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Introduction to Learning and Behavior

Introduction to Learning and Behavior - 02 edition

ISBN13: 978-0534964726

Cover of Introduction to Learning and Behavior 02 (ISBN 978-0534964726)
ISBN13: 978-0534964726
ISBN10: 0534964729
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 02
Publisher: Wadsworth, Inc
Published: 2002
International: No

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Introduction to Learning and Behavior - 02 edition

ISBN13: 978-0534964726

Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk and Suzanne E. MacDonald

ISBN13: 978-0534964726
ISBN10: 0534964729
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 02
Publisher: Wadsworth, Inc

Published: 2002
International: No
Summary

Designed to apply learning theory and principles to the presentation of learning, this text shows how learning principles work in both animals and people. On nearly every page of the book, the authors show how the study of learning helps solve practical problems, such as learning to improve study skills, conquer weight problems, improve relationships, raise children, and effectively stop smoking. This basic book is both solidly based in research and engaging for the student.

Benefits:

  • Since--according to learning theory--frequent review enhances retention, Quick Quizzes are interspersed throughout each Chapter-opening vignettes present an engaging story that introduces students to the chapter material ahead.
  • Learning aids at the end of each chapter work to reinforce chapter concepts and build student confidence. These aids include: study questions, concept review with terms and definitions, and self-test with answers.
  • And Another Thing? boxes apply chapter concepts to real-world issues, giving students additional information on how course topics apply outside the classroom.
  • The latest news and research articles online, updated daily and spanning four years! Choose to package InfoTrac College Edition with this text and you and your students will have 4-months of free access to an easy-to-use online database of reliable, full-length articles (not abstracts) from hundreds of top academic journals and popular sources. Contact your Wadsworth/Thomson Learning representative for more information. Available to North American college and university students only. Journals subject to change.

Author Bio

Powell, Russell A. : Grant MacEwan Community College


Symbaluk, Diane G. : Grant MacEwan Community College


MacDonald, Suzanne E. : Grant MacEwan Community College

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION

Historical Background
Aristotle: Empiricism and the Laws of Association
Descartes: Mind-Body Dualism and the Reflex
The British Empiricists
Structuralism: The Experimental Study of Consciousness
Functionalism: The Study of the Adaptive Mind
Behaviorism: The Study of Observable Behavior
Five Schools of Behaviorism
Watson's Methodological Behaviorism
Hull's Neobehaviorism
Tolman's Cognitive Behaviorism
Bandura's Social Learning Theory
B.F. Skinner's Radical Behaviorism
The Life of B.F. Skinner


2. RESEARCH METHODS

Basic Terms and Definitions
Variables
Independent and Dependent Variables
Functional Relationships
Stimulus and Response
Overt and Covert Behavior
Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli
Establishing Operations: Deprivation and Satiation
Contiguity and Contingency
Measurement of Behavior
Behavioral Definitions
Recording Methods
Research designs
Descriptive Research
Experimental Research

3. ELICITED BEHAVIORS AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Elicited Behaviors
Reflexes
Fixed Action Patterns
Simple Mechanisms of Learning
Habituation and Sensitization
The Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov's Discovery of Classical Conditioning
Basic Procedure and Definitions
Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning
Excitatory and Inhibitory Conditioning
Temporal Arrangement of Stimuli

4. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: BASIC PHENOMENA AND VARIOUS COMPLEXITIES

Basic Conditioning Phenomena
Acquisition
Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, and Disinhibition
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
Discrimination Training and Experimental Neurosis
Two Extensions to Classical Conditioning
Higer-Order Conditioning
Sensory Preconditioning
Thee Limitations to Classical Conditioning
Overshadowing
Blocking
Latent Inhibition
Additional Phenomena
Temporal Conditioning
Occasion Setting
US Revaluation
Pseudoconditioning

5. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: UNDERLYING PROCESSES AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

Underlying Processes in Classical Conditioning
S-S Versus S-R Learning
Stimulus-Substitution Versus Preparatory-Response Theory
Compensatory-Response Model
Rescorla-Wagner Theory
Practical Applications of Classical Conditioning
Understanding Phobias
Treating Phobias
Aversion Therapy for Eliminating Problem Behaviors
Medical Applications

6. OPERANT CONDITIONING: INTRODUCTION

Historical Background
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Skinner's Learning by Consequences
Operant Conditioning
The Operant Response
Operant Consequences: Reinforcers and Punishers
Operant Antecedents: Discriminative Stimuli
Four Types of Consequences
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Positive Punishment
Negative Punishment
Positive Reinforcement: Further Distinctions
Immediate versus Delayed Reinforcement
Primary and Secondary Reinforcement
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcement
Shaping

7. OPERANT CONDITIONING: SCHEDULES AND THEORIES OF REINFORCEMENT

Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous versus Intermittent Schedules
Other Simple Schedules of Reinforcement
Chained Schedules
Theories of Reinforcement
Drive Reduction Theory
The Premack Principle
Response Deprivation Hypothesis
Behavioral Bliss Point Approach

8. EXTINCTION AND STIMULUS CONTROL

Extinction
Side Effects of Extinction
Resistance to Extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior
Stimulus Control
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
The Peak Shift Effect
Multiple Schedules and Behavioral Contrast
Fading and Errorless Discrimination Learning
Stimulus Control: Additional Applications

9. ESCAPE, AVOIDANCE, AND PUNISHMENT

Escape and Avoidance
Two-Process Theory of Avoidance
Avoidance Conditioning and Phobias
Avoidance Conditioning and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Punishment
Types of Punishment
Theories of Punishment
Issues Concerning the Use of Punishment
Effects of Noncontingent Punishment
Learned Helplessness
Masserman's Experimaental Neurosis

10. CHOICE, MATCHING, AND SELF-CONTROL

Choice and Matching
Concurrent Schedules
The Matching Law
Devations from Matching
Matching and Melioration
Self-Control
Skinner on Self-Control
Self-Control as a Temporal Issue
The Ainslie-Rachlin Model of Self-Control
Cognitive Factors in Self-Control

11. BIOLOGICAL DISPOSITIONS IN LEARNING

Preparedness and Conditioning
Preparedness in Classical Conditioning
Preparedness in Operant Conditioning
Operant-Respondent Interactions
Instinctive Drift
Sign Tracking
Adjunctive Behavior
Adjunctive Behavior: Defining Characteristics
Adjunctive Behavior in Humans
Adjunctive Behavior as Displacement Activity
Activity Anorexia
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristics
Comparisons with Anorexia Nervosa
Underlying Mechanisms
Clinical Implications

12. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING, LANGUAGE, AND RULE-GOVERNED BEHAVIOR

Observational Learning
In Classical Conditioning
In Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning in Animals
Language
Can Animals Talk? Cross-Fostering Experiments
Artificial Language Experiments
Rule-Governed Behavior
What It Is and Why It's Useful
Personal Rules in Self-Regulation
Some Disadvantages of Rule-Governed Behavior

REFERENCES
NAME INDEX
SUBJECT INDEX

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