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by Warren Jr. Viessman and Gary L. Lewis

Edition: 4TH 96Copyright: 1996

Publisher: Harpercollins College Division

Published: 1996

International: No

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The fourth edition of *Introduction to Hydrology* fully meets the contemporary needs of water scientists and engineers. Its clearly organized format makes this text accessible to both students and practitioners concerned with the development, management, and protection of water resources, and its logical course of development provides material for both introductory and more advanced courses. Featuring solved examples, chapters relating science to public policy, and reviews of current models, this text is not only a comprehensive look at the field of hydrology, but an exploration of current issues affecting the discipline today.

*Introduction to Hydrology* has been updated throughout with new computer approaches and coverage of the use of spreadsheets woven into problem-solving techniques when appropriate. In addition, two new features have been added to each chapter to enhance student comprehension: an introductory statement of contents; and a conclusion summing up key points.

**Learning Aids: **Solved Examples

Student Assignments

Spreadsheets

**Viessman, Warren Jr. : University of Florida**

Warren Viessman Jr. is Associate Dean for Academic Programs, College of Engineering, at the University of Florida . Dr. Viessman is an accomplished author with more than 150 publications, including three best-selling textbooks. He has served as the President of both the American Water Resources Association and the Universities Council on Water Resources. Recognized for his outstanding contributions as an engineer and educator, Professor Viessman has been the recipient of several awards. Most notable are the American Society of Civil Engineers' Julian Hinds Award, the Department of the Army Commander's Award for Public Service, and the AWRA's Henry P. Caufield, Jr. Medal for Exemplary Contributions to National Water Policy. Dr. Viessman is a Fellow of the American Water Resources Association.Other Titles by Warren Viessman, Jr. : *Water Supply and Pollution Control*, Sixth Edition (1998); *Water Supply and Pollution Control*, Fifth Edition (1993).

**Lewis, Gary L. : **

Preface

**PART I: THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE **

**1. Introduction **

Hydrology Defined

A Brief History

The Hydrologic Cycle

The Hydrologic Budget

Hydrologic Models

Hydrologic Data

Common Units of Measurement

Application of Hydrology to Environmental Problems

**2. Precipitation **

Water Vapor

Precipitation

Distribution of the Precipitation Input

Point Precipitation

Areal Precipitation

Probable Maximum Precipitation

Gross and Net Precipitation

**3. Interception and Depression Storage **

Interception

Throughfall

Depression Storage

**4. Infiltration **

Measuring Infiltration

Calculation of Infiltration

Horton's Infiltration Model

Green-AMPT Model

Huggins-Monke Model

Holtan Model

Recovery of Infiltration Capacity

Temporal and Spatial Variability of Infiltration Capacity

SCS Runoff Curve Number Procedure

Index

**5. Evaporation and Transportation **

Evaporation

Estimating Evaporation

Evaporation Control

Transpiration

Transpiration Control

Evapotranspiration

Estimating Evapotranspiration

**6. Streamflow **

Drainage Basin Effects

The Hydrograph

Units of Measurement for Streamflow

Measuring and Recording Streamflow

Measurements of Depth and Cross-Sectional Area

Measurement of Velocity

Relating Point Velocity to Cross-Sectional Flow Velocity

The Slope-Area Method for Determining Discharge

**PART II: HYDROLOGIC MEASUREMENTS AND MONITORING **

**7. Hydrologic Data Sources **

General Climatological Data

Precipitation Data

Streamflow Data

Evaporation and Transpiration Data

**8. Instrumentation **

Introduction

Hydrologic Instruments

Telemetry Systems

Remote Sensing

**9. Monitoring Networks **

The Purpose of Monitoring

Special Considerations

Use of Computers in Monitoring

Hydrological-Meteorlogical Networks

**PART III: SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY **

**10. Runoff and the Catchment **

Catchments, Watersheds, and Drainage Basins

Basin Characteristics Affecting Runoff

Rudimentary Precipitation-Runoff Relationships

Streamflow Frequency Analysis

Streamflow Forecasting

**11. Hydrographs **

Streamflow Hydrographs

Factors Affecting Hydrograph Shape

Hydrograph Components

Base Flow Separation

Hydrograph Time Relationships

Time of Concentration

Basin Lag Time

**12. Unit Hydrographs **

Unit Hydrograph Definition

Derivation of Unit Hydrographs from Streamflow Data

Unit Hydrograph Applications by Lagging Methods

S-Hydrograph Method

The Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph

Synthetic Unit Hydrographs

**13. Hydrograph Routing **

Hydrologic River Routing

Hydrologic Reservoir Routing

Hydraulic River Routing

**14. Snow Hydrology **

Introduction

Snow Accumulation and Runoff

Snow Measurements and Surveys

Point and Areal Snow Characteristics

The Snowmelt Process

Snowmelt Runoff Determinations

**15. Urban and Small Watershed Hydrology **

Introduction

Peak Flow Formulas for Urban Watersheds

Peak Flow Formulas for Small Rural Watersheds

Runoff Effects of Urbanization

**16. Hydrologic Design **

Hydrologic Design Procedures

Data for Hydrologic Design

Hydrologic Design-Frequency Criteria

Design Storms

Critical Event Methods

Airport Drainage Design

Design of Urban Storm Drain Systems

Floodplain Analysis

**PART IV: GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY **

**17. Groundwater, Soils, and Geology **

Introduction

Groundwater Flow--General Properties

Subsurface Distribution of Water

Geologic Considerations

Fluctuations in Ground Water Level

Groundwater-Surface Water Relations

**18. Mechanics of Flow **

Hydrostatics

Groundwater Flow

Darcy's Law

Permeability

Velocity Potential

Hydrodynamic Equations

Flowlines and Equipotential Lines

Boundary Conditions

Flow Nets

Variable Hydraulic Conductivity

Anisotropy

Dupuit's Theory

**19. Wells and Collection Devices **

Flow to Wells

Steady Unconfined Radial Flow Toward a Well

Steady Confined Radial Flow Toward a Well

Well in A Uniform Flow Field

Well Fields

The Method of Images

Unsteady Flow

Leaky Aquifers

Partially Penetrating Wells

Flow to an Infiltration Gallery

Saltwater Intrusion

Groundwater Basin Development

**20. Modeling Regional Groundwater Systems **

Regional Groundwater Models

Finite-Difference Methods

Finite-Element Methods

Model Applications

Groundwater Quality Models

**PART V: HYDROLOGIC MODELING **

**21. Introduction to Hydrologic Modeling **

Hydrologic Simulation

Groundwater Simulation

Hydrologic Simulation Protocol

Corps of Engineers Simulation Models

**22. Synthetic Streamflows **

Synthetic Hydrology

**23. Continuous Simulation Models **

Continuous Streamflow Simulation Models

Continuous Simulation Model Studies

**24. Single-Event Simulation Models **

Storm Event Simulation

Federal Agency Single-Event Models

Storm Surge Modeling

**25. Urban Runoff Simulation Models **

Urban Stormwater System Models

Urban Runoff Models Compared

Vendor-Developed Urban Stormwater Software

**PART VI: STATISTICAL METHODS **

**26. Probability and Statistics **

Random Variables and Statistical Analysis

Concepts of Probability

Probability Distributions

Moments of Distributions

Distribution Characteristics

Types of Probability Distribution Functions

Continuous Probability Distribution Functions

Bivariate Linear Regression and Correlation

Fitting Regression Equations

Regression and Correlation Applications

**27. Frequency Analysis **

Frequency Analysis

Graphical Frequency Analysis

Frequency Analysis Using Frequency Factors

Regional Frequency Analysis

Reliability of Frequency Studies

Frequency Analysis of Partial Duration Series

Flow Duration Analysis

Appendices

Index

Summary

The fourth edition of *Introduction to Hydrology* fully meets the contemporary needs of water scientists and engineers. Its clearly organized format makes this text accessible to both students and practitioners concerned with the development, management, and protection of water resources, and its logical course of development provides material for both introductory and more advanced courses. Featuring solved examples, chapters relating science to public policy, and reviews of current models, this text is not only a comprehensive look at the field of hydrology, but an exploration of current issues affecting the discipline today.

*Introduction to Hydrology* has been updated throughout with new computer approaches and coverage of the use of spreadsheets woven into problem-solving techniques when appropriate. In addition, two new features have been added to each chapter to enhance student comprehension: an introductory statement of contents; and a conclusion summing up key points.

**Learning Aids: **Solved Examples

Student Assignments

Spreadsheets

Author Bio

**Viessman, Warren Jr. : University of Florida**

Warren Viessman Jr. is Associate Dean for Academic Programs, College of Engineering, at the University of Florida . Dr. Viessman is an accomplished author with more than 150 publications, including three best-selling textbooks. He has served as the President of both the American Water Resources Association and the Universities Council on Water Resources. Recognized for his outstanding contributions as an engineer and educator, Professor Viessman has been the recipient of several awards. Most notable are the American Society of Civil Engineers' Julian Hinds Award, the Department of the Army Commander's Award for Public Service, and the AWRA's Henry P. Caufield, Jr. Medal for Exemplary Contributions to National Water Policy. Dr. Viessman is a Fellow of the American Water Resources Association.Other Titles by Warren Viessman, Jr. : *Water Supply and Pollution Control*, Sixth Edition (1998); *Water Supply and Pollution Control*, Fifth Edition (1993).

**Lewis, Gary L. : **

Table of Contents

Preface

**PART I: THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE **

**1. Introduction **

Hydrology Defined

A Brief History

The Hydrologic Cycle

The Hydrologic Budget

Hydrologic Models

Hydrologic Data

Common Units of Measurement

Application of Hydrology to Environmental Problems

**2. Precipitation **

Water Vapor

Precipitation

Distribution of the Precipitation Input

Point Precipitation

Areal Precipitation

Probable Maximum Precipitation

Gross and Net Precipitation

**3. Interception and Depression Storage **

Interception

Throughfall

Depression Storage

**4. Infiltration **

Measuring Infiltration

Calculation of Infiltration

Horton's Infiltration Model

Green-AMPT Model

Huggins-Monke Model

Holtan Model

Recovery of Infiltration Capacity

Temporal and Spatial Variability of Infiltration Capacity

SCS Runoff Curve Number Procedure

Index

**5. Evaporation and Transportation **

Evaporation

Estimating Evaporation

Evaporation Control

Transpiration

Transpiration Control

Evapotranspiration

Estimating Evapotranspiration

**6. Streamflow **

Drainage Basin Effects

The Hydrograph

Units of Measurement for Streamflow

Measuring and Recording Streamflow

Measurements of Depth and Cross-Sectional Area

Measurement of Velocity

Relating Point Velocity to Cross-Sectional Flow Velocity

The Slope-Area Method for Determining Discharge

**PART II: HYDROLOGIC MEASUREMENTS AND MONITORING **

**7. Hydrologic Data Sources **

General Climatological Data

Precipitation Data

Streamflow Data

Evaporation and Transpiration Data

**8. Instrumentation **

Introduction

Hydrologic Instruments

Telemetry Systems

Remote Sensing

**9. Monitoring Networks **

The Purpose of Monitoring

Special Considerations

Use of Computers in Monitoring

Hydrological-Meteorlogical Networks

**PART III: SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY **

**10. Runoff and the Catchment **

Catchments, Watersheds, and Drainage Basins

Basin Characteristics Affecting Runoff

Rudimentary Precipitation-Runoff Relationships

Streamflow Frequency Analysis

Streamflow Forecasting

**11. Hydrographs **

Streamflow Hydrographs

Factors Affecting Hydrograph Shape

Hydrograph Components

Base Flow Separation

Hydrograph Time Relationships

Time of Concentration

Basin Lag Time

**12. Unit Hydrographs **

Unit Hydrograph Definition

Derivation of Unit Hydrographs from Streamflow Data

Unit Hydrograph Applications by Lagging Methods

S-Hydrograph Method

The Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph

Synthetic Unit Hydrographs

**13. Hydrograph Routing **

Hydrologic River Routing

Hydrologic Reservoir Routing

Hydraulic River Routing

**14. Snow Hydrology **

Introduction

Snow Accumulation and Runoff

Snow Measurements and Surveys

Point and Areal Snow Characteristics

The Snowmelt Process

Snowmelt Runoff Determinations

**15. Urban and Small Watershed Hydrology **

Introduction

Peak Flow Formulas for Urban Watersheds

Peak Flow Formulas for Small Rural Watersheds

Runoff Effects of Urbanization

**16. Hydrologic Design **

Hydrologic Design Procedures

Data for Hydrologic Design

Hydrologic Design-Frequency Criteria

Design Storms

Critical Event Methods

Airport Drainage Design

Design of Urban Storm Drain Systems

Floodplain Analysis

**PART IV: GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY **

**17. Groundwater, Soils, and Geology **

Introduction

Groundwater Flow--General Properties

Subsurface Distribution of Water

Geologic Considerations

Fluctuations in Ground Water Level

Groundwater-Surface Water Relations

**18. Mechanics of Flow **

Hydrostatics

Groundwater Flow

Darcy's Law

Permeability

Velocity Potential

Hydrodynamic Equations

Flowlines and Equipotential Lines

Boundary Conditions

Flow Nets

Variable Hydraulic Conductivity

Anisotropy

Dupuit's Theory

**19. Wells and Collection Devices **

Flow to Wells

Steady Unconfined Radial Flow Toward a Well

Steady Confined Radial Flow Toward a Well

Well in A Uniform Flow Field

Well Fields

The Method of Images

Unsteady Flow

Leaky Aquifers

Partially Penetrating Wells

Flow to an Infiltration Gallery

Saltwater Intrusion

Groundwater Basin Development

**20. Modeling Regional Groundwater Systems **

Regional Groundwater Models

Finite-Difference Methods

Finite-Element Methods

Model Applications

Groundwater Quality Models

**PART V: HYDROLOGIC MODELING **

**21. Introduction to Hydrologic Modeling **

Hydrologic Simulation

Groundwater Simulation

Hydrologic Simulation Protocol

Corps of Engineers Simulation Models

**22. Synthetic Streamflows **

Synthetic Hydrology

**23. Continuous Simulation Models **

Continuous Streamflow Simulation Models

Continuous Simulation Model Studies

**24. Single-Event Simulation Models **

Storm Event Simulation

Federal Agency Single-Event Models

Storm Surge Modeling

**25. Urban Runoff Simulation Models **

Urban Stormwater System Models

Urban Runoff Models Compared

Vendor-Developed Urban Stormwater Software

**PART VI: STATISTICAL METHODS **

**26. Probability and Statistics **

Random Variables and Statistical Analysis

Concepts of Probability

Probability Distributions

Moments of Distributions

Distribution Characteristics

Types of Probability Distribution Functions

Continuous Probability Distribution Functions

Bivariate Linear Regression and Correlation

Fitting Regression Equations

Regression and Correlation Applications

**27. Frequency Analysis **

Frequency Analysis

Graphical Frequency Analysis

Frequency Analysis Using Frequency Factors

Regional Frequency Analysis

Reliability of Frequency Studies

Frequency Analysis of Partial Duration Series

Flow Duration Analysis

Appendices

Index

Publisher Info

Publisher: Harpercollins College Division

Published: 1996

International: No

Published: 1996

International: No

*Introduction to Hydrology* fully meets the contemporary needs of water scientists and engineers. Its clearly organized format makes this text accessible to both students and practitioners concerned with the development, management, and protection of water resources, and its logical course of development provides material for both introductory and more advanced courses. Featuring solved examples, chapters relating science to public policy, and reviews of current models, this text is not only a comprehensive look at the field of hydrology, but an exploration of current issues affecting the discipline today.

*Introduction to Hydrology* has been updated throughout with new computer approaches and coverage of the use of spreadsheets woven into problem-solving techniques when appropriate. In addition, two new features have been added to each chapter to enhance student comprehension: an introductory statement of contents; and a conclusion summing up key points.

**Learning Aids: **Solved Examples

Student Assignments

Spreadsheets

**Viessman, Warren Jr. : University of Florida**

Warren Viessman Jr. is Associate Dean for Academic Programs, College of Engineering, at the University of Florida . Dr. Viessman is an accomplished author with more than 150 publications, including three best-selling textbooks. He has served as the President of both the American Water Resources Association and the Universities Council on Water Resources. Recognized for his outstanding contributions as an engineer and educator, Professor Viessman has been the recipient of several awards. Most notable are the American Society of Civil Engineers' Julian Hinds Award, the Department of the Army Commander's Award for Public Service, and the AWRA's Henry P. Caufield, Jr. Medal for Exemplary Contributions to National Water Policy. Dr. Viessman is a Fellow of the American Water Resources Association.Other Titles by Warren Viessman, Jr. : *Water Supply and Pollution Control*, Sixth Edition (1998); *Water Supply and Pollution Control*, Fifth Edition (1993).

**Lewis, Gary L. : **

Preface

**PART I: THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE **

**1. Introduction **

Hydrology Defined

A Brief History

The Hydrologic Cycle

The Hydrologic Budget

Hydrologic Models

Hydrologic Data

Common Units of Measurement

Application of Hydrology to Environmental Problems

**2. Precipitation **

Water Vapor

Precipitation

Distribution of the Precipitation Input

Point Precipitation

Areal Precipitation

Probable Maximum Precipitation

Gross and Net Precipitation

**3. Interception and Depression Storage **

Interception

Throughfall

Depression Storage

**4. Infiltration **

Measuring Infiltration

Calculation of Infiltration

Horton's Infiltration Model

Green-AMPT Model

Huggins-Monke Model

Holtan Model

Recovery of Infiltration Capacity

Temporal and Spatial Variability of Infiltration Capacity

SCS Runoff Curve Number Procedure

Index

**5. Evaporation and Transportation **

Evaporation

Estimating Evaporation

Evaporation Control

Transpiration

Transpiration Control

Evapotranspiration

Estimating Evapotranspiration

**6. Streamflow **

Drainage Basin Effects

The Hydrograph

Units of Measurement for Streamflow

Measuring and Recording Streamflow

Measurements of Depth and Cross-Sectional Area

Measurement of Velocity

Relating Point Velocity to Cross-Sectional Flow Velocity

The Slope-Area Method for Determining Discharge

**PART II: HYDROLOGIC MEASUREMENTS AND MONITORING **

**7. Hydrologic Data Sources **

General Climatological Data

Precipitation Data

Streamflow Data

Evaporation and Transpiration Data

**8. Instrumentation **

Introduction

Hydrologic Instruments

Telemetry Systems

Remote Sensing

**9. Monitoring Networks **

The Purpose of Monitoring

Special Considerations

Use of Computers in Monitoring

Hydrological-Meteorlogical Networks

**PART III: SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY **

**10. Runoff and the Catchment **

Catchments, Watersheds, and Drainage Basins

Basin Characteristics Affecting Runoff

Rudimentary Precipitation-Runoff Relationships

Streamflow Frequency Analysis

Streamflow Forecasting

**11. Hydrographs **

Streamflow Hydrographs

Factors Affecting Hydrograph Shape

Hydrograph Components

Base Flow Separation

Hydrograph Time Relationships

Time of Concentration

Basin Lag Time

**12. Unit Hydrographs **

Unit Hydrograph Definition

Derivation of Unit Hydrographs from Streamflow Data

Unit Hydrograph Applications by Lagging Methods

S-Hydrograph Method

The Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph

Synthetic Unit Hydrographs

**13. Hydrograph Routing **

Hydrologic River Routing

Hydrologic Reservoir Routing

Hydraulic River Routing

**14. Snow Hydrology **

Introduction

Snow Accumulation and Runoff

Snow Measurements and Surveys

Point and Areal Snow Characteristics

The Snowmelt Process

Snowmelt Runoff Determinations

**15. Urban and Small Watershed Hydrology **

Introduction

Peak Flow Formulas for Urban Watersheds

Peak Flow Formulas for Small Rural Watersheds

Runoff Effects of Urbanization

**16. Hydrologic Design **

Hydrologic Design Procedures

Data for Hydrologic Design

Hydrologic Design-Frequency Criteria

Design Storms

Critical Event Methods

Airport Drainage Design

Design of Urban Storm Drain Systems

Floodplain Analysis

**PART IV: GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY **

**17. Groundwater, Soils, and Geology **

Introduction

Groundwater Flow--General Properties

Subsurface Distribution of Water

Geologic Considerations

Fluctuations in Ground Water Level

Groundwater-Surface Water Relations

**18. Mechanics of Flow **

Hydrostatics

Groundwater Flow

Darcy's Law

Permeability

Velocity Potential

Hydrodynamic Equations

Flowlines and Equipotential Lines

Boundary Conditions

Flow Nets

Variable Hydraulic Conductivity

Anisotropy

Dupuit's Theory

**19. Wells and Collection Devices **

Flow to Wells

Steady Unconfined Radial Flow Toward a Well

Steady Confined Radial Flow Toward a Well

Well in A Uniform Flow Field

Well Fields

The Method of Images

Unsteady Flow

Leaky Aquifers

Partially Penetrating Wells

Flow to an Infiltration Gallery

Saltwater Intrusion

Groundwater Basin Development

**20. Modeling Regional Groundwater Systems **

Regional Groundwater Models

Finite-Difference Methods

Finite-Element Methods

Model Applications

Groundwater Quality Models

**PART V: HYDROLOGIC MODELING **

**21. Introduction to Hydrologic Modeling **

Hydrologic Simulation

Groundwater Simulation

Hydrologic Simulation Protocol

Corps of Engineers Simulation Models

**22. Synthetic Streamflows **

Synthetic Hydrology

**23. Continuous Simulation Models **

Continuous Streamflow Simulation Models

Continuous Simulation Model Studies

**24. Single-Event Simulation Models **

Storm Event Simulation

Federal Agency Single-Event Models

Storm Surge Modeling

**25. Urban Runoff Simulation Models **

Urban Stormwater System Models

Urban Runoff Models Compared

Vendor-Developed Urban Stormwater Software

**PART VI: STATISTICAL METHODS **

**26. Probability and Statistics **

Random Variables and Statistical Analysis

Concepts of Probability

Probability Distributions

Moments of Distributions

Distribution Characteristics

Types of Probability Distribution Functions

Continuous Probability Distribution Functions

Bivariate Linear Regression and Correlation

Fitting Regression Equations

Regression and Correlation Applications

**27. Frequency Analysis **

Frequency Analysis

Graphical Frequency Analysis

Frequency Analysis Using Frequency Factors

Regional Frequency Analysis

Reliability of Frequency Studies

Frequency Analysis of Partial Duration Series

Flow Duration Analysis

Appendices

Index