and provides further learning material for students: chapter-by-chapter overviews, learning goals, numerous examples and exercises, parallel text material, worked-out solutions, and practice tests with answers. This book serves as an excellent diagnostic tool and also helps sharpen students' test-taking skills.
Selected Solutions Manual (0-13-062004-1) by C. Alton Hassell of Baylor University, contains worked-out solutions to over half of the text's problems. The answers to these problems also appear in the text as Appendix F, Answers to
Hill, John W. : University of Wisconsin, River Falls
Petrucci, Ralph H. : California State University, San Bernadino
1. Chemistry: Matter and Measurement.
2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions.
3. Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations.
4. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions.
7. Atomic Structure.
8. Electron Configurations, Atomic Properties, and the Periodic Table.
9. Chemical Bonds.
10. Bonding Theory and Molecular Structure.
11. States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces.
12. Physical Properties of Solutions.
13. Chemical Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions.
14. Chemical Equilibrium.
15. Acids, Bases, and Acid-Base Equilibria.
16. More Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions: Slightly Soluble Salts and Complex Ions.
17. Thermodynamics: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy.
19. Nuclear Chemistry.
20. The s-Block Elements.
21. The p-Block Elements.
22. The d-Block Elements and Coordination Chemistry.
23. Chemistry and Life: More on Organic, Biological, and Medicinal Chemistry.
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