Summary: Frans de Waal takes on those who have declared ethics uniquely human. Making a compelling case for a morality grounded in biology, he shows that ethical behavior, in humans and animals alike, is as much a matter of evolution as any other trait.
"Evolutionary continuities have been sought in intelligence, language, tool making--anywhere but in morality. Now a respected ethologist, Frans de Waal, tackles the problem from a novel angle...Good Natured is n ...show moreo touchy-feely celebration of animal innocence, but a hardheaded study by a specialist in primate behavior with a wealth of observational experience. Mr. de Waal, a research scientist at the Yerkes Regional Primate Center at Emory University, presents his rich data in an accessible prose lit with flashes of wry humor and beautifully illustrated with his own vivid photographs...Far from being half ape, half angel, torn between a moral sense that strives upward and an eons-old bestial viciousness that drags us down, [we are portrayed by de Waal] as inheritors of a basically moral view of life that has evolved over countless millenniums--not through some fictitious social contract between self-sufficient individuals, but through the inevitable give-and-take of communal living...Anyone who cares about humans or their future will profit from this excellent book, which sheds at least as much light on our own lives as it does on those of other creatures."
--Derek Bickerton, New York Times Book Review "So lucid is de Waal's manner of setting things forth that each time he finishes drawing an aspect of animal morality, your first response is to wonder why you hadn't noticed it around the house, if not at a primate research center, a remote island, or the zoo...[His] startling contributions to the way the general reader, or general citizen, has of thinking seriously about `humans and other animals' might be permanent."
--Vicki Hearne, Village Voice Literary Supplement "A sparkling master work...de Waal...is perhaps the most literate, entertaining, and soulful of the cognitive ethologists...In Good Natured, [he] takes his humanizing project a step further, employing the rich lexicon of human moral concepts as figures of speech to depict and lend meaning to the behavior of nonhuman animals...[A] provocative, endearing, and brilliantly written book."
--Richard A. Shweder, Los Angeles Times "Modern Darwinian evolutionary theory is based on individual reproduction, on 'selfish' genes that have been selected at the expense of others that might act for the greater good. How then could survival of the fittest lead to empathy?...This profound paradox has led some scholars in the past to assume that the emergence of morals must be a transcendent process beyond the bounds of scientific explanation. Frans de Waal, one of the world's best-known primatologists, has set out to prove that assumption wrong. On the final page of his startling new book, he asserts that 'we seem to be reaching a point at which science can wrest morality from the hands of philosophers.' How the author...came to this conclusion makes for compelling reading."
--William C. McGrew, Scientific American "In [this] original and engaging new book...de Waal makes a strong case that the four ingredients of morality--empathy/sympathy, sharing or reciprocity, justice/rules and peacemaking/reconciliation--are very much evident in other mammals...The book employs a solid core of statistical evidence to bolster his case, but what makes his argument so compelling is the richness of detail...De Waal is an original thinker and writes with such a light hand that the reader can take a stimulating ride through his imaginative philosophical discourse...This work is...penetrating and profound."
--Vicki Croke, Boston Globe "De Waal [questions]...whether the roots of human morality can be found in the behaviour of other species. He is more or less ideally placed to answer that question, after years of perceptive research on captive chimpanzees, bonobos and monkeys...As de Waal fans will already know, chimpanzees and other primates come alive as individuals under his expert gaze...Sympathy, attachment, social norms, punishment, a sense of justice, reciprocation, peacemaking and community concern--all are writ large in chimpanzee society. Good Natured makes the point with the help of a profusion of gripping examples."
--Stephen Young, BBC Wildlife "As a book of ideas...this is excellent and on the whole I am inclined to believe de Waal's case for the antecedents of our own morality in other species, Perhaps most interestingly, however, is that the domain hitherto of philosophers is now being contested by evolutionary biologists. Not only does this tighten up the terms of the debate (as did ape language research for linguistics), but ironically it injects a special kind of humanism that recognises the origins of our moral failings as well as our successes."
--Thomas Sambrook, Times Higher Education Supplement "[A] well-written, provocative book."
--Charles T. Snowdon, Science ...show less
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