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Identities and Inequalities

Identities and Inequalities - 2nd edition

ISBN13: 978-0073380100

Cover of Identities and Inequalities 2ND 12 (ISBN 978-0073380100)
ISBN13: 978-0073380100
ISBN10: 0073380105
Cover type: Paperback
Edition/Copyright: 2ND 12
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company
Published: 2012
International: No
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Identities and Inequalities - 2ND 12 edition

ISBN13: 978-0073380100

David M. Newman

ISBN13: 978-0073380100
ISBN10: 0073380105
Cover type: Paperback
Edition/Copyright: 2ND 12
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company

Published: 2012
International: No
Summary

We don't experience our everyday lives through just one lens; rather, we experience all elements of our identity-race, class, gender, sexuality-simultaneously. Identities and Inequalities acknowledges this complex reality and brings to light the importance of studying the intersections of race, class, gender, and sexuality. It also examines these intersections as both elements of personal identity and sources of social inequality. Newman has written a unique, engaging, and highly accessible book that will prepare students to study these all-important issues in a whole new way.

Table of Contents

Preface XIII Acknowledgments XXI Part 1 Identities 3 Chapter 1 Differences and Similarities 3 Similarities and Differences in Everyday Life: Drawing Lines 8 ''Classified'' Information: Forming Impressions 12 Variation Between Groups, Variation Within Groups 15 The Power of ''Normality'': All Differences Are Not Created Equal 17 Stratification, Power, and Privilege 21 Theories of Inequality 22 Structural-Functionalism 22 Conflict Theories 24 Cultural Capital 28 Conclusion 29 Investigating Identities and Inequalities Identity inheritance: Climbing up (or down) your family tree 30 Chapter 2 Manufacturing Difference: The Social Construction of Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality 32 Perspectives on Identity 35 Essentialism 37 Constructionism 39 Definitions of Differences and Identities 42 Racial/Ethnic Identities 43 The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity 44 Multiracial Identities 49 Class Identities 52 How Do Americans Determine Class Standing? 53 Who Is Poor? 55 Gender Identities 57 Gender Roles: Doing Gender 59 The Sexual Dichotomy 60 Intersexuals and Biological Ambiguity 63 Sexual Orientations 64 Heteronormativity 65 ''The Closet'' 66 The Complexity of Sexual Identity 68 Identities on the Borderlands 70 Intersections: Gay Black Men on the Down Low 72 Conclusion 74 Investigating Identities and Inequalities A sociological treasure hunt: The artifacts of identity 74 Chapter 3 Portraying Difference: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Language and the Media 76 Symbols and Language 78 Slurs 80 The Language of Difference 83 Gendered Language 83 Ethnoracial Language 85 Sexual Language 86 The Use of Language to Conceal Variation 87 The Differences of Language 89 The Battle over ''Political Correctness'' 92 Media Representations of Difference 95 Gender in the Media 96 Children's Exposure to Gender in the Media 96 Media-Reinforced Femininity 98 Media-Reinforced Masculinity 101 Race and Ethnicity in the Media 102 Sexuality in the Media 105 Social Class in the Media 108 Conclusion 111 Investigating Identities and Inequalities But I play one on TV: Media portraits of race, gender, and sexuality 112 Chapter 4 Learning Difference: Families, Schools, and Socialization 114 Identity Socialization in Families 116 Learning Genders 117 Biological Predispositions 117 Gender Training 119 Intersections: The Influence of Race on Gender Socialization 122 Gender Neutrality 123 Learning Racial Identities 126 Intersections: The Effects of Gender and Class on Racial Identities 129 Learning Sexualities 131 Was I Just Born This Way? 132 Intersections: The Effect of Gender on Learning Sexualities 134 Bisexualities 135 Learning Social Classes 136 Intersections: Class, Race, and Motherwork 139 Identity Socialization in Schools 141 Peer Influence 141 Gendered Lessons 143 Segregating the Sexes 144 Intersections: Gender, Race, and Bullying 145 Coaching Masculinities 147 Class and Race Lessons 149 Conclusion 153 Investigating Identities and Inequalities Go to your room: Race, gender, and childhood discipline 154 Part 2 Inequalities 157 Chapter 5 Expressing Inequalities: Prejudice and Discrimination in Everyday Life 158 Stereotypes: The Building Blocks of Bigotry 161 The Normality of Stereotypes 162 The Negativity of Positive Stereotypes 163 A ''Model'' Minority 163 The Lady and the Naturally Good Mother 165 Intersections: The Strong Black Woman 167 Prejudice: Perceiving Inequality 168 The Politics of Prejudice: Obama Effect or Obama Backlash? 170 Gender and Sexual Prejudice 172 Prejudice, Privilege, and Ideologies of Inferiority 173 Race and Biological Weakness 175 Gender and Biological Inevitability 176 The Hidden Privilege of Social Dominance 178 Intersections: Wealthy White Men and Perceptions of Race 182 Within-Group Prejudice 183 Discrimination: Inequality in Action 188 Personal Discrimination 188 Quiet Bias 189 The Enduring Importance of Race 192 Intersections: Race, Class, Gender, and Everyday Social Encounters 195 Global Ethnic Violence 196 Institutional Discrimination 197 Conclusion 201 Investigating Identities and Inequalities Race and retail: Personal and institutional discrimination in everyday life 203 Chapter 6 Inequalities in Economics and Work 206 Underprivilege and Overprivilege: Economic Imbalances in Everyday Life 208 Global Inequalities 209 U.S. Inequalities 209 The Middle-Class Squeeze 213 The Face of American Poverty: In the Shadow of Plenty 216 Sleepless on the Street 217 Poverty's Border 218 The Economies of Race and Ethnicity 220 Intersections: Race, Class, and Immigration 223 The Economies of Gender 225 Intersections: Race, Gender, and the Poverty of Single Parenthood 227 On the Job: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in the Workplace 230 Professional Training 231 The Corporate Closet 232 Racial Discrimination in the Workplace 234 Affirmative Action: Overcoming Institutional Discrimination 236 Gender and Work 239 Separate Spheres 240 Gender Discrimination in the Workplace 243 Intersections: Gendered Racism in the Workplace 246 Conclusion 247 Investigating Identities and Inequalities Living on the outskirts of poverty: A balanced budget 249 Chapter 7 Inequalities in Law and Justice 251 The Social Construction of Laws 253 Power, Politics, and Legal Definitions 254 The Laws of Intimacy 255 Miscegenation 256 Same-Sex Marriage 259 Race, Class, and Justice 263 Racial Profiling 264 Class and Crime 267 Prisons 269 Race, Class, and Death 274 Gendered Justice 277 Gender and the Law 277 Sexual Harassment 279 Gender and Violence 281 Intersections: Poverty, Gender, and Human Trafficking 282 Intimate Violence 284 Rape and Sexual Assault 284 Intimate Partner Violence 288 Conclusion 293 Investigating Identities and Inequalities Safe havens: Race, class, and the fear of crime 294 Chapter 8 Inequalities in Health and Illness 296 The Social Construction of Health and Illness 299 The Embodiment of Inequality 302 To Eat or Not to Eat 303 Hunger 304 Obesity 305 Intersections: Race, Class, Gender, and Weight 310 It's Not How You Feel, It's How You Look 311 Unequal and Unwell: The Stratification of Health and Health Care 314 Global Inequalities 314 Wealth and Health in the United States 319 Intersections: Race, Class, and Social Vulnerability: The (Un)Natural Disaster of Hurricane Katrina 321 The Color of Health 323 Environmental Discrimination 325 Health Care Suspicions 327 Gendered Health 328 Premenstrual Syndrome 330 The Medicalization of Childbirth 332 The Gendering of Medical Practice and Research 334 Men's Health 335 Homosexuality and Health 337 Conclusion 339 Investigating Identities and Inequalities Hospital stays: The unequal contours of American health care 340 Chapter 9 The Futures of Inequality 342 Possibilities: Altering Inequalities 344 Fickle Futures 348 Ethnoracial Outlooks 349 Evolving a Post-Racial, Post-Ethnic Society 351 Intersections: Discrimination in the Absence of Difference: Japan's Burakumin 354 Subdividing Race and Ethnicity 355 The Futures of Gender and the Sexual Dichotomy 358 The Futures of ''[Blank]sexuality'' 362 Stratification Outlooks: Class Dismissed? 363 Future Intersections 364 Final Thoughts 366 Investigating Identities and Inequalities Organizing for a change: Student groups on campus 368 References 370 Credits 420 Glossary/Index 421

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