Introduction. A. Classical Theories. 1. Immanual Kant: Deontological Ethics. 2. John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism. 3. Thomas Hobbes: Contractual Ethics. B. Relativism and Objectivism. 4. Herodotus: Custom is King. 5. Ruth Benedict: Ethical Relativism. 6. Louis P. Pojman: Ethical Objectivism.
II. THE SANCTITY OF LIFE VS. THE QUALITY OF LIFE.
Introduction. 7. Genesis and Psalm 8: The Creation of Humanity. 8. Albert Schweitzer: Reverence for Life. 9. Jonathan Glover: Against the Sanctity of Life Doctrine. 10. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.: The Sanctity of Life and the Concept of a Person. 11. Daniel Callahan: Sanctity of Life Principle: The New Consensus.
III. DEATH AND THE MEANING OF LIFE.
Introduction. 12. Plato: Death as the Release of the Soul (from the Phaedo). 13. Epicurus: Death is Nothing to Us. 14. Richard Taylor: Does Life Have Meaning? 15. Lois Hope Walker: Religion and the Meaning of Life. 16. Jeffrie Murphy: Rationality and the Fear of Death. 17. Prasannatma Das: A Hindu Theory of Life and Death.
Introduction. 18. Aquinas: Suicide is Unnatural and Immoral. 19. David Hume: On the Naturalness of Suicide. 20. Albert Camus: Life is Absurd. 21. Richard Brandt: The Morality and Rationality of Suicide. 22. Margaret Pabst Battin: Suicide: A Fundamental Right?
Introduction. 23. Yale Kamisar: Against Euthanasia. 24. Glanville Williams: Euthanasia is Morally Permissible. 25. James Rachels: Active and Passive Euthanasia. 26. Thomas Sullivan: Active and Passive Euthanasia: An Impertinent Distinction? 27. The Oregon Law on the Right to Die.
VI. WHAT IS DEATH? The Crisis of Criteria.
Introduction. 28. Robert M. Veatch: Defining Death Anew. 29. David Mayo and Daniel Wikler: Euthanasia and the Transition from Life to Death.
Introduction. 30. John Noonan: An Almost Absolute Value in History. 31 Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion. 32. Barush Brody: Against an Absolute Right to Abortion. 33 Mary Anne Warren: The Personhood Argument in Defense of Abortion. 34. Harry J. Gensler: The Golden Rule Argument Against Abortion. 35. Don Marquis: Why Abortion is Immoral. 36. Gerald H. Paske: Abortion and the Neo-Natal Right to Life: A Critique of Marquis' Futurist Argument.
VIII. HUMAN CLONING.
Introducton. 37. Leon Kass: The Wisdom of Repugnance. 38. The National Bioethics Advisory Board: Against Cloning Human Beings. 39. Richard Lewontin: The Confusion over Cloning. 40. Gregory E. Pence: Will Cloning Harm People?
IX. THE DEATH PENALTY.
Introduction. 41. Kant: Retributivism: The Right to Capital Punishment. 42. Thurgood Marshall: The Death Penalty is a Denial of Human Dignity. 43. Burton Leiser: A Retributivist Justification for the Death Penalty. 44. Hugo Adam Bedau: Against: Against Retributive Justification for the Death Penalty. 45. Sidney Hook: The Death Sentence: Limited Use. 46. Ernest van den Haag and Louis Schwartz: Death Penalty: Pro and Con.
X. ANIMAL RIGHTS.
Introduction. 47. Immanuel Kant: We Only Have Indirect Duties to Animals. 48. Peter Singer: All Animals are Equal. 49. R.G. Frey: A Utilitarian Critique of Animal Rights. 50. Tom Regan: The Radical Egalitarian Case for Animal Rights. 51. Robert White: The Case for Animal Experimentation. 52. Tom Regan: The Case Against Animal Experimentation. 53. Mary Anne Warren: Difficulties with the Strong Animal Rights Position. 54. Carl Cohen: The Case Against Animal Rights. 55. James Rachels: A Moral Defense of Vegetarianism.
Introduction. 56. Robert Phillips: Just War Theory. 57. Jan Narveson: A Critique of Pacifism. 58. Cheyney Ryan: A Defense of Pacifism. 59. The United States Catholic Bishops: Against the Use of Nuclear Weapons. 60. Charles Krauthammer: On Nuclear Morality. 61. Douglas Lackey: Missiles and Morals. 62. William James: The Moral Equivalent to War.
XII. WORLD HUNGER.
Introduction. 63. Garrett Hardin: Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Helping the Poor. 64. William Murdoch: Population and Food: Metaphors and the Reality. 65. Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence and Morality. 66. Richard Watson: Reason and Morality in a World of Limited Food. 67. John Arthur: Famine Relief and the Ideal Moral Code.
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