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General, Organic, and Biochemistry / With CD-ROM

General, Organic, and Biochemistry / With CD-ROM - 00 edition

ISBN13: 978-0716737476

Cover of General, Organic, and Biochemistry / With CD-ROM 00 (ISBN 978-0716737476)
ISBN13: 978-0716737476
ISBN10: 0716737477
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 00
Publisher: W.H. Freeman
Published: 2000
International: No

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General, Organic, and Biochemistry / With CD-ROM - 00 edition

ISBN13: 978-0716737476

Ira Blei and George Odian

ISBN13: 978-0716737476
ISBN10: 0716737477
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 00
Publisher: W.H. Freeman

Published: 2000
International: No

Students who take the General, Organic, and Biochemistry (GOB) course usually want to be nurses, dieticians, or work in an environmental field like water treatment. Although they have a clear career goal, they do not have a strong science background. They often have weak problem-solving skills, and do not understand the relevance of chemistry to their chosen profession, or even their everyday lives. GOB: Connecting Chemistry to Your Life was written to develop students' understanding of general scientific principles and to give them the problem-solving skills necessary to learn the subject. Unlike other texts, this book presents more applications directly relevant to careers students are interested in.

Author Bio

Blei, Ira : City University of New York, Staten Island

Odian, George : City University of New York, Staten Island

Table of Contents

1 The Language of Chemistry

1.1 The composition of matter
1.2 Measurement and the metric system
1.3 Measurement, uncertainty, and significant figures
1.4 Scientific notation
1.5 Calculations using scientific notation
1.6 Calculations and significant figures
1.7 The use of units in calculations: The unit-conversion method
1.8 Two fundamental properties of matter: Mass and volume
1.9 Density
1.10 Temperature
1.11 Heat and calorimetry

Box 1.1 Chemistry in Depth: The Scientific Method
Box 1.2 Chemistry in Depth: Chromatography
Box 1.3 Chemistry Around Us: Temperature, Density, and the Buoyancy of the Sperm Whale
Box 1.4 Chemistry Around Us: Density and the "Fitness" of Water
Box 1.5 Chemistry Around Us: Specific Heat and the "Fitness" of Water

PROFESSIONAL CONNECTIONS: Darlene Reuss, Environmental Health Specialist

2 Atomic Structure

2.1 Chemical background for the early atomic theory
2.2 Dalton's atomic theory
2.3 Atomic masses
2.4 The structure of atoms
2.5 Isotopes
2.6 The periodic table
2.7 Electron organization within the atom
2.8 The quantum mechanical atom
2.9 Atomic structure and periodicity
2.10 Atomic structure, periodicity, and chemical reactivity

Box 2.1 Chemistry in Depth: Absorption Spectra and Chemical Analysis

3 Molecules and Chemical Bonds

3.1 Ionic versus covalent bonds
3.2 Ionic bonds
3.3 Naming binary ionic compounds
3.4 Polyatomic ions
3.5 Does the formula of an ionic compound describe its structure?
3.6 Covalent compounds and their nomenclature
3.7 Representation of covalent bonds
3.8 Lewis structures of polyatomic ions
3.9 Polar and nonpolar covalent bonds
3.10 Three-dimensional molecular structures

Box 3.1 Chemistry in Depth: On the Intensity of Electrical Fields

4 Chemical Calculations

4.1 Chemical formulas and formula masses
4.2 The mole
4.3 Avogadro's number
4.4 Empirical formulas
4.5 Molecular formulas
4.6 Balancing chemical equations
4.7 Oxidation-reduction reactions
4.8 Stoichiometry

Box 4.1 Chemistry in Depth: Determining the Composition of a Compound
Box 4.2 Chemistry in Depth: Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions by the Ion-Electron Method

5 The Physical Properties of Gases

5.1 Gas pressure
5.2 The gas laws
5.3 Boyle's law
5.4 Charles's law
5.5 Gay-Lussac's law
5.6 Avogadro's law
5.7 The combined gas law
5.8 The universal gas law
5.9 The universal gas law and molecular mass
5.10 Dalton's law of partial pressures
5.11 Gases dissolve in liquids

Box 5.1 Chemistry Within Us: Diving Time and Gas Pressure
Box 5.2 Chemistry Around Us: Manometry and Blood Pressure
Box 5.3 Chemistry Within Us: Breathing and the Gas Laws
Box 5.4 Chemistry Around Us: Sterilization and the Autoclave
Box 5.5 Chemistry Within Us: Gas Solubility and Caisson Disease

PROFESSIONAL CONNECTIONS: June G. Neal, Emergency Department

6 Interactions Between Molecules

6.1 The three states of matter and transitions between them
6.2 Attractive forces between molecules
6.3 The hydrogen bond
6.4 Secondary forces and physical properties
6.5 The vaporization of liquids
6.6 Vapor pressure and dynamic equilibrium
6.7 The influence of secondary forces on vapor pressure
6.8 Vaporization and the regulation of body temperature
6.9 Attractive forces and the structure of solids

Box 6.1 Chemistry Within Us: Surface Tension and the Digestion of Dietary Fats
Box 6.2 Chemistry Within Us: Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Box 6.3 Chemistry Around Us: Topical Anesthesia

7 Solutions

7.1 General aspects of solution formation
7.2 Molecular properties and solution formation
7.3 Solubility
7.4 Concentration
7.5 Percent composition
7.6 Molarity
7.7 Dilution
7.8 Concentration expressions for very dilute solutions
7.9 The solubility of solids in liquids
7.10 Insolubility can result in a chemical reaction
7.11 Diffusion
7.12 Osmosis and membranes
7.13 Osmotic pressure
7.14 Osmolarity
7.15 Osmosis and the living cell
7.16 Macromolecules and osmotic pressure in cells

Box 7.1 Chemistry Within Us: Diffusion and the Cardiovascular System
Box 7.2 Chemistry Within Us: Semipermeability and Urine Formation
Box 7.3 Chemistry Within Us: The Osmotic Pressure of Isotonic Solutions
Box 7.4 Chemistry Within Us: Semipermeability and the Digestive System
Box 7.5 Chemistry in Depth: Association Colloids, Micelles, and Protein Structure

PROFESSIONAL CONNECTIONS: Beth Lerner Wilcox, Long-Term Care for the Elderly

8 Chemical Reactions

8.1 Reaction rates
8.2 Reactive collisions
8.3 Catalysts
8.4 Biochemical catalysts
8.5 Chemical equilibrium
8.6 Equilibrium constants
8.7 Biochemical reactions are connected in sequences
8.8 Le Chatelier's principle

Box 8.1 Chemistry Within Us: The Influence of Temperature on Biological Processes
Box 8.2 Chemistry in Depth: The Quantitative Description of Chemical Equilibrium
Box 8.3 Chemistry Around Us: Nitrogen Fixation: The Haber Process

9 Acids, Basis, and Buffers

9.1 Water reacts with water
9.2 Strong acids and strong bases
9.3 A measure of acidity: pH
9.4 Weak acids and weak bases
9.5 Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases
9.6 Dissociation of polyprotic acids
9.7 Salts and hydrolysis
9.8 Buffers and buffered solutions
9.9 Buffer system of the blood
9.10 Titration
9.11 Normality

Box 9.1 Chemistry in Depth: Acid Dissociation Constants and the Calculation of pH
Box 9.2 Chemistry Around Us: Acid-Mine Drainage
Box 9.3 Chemistry in Depth: The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
Box 9.4 Chemistry in Depth: Use of Indicators in Determining pH

PROFESSIONAL CONNECTIONS: Terri E. Weaver, Research on Sleep Apnea and Sleep Disorders

10 Chemical and Biological Effects of Radiation

10.1 Radioactivity
10.2 Radioactive emissions
10.3 Radioactive decay
10.4 Effects of radiation
10.5 Detection of radioactivity
10.6 Measuring radioactivity
10.7 Applications
10.8 Nuclear reactions
10.9 Nuclear energy and the biosphere

Box 10.1 Chemistry Around Us: Radiocarbon Dating
Box 10.2 Chemistry Around Us: The Ozone Layer and Radiation from Space
Box 10.3 Chemistry Within Us: Radiation Dosimetry and Wristwatches
Box 10.4 Chemistry Within Us: Radon: A Major Health Hazard

11 Organic Chemistry and Saturated Hydrocarbons

11.1 Molecular and structural formulas
11.2 Families of organic compounds
11.3 Alkanes
11.4 Types of structural formulas
11.5 Constitutional isomers of alkanes
11.6 Naming alkanes
11.7 Cycloalkanes
11.8 Cis-trans stereoisomerism in cycloalkanes
11.9 Physical properties of alkanes and cycloalkanes
11.10 Chemical properties of alkanes and cycloalkanes

Box 11.1 Chemistry Around Us: Natural Gas and Petroleum
Box 11.2 Chemistry in Depth: Stability and Shape of Cycloalkanes
Box 11.3 Chemistry Around Us: Health Hazards and Medicinal Uses of Alkanes
Box 11.4 Chemistry Around Us: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
Box 11.5 Chemistry Around Us: Applications of Alkyl Halides and Some of the Problems That They Create

PROFESSIONAL CONNECTIONS: Barbara Semmel, Outpatient Physical Therapy Clinic

12 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

12.1 Alkenes
12.2 Bonding in alkenes
12.3 Constitutional isomers of alkenes
12.4 Naming alkenes
12.5 Cis-trans stereoisomerism in alkenes
12.6 Addition reactions of alkenes
12.7 Addition polymerization
12.8 Oxidation of alkenes
12.9 Alkynes
12.10 Aromatic compounds
12.11 Isomers and names of aromatic compounds
12.12 Reactions of aromatic compounds

Box 12.1 Chemistry Around Us: Alkenes in Nature
Box 12.2 Chemistry Within Us: Vision and Cis-Trans Isomerism
Box 12.3 Chemistry Around Us: Cis-Trans Isomers and Pheromones
Box 12.4 Chemistry in Depth: Mechanism of Alkene Addition Reactions
Box 12.5 Chmistry in Depth: Carbocation Stability and the Markovnikov Rule
Box 12.6 Chemistry Around Us: Synthetic Addition Polymers
Box 12.7 Chemistry in Depth: Bonding in Benzene
Box 12.8 Chemistry Around Us: Aromatic Compounds in Everyday Life
Box 12.9 Chemistry Around Us: Fused-Ring Aromatics

PROFESSIONAL CONNECTIONS: Rose Eva Constantino, Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing

13 Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, and Their Sulfur Analogues

13.1 Structural relations of alcohols, phenols, and ethers
13.2 Constitutional isomerism in alcohols
13.3 Classifying and naming alcohols
13.4 Physical properties of alcohols
13.5 Acidity and basicity of alcohols
13.6 Dehydration of alcohols to alkenes
13.7 Oxidation of alcohols
13.8 Phenols
13.9 Ethers
13.10 Formation of ethers by dehydration of alcohols
13.11 Thiols

Box 13.1 Chemistry Around Us: Alcohols
Box 13.2 Chemistry Around Us: Types of Alcoholic Beverages
Box 13.3 Chemistry Within Us: Health Aspects of Alcohol Consumption
Box 13.4 Chemistry in Depth: Mechanism of Dehydration of Alcohols
Box 13.5 Chemistry Around Us: Phenols
Box 13.6 Chemistry Around Us: Ethers

14 Aldehydes and Ketones

14.1 Structure of aldehydes and ketones
14.2 Naming aldehydes and ketones
14.3 Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones
14.4 Oxidation of aldehydes and ketones
14.5 Reduction of aldehydes and ketones
14.6 Hemiacetal and acetal formation by reaction with alcohol

Box 14.1 Chemistry Around Us: Aldehydes and Ketones in Nature
Box 14.2 Chemistry Around Us: Important Aldehydes and Ketones
Box 14.3 Chemistry in Depth: Absorption Spectroscopy (IR, NMR)

15 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Other Derivatives

15.1 Comparison of carboxylic acids and their derivatives
15.2 Synthesis of carboxylic acids
15.3 Naming carboxylic acids
15.4 Physical properties of carboxylic acids
15.5 Acidity of carboxylic acids
15.6 Carboxylate salts
15.7 Soaps and their cleaning action
15.8 Esters from carboxylic acids and alcohols
15.9 Naming and physical properties of esters
15.10 Polyester synthesis
15.11 Hydrolysis of esters
15.12 Carboxylic acid anhydrides and halides
15.13 Phosphoric acids and their derivatives

Box 15.1 Chemistry Around Us: Carboxylic Acids in Nature
Box 15.2 Chemistry Around Us: Carboxylate Salts
Box 15.3 Chemistry Around Us: Hard Water and Detergents
Box 15.4 Chemistry Within Us: Aspirin and Aspirin Substitutes
Box 15.5 Chemistry Within Us: Phosphate Esters in Biological Systems

16 Amines and Amides

16.1 Comparison of amines and amides
16.2 Classification of amines
16.3 Naming amines
16.4 Physical properties of amines
16.5 Basicity of amines
16.6 Amine salts
16.7 Classification of amides
16.8 Synthesis of amides
16.9 Polyamide synthesis
16.10 Naming amides
16.11 Physical and basicity properties of amides
16.12 Hydrolysis of amides

Box 16.1 Chemistry Within Us: Opium Alkaloids
Box 16.2 Chemistry Within Us: Drugs for Controlling Blood Pressure
Box 16.3 Chemistry Within Us: Other Amines and Amides with Physiological Activity
Box 16.4 Chemistry Within Us: Cocaine: Free Base Versus Amine Salt

17 Stereoisomerism

17.1 Review of isomerism
17.2 Enantiomers
17.3 Interpreting structural formulas of enantiomers
17.4 Nomenclature of enantiomers
17.5 Properties of enantiomers
17.6 Compounds containing two or more tetrahedral stereocenters
17.7 Cyclic compounds containing tetrahedral stereocenters

Box 17.1 Chemistry Within Us: Senses of Smell and Taste
Box 17.2 Chemistry Within Us: Synthetic Chiral Drugs

18 Carbohydrates

18.1 Introduction to carbohydrates
18.2 Monosaccharides
18.3 Cyclic hemiacetal structures
18.4 Chemical and physical properties of monosaccharides
18.5 Disaccharides
18.6 Polysaccharides
18.7 Photosynthesis

Box 18.1 Chemistry Within Us: How Sweet Is It?
Box 18.2 Chemistry Within Us: Hereditary Problems of Lactose Utilization
Box 18.3 Chemistry Around Us: Plastics and Textile Fibers from Cellulose
Box 18.4 Chemistry Within Us: Dietary Fiber
Box 18.5 Chemistry Within Us: Blood Types

19 Lipids

19.1 Classification of lipids
19.2 Fatty acids
19.3 Structure and physical properties of triacylglycerols
19.4 Chemical reactions of triacylglycerols
19.5 Waxes
19.6 Amphipathic hydrolyzable lipids
19.7 Steroids
19.8 Eicosanoids
19.9 Fat-soluble vitamins
19.10 Biological membranes

Box 19.1 Chemistry Within Us: Noncaloric Fat
Box 19.2 Chemistry Within Us: The Menstrual Cycle and Contraceptive Drugs
Box 19.3 Chemistry Within Us: Anabolic Steroids

20 Proteins

20.1 Amino Acids
20.2 The zwitterionic structure of amino acids
20.3 Peptides
20.4 Chemical reactions of peptides
20.5 Three-dimensional structure of proteins
20.6 Fibrous proteins
20.7 Globular proteins
20.8 Mutations: Sickle-cell hemoglobin
20.9 Denaturation

Box 20.1 Chemistry Within Us: Proteins in the Diet
Box 20.2 Chemistry Around Us: Permanent Waving of Hair
Box 20.3 Chemistry Within Us: Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin

21 Nucleic Acids

21.1 Nucleotides
21.2 Nucleic acid formation from nucleotides
21.3 Three-dimensional structure of nucleic acids
21.4 Information flow from DNA to RNA to polypeptides
21.5 Replication
21.6 Transcription
21.7 Translation
21.8 Mutations
21.9 Antibiotics
21.10 Viruses
21.11 Recombinant DNA technology

Box 21.1 Chemistry Within Us: Cancer and Cancer Therapy
Box 21.2 Chemistry Within Us: HIV and AIDS

22 An Overview of Metabolism, and the Role of Enzymes

22.1 Cell structure
22.2 General features of metabolism
22.3 The stages of catabolism
22.4 The transformation of nutrient chemical energy into new forms
22.5 Enxymes
22.6 Enzyme classification
22.7 Enzyme activity
22.8 Control of enzyme activity
22.9 High-energy compounds

23 Carbohydrate Metabolism

23.1 Glycolysis
23.2 The chemical transformations in glycolysis
23.3 The pentose phosphate pathway
23.4 The formation of acetyl-S-CoA
23.5 The citric acid cycle
23.6 The reactions of the citric acid cycle
23.7 Replenishment of cycle intermediates
23.8 Gluconeogenesis
23.9 Glycogenesis
23.10 Glycogenolysis
23.11 The electron transport chain
23.12 The enzymes of the electron transport chain
23.13 The production of ATP
23.14 Mitochondrial membrane selectivity
23.15 Energy yield from carbohydrate catabolism

24 The Metabolism of Fatty Acids

24.1 Fatty acid mobilization
24.2 Fatty acid oxidation
24.3 Ketone bodies and cholesterol
24.4 Biosynthesis of fatty acids
24.5 Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols
24.6 Biosynthesis of membrane lipids

Box 24.1 Chemistry Within Us: Atherosclerosis

25 Amino Acid Metabolism

25.1 An overview of amino acid metabolism
25.2 Transamination and oxidative deamination
25.3 Amino group and ammonia transport
25.4 The urea cycle
25.5 Oxidation of the carbon skeleton
25.6 Heritable defects in amino acid metabolism
25.7 Biosynthesis of amino acids

26 Hormones and the Control of Metabolic Interrelationships

26.1 Unicellularity versus multicellularity
26.2 Hormones and communication between cells
26.3 Digestive processes
26.4 Metabolic characteristics of the major organs and tissues
26.5 Metabolic responses to physiological stress
26.6 Blood: The mass transport system of the body

PROFESSIONAL CONNECTIONS: Gerald Bennett: Psychiatric Nurse and Health Science Educator

Appendix 1 Nomenclature: Naming Chemical Compounds
Appendix 2 Significant Figures
Appendix 3 Scientific Notation
Appendix 4 Molarity

Answers to Problems Following In-Chapter Worked Examples
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

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General, Organic, and Biochemistry - 2nd edition

ISBN13: 978-0716743750
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