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Good Reasoning Matters! : A Constructive Approach to Critical Thinking

Good Reasoning Matters! : A Constructive Approach to Critical Thinking - 2nd edition

ISBN13: 978-0195412253

Cover of Good Reasoning Matters! : A Constructive Approach to Critical Thinking 2ND 97 (ISBN 978-0195412253)
ISBN13: 978-0195412253
ISBN10: 0195412257
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 2ND 97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Published: 1997
International: No

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Good Reasoning Matters! : A Constructive Approach to Critical Thinking - 2ND 97 edition

ISBN13: 978-0195412253

Leo A. Groarke

ISBN13: 978-0195412253
ISBN10: 0195412257
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 2ND 97
Publisher: Oxford University Press

Published: 1997
International: No
Summary

In this second edition of their successful book, the authors introduce over 150 new examples of argumentation from contemporary and ancient sources, ranging from Plato and Aristotle to university student newspapers. This completely revised edition also includes a section which gives sample answers to some of the many exercises found throughout the book.


Many books on reasoning emphasize fallacies, or bad arguments--an emphasis that can promote the jaded attitude that logic is a tool of finding fault with arguments and arguers. This innovative approach to critical thinking emphasizes the construction of good arguments instead. By isolating and focusing on the components of good reasoning, it teaches readers how to reason well and build their own good arguments. Bad arguments are treated as those which violate the criteria governing the good arguments. Analyzing bad arguments in this manner requires time and thought and avoids the hasty application of a fallacy label. Recognizing the importance of rhetorical considerations, this book also moves beyond traditional approaches to logic by introducing readers to the importance and intricacies of audience.

Author Bio

Groarke, Leo A. : Wilfrid Laurier University


Tindale, Christopher W. : Trent University


Fisher, Linda : Wilfrid Laurier University

Table of Contents

Introduction


1. Reading Between the Lines

1.1. Informative Language
1.2. Reading Between the Lines
1.3. Biases and Vested Interest
1.4. Biased Reasoning
1.5. Slanting by Omission and Distortion
1.6. Two Kinds of Propaganda
1.7. Summary
1.8. Major Exercise 1M

2. Looking for an Argument

2.1. Identifying Arguments
2.2. Definitions
2.3. Distinguishing Arguments and Non-Arguments
2.4. Diagraming Argments
2.5. Major Exercise 2M

3. Choosing Your Words

3.1. Using Words Precisely
3.2. Vagueness and Ambiguity
3.3. Formulating Definitions
3.4. Expressing Your Intended Meaning
3.5. Looking Ahead
3.6. Major Exercise 3M

4. Building Arguments

4.1. Abbreviated Arguments
4.2. Constructing Good Arguments
4.3. Major Exercise 4M

5. Evaluating Arguments

5.1. Good Arguments
5.2. Valid and Invalid Arguments
5.3. Forms of Argument
5.4. The Laws of Thought
5.5. Major Exercise 5M

6. Classifying Arguments

6.1. Categorical Statements
6.2. Immediate Inferences
6.3. Categorical Syllogisms
6.4. Testing Validity by Diagrams
6.5. Major Exercise 6M

7. Testing Syllogistic Arguments

7.1. Schematization
7.2. Distribution
7.3. Rules of Validity
7.4. Applying the Rules
7.5. Procedural Points
7.6. Major Exercise 7M

8. Some Ifs, Ands, and Buts

8.1. Simple and Complex Propositions
8.2. Translation in More Detail
8.3. Valid Propositional Arguments
8.4. Constructing Simple Proofs
8.5. Major Exercise 8M

9. Dilemma and Reductios

9.1. Conditional Introduction
9.2. Reductio Ad Absurdum Arguments
9.3. Dilemma
9.4. Answering a Dilemma
9.5. De Morgan's Laws
9.6. Major Exercise 9M

10. Assessing the Basics

10.1. Ordinary Reasoning and Probability
10.2. Acceptability
10.3. Relevance
10.4. Contextual Relevance
10.5. Sufficiency
10.6. Applying the Criteria
10.7. Major Exercise 10M

11. Forms of Reasoning

11.1. Generalization
11.2. Causal Reasoning
11.3. Slippery Slope Arguments
11.4. Arguments from Analogy
11.5. Appeals to Precedent
11.6. Major Exercise 11M

12. Further Forms

12.1. Two-Wrongs Reasoning
12.2. Two-Wrongs Reasoning by Analogy
12.3. Pro-Homine and Ad Hominem Reasoning
12.4. Guilt by Association
12.5. Appeals to Ignorance
12.6. Other Cases
12.7. Major Exercise 12M

13. Essaying an Argument

13.1. The Good Evaluative Critique
13.2. The Good Argumentative Essay
13.3. A Student's Paper
13.4. Critique
13.5. Revision
13.6. Conclusion
13.7. Major Exercise 13M


Exercise Answers
Index

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