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Edition/Copyright: 6TH 01
Purves, William K. : Harvey Mudd College
Sadava, David : Claremont Graduate University / Claremont McKenna College
Orians, Gordon H. : University of Washington
Heller, Craig : Stanford University
1. An Evolutionary Framework for Biology
PART ONE: THE CELL
2. Small Molecules: Structure and Behavior
More focus on biologically related chemistry, including acid and bases and electronegativity. Less emphasis on pure chemistry. Isotopes in medicine.
3. Macromolecules: Their Chemistry and Biology
Reorganized to put polymers (carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids) first. Focused, biologically related discussion of the role of protein surfaces in chemical interactions. This relationship of structure and function is reiterated later in Part I (e.g., membrane transport, enzymes).
4. The Organization of Cells
The older methods section on cell fractionation/organelle isolation has been eliminated. The chapter has been reorganized to put the endomembane system earlier. Emphasis on the roles of organelles, as well as their structures.
5. Cellular Membranes
Major new discussion of homotypic and heterotypic cell binding as an important membrane function. This sets the stage for later descriptions of development. The membrane transport sections have been reorganized for more clarity of the differences between facilitated and active transport. Much of the material on cell communication has been moved to the new chapter (15).
6. Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism
The emphasis on protein structure/binding reiterates Chapter 3. The discussions of thermodynamics have been refocused for biological emphasis. New section on what happens during catalysis.
7. Cellular Pathways That Harvest Chemical Energy
The discussion of the chemiosmotic mechanism are clearer, with emphasis on membranes and equilibrium. Two important experiments that helped prove chemiosmosis are described. There is a new section on metabolic interrelationships among pathways e.g., transaminations. The role of the citric acid cycle as the center of metabolism is emphasized.
8. Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun
New section on plant metabolic relationships: Calvin, citric cycles, and glycolysis. This puts the carbon fixed in photosynthesis in an overall perspective. There is new emphasis on the ecological adaptations of C3 and C4 photosynthesis and less on the precise biochemistry. These pathways are placed in evolutionary perspective.
PART TWO INFORMATION AND HEREDITY
9. Chromosomes, the Cell Cycle, and Cell Division
New and updated discussions on the checkpoints of the cell cycle, the bacterial cell cycle and the centrosome cycle.
10. Transmission Genetics: Mendel and Beyond
Human pedigree analysis has been woven into the descriptions of Mendelian and sex-linked genetics. There is a new discussion of cytoplasmic inheritance in mitochondria and diseases that arise from it. There is also a description of hybrid vigor in agricultural genetics.
11. DNA and Its Role in Heredity
The discussion of DNA replication has been updated to describe the stationary replication machine, with DNA threading through. PCR and DNA sequencing are now in this chapter, as they are applications of DNA replication and they are used in chapters 12-14.
12. From DNA to Protein: Genotype to Phenotype
New section of post-translational events such as protein targeting and protein modifications such as glycosylation, phosphorylation, and proteolysis. The contemporary 4 site model of tRNA on ribosome is described but there is still an emphasis on the A&P sites.
13. The Genetics of Viruses and Prokaryotes
The material on bacterial genetics and phage mapping has been trimmed down and replaced with a new section on prokaryotic genomes: sequences, the minimal cell and functional genomics. There is a new section on phage lambda operon control of lysis vs lysogeny and also one on the strategy of virus replication.
14. The Eukaryotic Genome and Its Expression
New section on genomes: yeast building on bacteria and worm building on yeast and fruit fly building on worm, etc. There is less emphasis on repetitive sequences and a new section on chromatin remodeling and transcription. The role of the proteasome in protein degradation is also a current topic.
15. Cell Signaling and Communication
This is a new chapter on cell signaling. It comes at this place in the book because this is where the students have the background for it. The chapter uses and reinforces concepts of membranes (chapter 5), protein structrure and binding (chapter 3), cell division (chapter 9), enzyme activation (chapter 6), protein synthesis (chapter 12), gene regulation (chapter 14). It is also a prelude to the important roles of cell signaling in development (chapter 16), diseases (chapter 18) and the immune system (chapter 19). The major concept that focuses most of the chapter is the signal transduction pathway. This is clearly described in the context of signaling in many organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Among the newer aspects described is the role of nitric oxide as a second messenger. The chapter ends with a presentation of how signals get from cell to cell by gap junctions in animals and plasmodesmata in plants.
16. Development: Differential Gene Expression
Increased emphasis on contemporary experiments on cloning (sheep, mice, cows), as well as the use of stem cells in medicine and biology. There is additional material on plant organ identity genes. A new sections on ''evodevo'': evolution and development, introduces this new field.
17. Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology
This chapter has a more applied focus and is less techniques oriented. For example, there is a new section on pharming (making new proteins in milk) as well as making knockouts, a valuable research tool. There is also a new section on DNA chips.
18. Molecular Biology and Medicine
Prions are described in this chapter rather than one on prokaryotes and viruses, since prions are not viruses. The results of the first preliminary human genome sequences are presented and debated. There is an updated sction on cancer, with tumor suppressor genes: roles and locations to parallel oncogenes.
19. Natural Defenses against Disease
Clear focus on cellular immunity and a new sections on AIDS treatment and immune regulation.
PART THREE EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES
The successful ordering of chapters initiated in the previous edition has been retained.
20. The History of Life on Earth
21. The Mechanisms of Evolution
Features new examples that highlight the variety of approaches, some of them experimental, in the study of evolutionary mechanisms
22. Species and Their Formation
23. Constructing and Using Phylogenies
The treatment of the methods of reconstructing phylogenetic relationships among organisms is expanded and updated.
24. Molecular and Genomic Evolution
Extensively rewritten; features a new section on genomic evolution.
25. The Origin of Life on Earth
PART FOUR THE EVOLUTION OF DIVERSITY
Chapters have been extensively revised to reflect the substantial advances made during the past few years in inferring evolutionary relationships among organisms.
26. Bacteria and Archaea: The Prokaryotic Domains
Phylogeny of bacteria and archaea has been updated. Lateral gene transfer and its consequences are discussed.
27. The Dawn of the Eukarya
A new section discusses the ''family tree'' of chloroplasts. Phylogeny of protists updated.
28. Plants Without Seeds: From Sea to Land
The emphasis on evolutionary trends has been sharpened, with particular attention to groups of green algae.
29. The Evolution of Seed Plants
This chapter, with a new discussion of evolutionary relationships within the angiosperms, has been separated from the chapter on nonseed plants.
30. Fungi: A Kingdom of Recyclers
31. Ancestors and Lophotrochozoans
32. Ecdysozoans: The Molting Animals
33. Deuterostomate Animals: Large Brains and Complex Behavior
PART FIVE THE BIOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS
34. The Flowering Plant Body
This chapter was reorganized for improved clarity. Increased emphasis on meristems.
35. Transport in Plants
Discussions of xylem and phloem transport modified to improve pedagogy.
36. Plant Nutrition
37. Regulation of Plant Development
Now includes material on hormones discovered in recent years, a treatment of the ethylene signal-transduction pathway, material on auxin transport and efflux proteins, and a discussion of the cryptochromes.
38. Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Augmented discussions of pollen development, pathfinding, and embryonic development; added material on mate selection and a new section on self-incompatibility.
39. Plant Responses to Environmental Challenges
Moved to end of this unit to capitalize on its utility as a pull-things-together chapter.
PART SIX THE BIOLOGY OF ANIMALS
40. Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation
41. Animal Hormones
42. Animal Reproduction
43. Animal Development
44. Neurons and Nervous Systems
45. Sensory Systems
46. The Mammalian Nervous System: Structure and Higher Functions
48. Gas Exchange in Animals
49. Circulatory Systems
50. Animal Nutrition
51. Salt and Water Balance and Nitrogen Excretion
52. Animal Behavior
PART SEVEN ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY
New examples of experimental approaches to understanding the dynamics of ecological systems are featured in all chapters in this part.
53. Behavioral Ecology
54. Population Ecology
Expanded treatment of factors affecting population growth
55. Community Ecology
This unique chapter again features a concise presentation of world biomes that combines photographs with graphs that highlight species richness and seasonal changes in biological activity in each biome. New material has been added on the role of biogeography on human social evolution.
58. Conservation Biology
This revised chapter features new examples of the use of scientific principles to help preserve Earth's biological diversity
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