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This text anticipates and solves problems encountered by students learning chemistry for the first time. The authors present the basic principles of general chemistry in a concise and down-to-earth fashion so that complex material is easier to learn. Assuming students have little background in science--let alone chemistry--Daub and Seese stress analogies to explain fundamentals. A review of basic mathematics (Chapter 1) is also provided.
Begins each chapter with a countdown that consist of five review questions from previously covered material.
the countdowns tie together various chapters and allow students to review earlier material
Provides a short essay at the end of each chapter called either Compound or Element that focuses on substances already familiar to students and shows how chemistry plays a role in everyday life.
Adds a new appendix called Your Calculator to provide easy-to-understand instructions on proper use of this tool.
Focuses on building problem-solving skills.
in-chapter examples are paired with practice exercises to reinforce concepts immediately after they are learned
includes tasks and objectives at the beginning of each chapter that are keyed to text examples, exercises, and problems (general problems are not grouped by section and require comprehension of several topics)
provides study hints in the margins that offer tips on how to think through a solution of a problem
concludes each chapter with problems and a quiz that help students check understanding
(NOTE: Each chapter begins with a Countdown, Tasks, and Objectives and concludes with Problems, General Problems, Answers to Exercises and a Quiz.)
1. Basic Mathematics.
Significant digits.
Mathematical operations involving significant digits.
Exponents.
Scientific notation.
Linear equations.
Water: A Chemical that Never Goes Out of Style.
2. Measurements.
Matter and its characteristics.
Measuring matter: The metric system and the international system of units.
Conversion within the metric system.
The factor-unit method of problem solving.
The English-based units.
Conversion from metric system to English-based units and vice versa.
Temperature.
Density.
Specific gravity.
Sodium Chloride: An Old Friend--Salt.
3. Matter.
Physical states of matter.
Homogeneious and heterogeneous matter.
Pure substances, solutions, and mixtures.
Compounds and elements.
Properties of pure substances.
Changes of pure substances.
Elements and atoms.
Compounds, formula units, and molecules.
Gold: Chemistry and the World Economy.
4. Atoms.
Atomic mass.
Dalton's atomic theory.
Subatomic particles.
Electrons, protons, and neutrons.
General arrangement of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
Atomic number.
Isotopes.
Arrangement of electrons in principal energy levels.
Electron-dot formulas of elements.
Silver: Pretty as a Picture.
5. The Periodic Classification of the Elements.
Grouping the elements: Metals and nonmetals.
The periodic law.
The periodic table.
Periods and groups.
General characteristics of the groups.
Mercury: Quicksilver.
6. Compounds.
Chemical bonds.
Charged species: Cations and anions.
Oxidation numbers.
Calculating oxidation numbers.
The ionic bond.
The covalent bond.
The coordinate covalent bond.
Lewis structures and structural formulas of molecules.
Polyatomic ions.
Writing formulas.
Using the periodic table to predict oxidation numbers, properties, formulas, and types of bonding in compounds.
Silicon: Chemistry and the Computer Revolution.
7. Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds.
Systematic chemical names.
Binary compounds containing two nonmetals.
Binary compounds containing a metal and a nonmetal.
Ternary and higher compounds.
Special ternary compounds.
Acids, bases and salts.
Oxygen: Chemistry and Life on Earth.
8. Chemical Calculations.
Calculation of formula or molecular masses.
Calculation of moles of units.
Avogadro's number. Molar volume of a gas and related calculations.
Calculation of percent composition of compounds.
Calculation of empirical (simplest) and molecular formulas.
Carbon: From Jewelry to Golf Clubs.
9. Chemical Equations.
Definition of a chemical equation.
The law of conservation of mass.
Terms, symbols, and their meanings.
Guidelines for balancing chemical equations.
Examples involving the balancing of equations.
Word equations.
Completing chemical equations.
The five simple types of chemical reactions.
Combination reactions.
Decomposition reactions.
Single-replacement reactions.
The electromotive or activity series.
Double-replacement reactions.
Rules for the solubility of inorganic substance is water.
Neutralization reactions.
Sucrose: How Sweet It Is!
10. Ionic Equations.
Electrolytes versus nonelectrolytes.
Guidelines for writing ionic equations.
Examples of ionic equations.
Carbon Dioxide: What Goes Around Comes Around.
11. Stoichiometry.
Information obtained from a balanced equation.
The mole method of solving stoichiometry problems.
The three basic steps.
Types of stoichiometry problems.
Mass-mass stoichiometry problems.
Mass- volume stoichiometry problems.
Volume-volume stoichiometry problems.
Heat in chemical reactions.
Copper: Chemistry and the Electronics Industry.
12. Gases.
The kinetic theory.
Pressure of gases.
Boyle's law.
Charles' law.
Gay-Lussac's law.
The combined gas laws.
Dalton's law of partial pressures.
Ideal-gas equation.
Hydrogen: Lighter than Air.
13. Solutions.
Solutions.
Concentration of solutions.
Percent by mass.
Molality.
Molarity.
Normality.
Soap: Chemistry Cleans Up.
14. More Advanced Topics.
Definitions of oxidation and reduction.
Oxidizing and reducing agents.
Balancing oxidation-reduction equations.
The ion electron method.
Titration.
Ionization of water.
pH and pOH.
Nitrogen Oxides: Chemistry and Smog.
Appendices.
1. SI Units and Some Conversion Factors.
2. Your Calculator.
3. Quadratic Equations.
4. Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures.
5. Answers to Problems and Quizzes.
Glossary.
Index.
This text anticipates and solves problems encountered by students learning chemistry for the first time. The authors present the basic principles of general chemistry in a concise and down-to-earth fashion so that complex material is easier to learn. Assuming students have little background in science--let alone chemistry--Daub and Seese stress analogies to explain fundamentals. A review of basic mathematics (Chapter 1) is also provided.
Begins each chapter with a countdown that consist of five review questions from previously covered material.
the countdowns tie together various chapters and allow students to review earlier material
Provides a short essay at the end of each chapter called either Compound or Element that focuses on substances already familiar to students and shows how chemistry plays a role in everyday life.
Adds a new appendix called Your Calculator to provide easy-to-understand instructions on proper use of this tool.
Focuses on building problem-solving skills.
in-chapter examples are paired with practice exercises to reinforce concepts immediately after they are learned
includes tasks and objectives at the beginning of each chapter that are keyed to text examples, exercises, and problems (general problems are not grouped by section and require comprehension of several topics)
provides study hints in the margins that offer tips on how to think through a solution of a problem
concludes each chapter with problems and a quiz that help students check understanding
Table of Contents
(NOTE: Each chapter begins with a Countdown, Tasks, and Objectives and concludes with Problems, General Problems, Answers to Exercises and a Quiz.)
1. Basic Mathematics.
Significant digits.
Mathematical operations involving significant digits.
Exponents.
Scientific notation.
Linear equations.
Water: A Chemical that Never Goes Out of Style.
2. Measurements.
Matter and its characteristics.
Measuring matter: The metric system and the international system of units.
Conversion within the metric system.
The factor-unit method of problem solving.
The English-based units.
Conversion from metric system to English-based units and vice versa.
Temperature.
Density.
Specific gravity.
Sodium Chloride: An Old Friend--Salt.
3. Matter.
Physical states of matter.
Homogeneious and heterogeneous matter.
Pure substances, solutions, and mixtures.
Compounds and elements.
Properties of pure substances.
Changes of pure substances.
Elements and atoms.
Compounds, formula units, and molecules.
Gold: Chemistry and the World Economy.
4. Atoms.
Atomic mass.
Dalton's atomic theory.
Subatomic particles.
Electrons, protons, and neutrons.
General arrangement of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
Atomic number.
Isotopes.
Arrangement of electrons in principal energy levels.
Electron-dot formulas of elements.
Silver: Pretty as a Picture.
5. The Periodic Classification of the Elements.
Grouping the elements: Metals and nonmetals.
The periodic law.
The periodic table.
Periods and groups.
General characteristics of the groups.
Mercury: Quicksilver.
6. Compounds.
Chemical bonds.
Charged species: Cations and anions.
Oxidation numbers.
Calculating oxidation numbers.
The ionic bond.
The covalent bond.
The coordinate covalent bond.
Lewis structures and structural formulas of molecules.
Polyatomic ions.
Writing formulas.
Using the periodic table to predict oxidation numbers, properties, formulas, and types of bonding in compounds.
Silicon: Chemistry and the Computer Revolution.
7. Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds.
Systematic chemical names.
Binary compounds containing two nonmetals.
Binary compounds containing a metal and a nonmetal.
Ternary and higher compounds.
Special ternary compounds.
Acids, bases and salts.
Oxygen: Chemistry and Life on Earth.
8. Chemical Calculations.
Calculation of formula or molecular masses.
Calculation of moles of units.
Avogadro's number. Molar volume of a gas and related calculations.
Calculation of percent composition of compounds.
Calculation of empirical (simplest) and molecular formulas.
Carbon: From Jewelry to Golf Clubs.
9. Chemical Equations.
Definition of a chemical equation.
The law of conservation of mass.
Terms, symbols, and their meanings.
Guidelines for balancing chemical equations.
Examples involving the balancing of equations.
Word equations.
Completing chemical equations.
The five simple types of chemical reactions.
Combination reactions.
Decomposition reactions.
Single-replacement reactions.
The electromotive or activity series.
Double-replacement reactions.
Rules for the solubility of inorganic substance is water.
Neutralization reactions.
Sucrose: How Sweet It Is!
10. Ionic Equations.
Electrolytes versus nonelectrolytes.
Guidelines for writing ionic equations.
Examples of ionic equations.
Carbon Dioxide: What Goes Around Comes Around.
11. Stoichiometry.
Information obtained from a balanced equation.
The mole method of solving stoichiometry problems.
The three basic steps.
Types of stoichiometry problems.
Mass-mass stoichiometry problems.
Mass- volume stoichiometry problems.
Volume-volume stoichiometry problems.
Heat in chemical reactions.
Copper: Chemistry and the Electronics Industry.
12. Gases.
The kinetic theory.
Pressure of gases.
Boyle's law.
Charles' law.
Gay-Lussac's law.
The combined gas laws.
Dalton's law of partial pressures.
Ideal-gas equation.
Hydrogen: Lighter than Air.
13. Solutions.
Solutions.
Concentration of solutions.
Percent by mass.
Molality.
Molarity.
Normality.
Soap: Chemistry Cleans Up.
14. More Advanced Topics.
Definitions of oxidation and reduction.
Oxidizing and reducing agents.
Balancing oxidation-reduction equations.
The ion electron method.
Titration.
Ionization of water.
pH and pOH.
Nitrogen Oxides: Chemistry and Smog.
Appendices.
1. SI Units and Some Conversion Factors.
2. Your Calculator.
3. Quadratic Equations.
4. Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures.
5. Answers to Problems and Quizzes.
Glossary.
Index.