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by David C. Lay

Cover type: HardbackEdition: 4TH 12

Copyright: 2012

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc.

Published: 2012

International: No

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Linear algebra is relatively easy for students during the early stages of the course, when the material is presented in a familiar, concrete setting. But when abstract concepts are introduced, students often hit a brick wall. Instructors seem to agree that certain concepts (such as linear independence, spanning, subspace, vector space, and linear transformations), are not easily understood, and require time to assimilate. Since they are fundamental to the study of linear algebra, students' understanding of these concepts is vital to their mastery of the subject. David Lay introduces these concepts early in a familiar, concrete Rn setting, develops them gradually, and returns to them again and again throughout the text so that when discussed in the abstract, these concepts are more accessible.

1. Linear Equations in Linear Algebra

Introductory Example: Linear Models in Economics and Engineering

1.1 Systems of Linear Equations

1.2 Row Reduction and Echelon Forms

1.3 Vector Equations

1.4 The Matrix Equation Ax = b

1.5 Solution Sets of Linear Systems

1.6 Applications of Linear Systems

1.7 Linear Independence

1.8 Introduction to Linear Transformations

1.9 The Matrix of a Linear Transformation

1.10 Linear Models in Business, Science, and Engineering

Supplementary Exercises

2. Matrix Algebra

Introductory Example: Computer Models in Aircraft Design

2.1 Matrix Operations

2.2 The Inverse of a Matrix

2.3 Characterizations of Invertible Matrices

2.4 Partitioned Matrices

2.5 Matrix Factorizations

2.6 The Leontief Input—Output Model

2.7 Applications to Computer Graphics

2.8 Subspaces of Rn

2.9 Dimension and Rank

Supplementary Exercises

3. Determinants

Introductory Example: Random Paths and Distortion

3.1 Introduction to Determinants

3.2 Properties of Determinants

3.3 Cramer’s Rule, Volume, and Linear Transformations

Supplementary Exercises

4. Vector Spaces

Introductory Example: Space Flight and Control Systems

4.1 Vector Spaces and Subspaces

4.2 Null Spaces, Column Spaces, and Linear Transformations

4.3 Linearly Independent Sets; Bases

4.4 Coordinate Systems

4.5 The Dimension of a Vector Space

4.6 Rank

4.7 Change of Basis

4.8 Applications to Difference Equations

4.9 Applications to Markov Chains

Supplementary Exercises

5. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

Introductory Example: Dynamical Systems and Spotted Owls

5.1 Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues

5.2 The Characteristic Equation

5.3 Diagonalization

5.4 Eigenvectors and Linear Transformations

5.5 Complex Eigenvalues

5.6 Discrete Dynamical Systems

5.7 Applications to Differential Equations

5.8 Iterative Estimates for Eigenvalues

Supplementary Exercises

6. Orthogonality and Least Squares

Introductory Example: Readjusting the North American Datum

6.1 Inner Product, Length, and Orthogonality

6.2 Orthogonal Sets

6.3 Orthogonal Projections

6.4 The Gram—Schmidt Process

6.5 Least-Squares Problems

6.6 Applications to Linear Models

6.7 Inner Product Spaces

6.8 Applications of Inner Product Spaces

Supplementary Exercises

7. Symmetric Matrices and Quadratic Forms

Introductory Example: Multichannel Image Processing

7.1 Diagonalization of Symmetric Matrices

7.2 Quadratic Forms

7.3 Constrained Optimization

7.4 The Singular Value Decomposition

7.5 Applications to Image Processing and Statistics

Supplementary Exercises

8. The Geometry of Vector Spaces

Introductory Example: The Platonic Solids

8.1 Affine Combinations

8.2 Affine Independence

8.3 Convex Combinations

8.4 Hyperplanes

8.5 Polytopes

8.6 Curves and Surfaces

9. Optimization (Online Only)

Introductory Example: The Berlin Airlift

9.1 Matrix Games

9.2 Linear Programming–Geometric Method

9.3 Linear Programming–Simplex Method

9.4 Duality

10. Finite-State Markov Chains (Online Only)

Introductory Example: Google and Markov Chains

10.1 Introduction and Examples

10.2 The Steady-State Vector and Google's PageRank

10.3 Finite-State Markov Chains

10.4 Classification of States and Periodicity

10.5 The Fundamental Matrix

10.6 Markov Chains and Baseball Statistics

Appendices

A. Uniqueness of the Reduced Echelon Form

B. Complex Numbers

- Windows 7/8, or Mac OS X 10.6 or above

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Summary

Linear algebra is relatively easy for students during the early stages of the course, when the material is presented in a familiar, concrete setting. But when abstract concepts are introduced, students often hit a brick wall. Instructors seem to agree that certain concepts (such as linear independence, spanning, subspace, vector space, and linear transformations), are not easily understood, and require time to assimilate. Since they are fundamental to the study of linear algebra, students' understanding of these concepts is vital to their mastery of the subject. David Lay introduces these concepts early in a familiar, concrete Rn setting, develops them gradually, and returns to them again and again throughout the text so that when discussed in the abstract, these concepts are more accessible.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1. Linear Equations in Linear Algebra

Introductory Example: Linear Models in Economics and Engineering

1.1 Systems of Linear Equations

1.2 Row Reduction and Echelon Forms

1.3 Vector Equations

1.4 The Matrix Equation Ax = b

1.5 Solution Sets of Linear Systems

1.6 Applications of Linear Systems

1.7 Linear Independence

1.8 Introduction to Linear Transformations

1.9 The Matrix of a Linear Transformation

1.10 Linear Models in Business, Science, and Engineering

Supplementary Exercises

2. Matrix Algebra

Introductory Example: Computer Models in Aircraft Design

2.1 Matrix Operations

2.2 The Inverse of a Matrix

2.3 Characterizations of Invertible Matrices

2.4 Partitioned Matrices

2.5 Matrix Factorizations

2.6 The Leontief Input—Output Model

2.7 Applications to Computer Graphics

2.8 Subspaces of Rn

2.9 Dimension and Rank

Supplementary Exercises

3. Determinants

Introductory Example: Random Paths and Distortion

3.1 Introduction to Determinants

3.2 Properties of Determinants

3.3 Cramer’s Rule, Volume, and Linear Transformations

Supplementary Exercises

4. Vector Spaces

Introductory Example: Space Flight and Control Systems

4.1 Vector Spaces and Subspaces

4.2 Null Spaces, Column Spaces, and Linear Transformations

4.3 Linearly Independent Sets; Bases

4.4 Coordinate Systems

4.5 The Dimension of a Vector Space

4.6 Rank

4.7 Change of Basis

4.8 Applications to Difference Equations

4.9 Applications to Markov Chains

Supplementary Exercises

5. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

Introductory Example: Dynamical Systems and Spotted Owls

5.1 Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues

5.2 The Characteristic Equation

5.3 Diagonalization

5.4 Eigenvectors and Linear Transformations

5.5 Complex Eigenvalues

5.6 Discrete Dynamical Systems

5.7 Applications to Differential Equations

5.8 Iterative Estimates for Eigenvalues

Supplementary Exercises

6. Orthogonality and Least Squares

Introductory Example: Readjusting the North American Datum

6.1 Inner Product, Length, and Orthogonality

6.2 Orthogonal Sets

6.3 Orthogonal Projections

6.4 The Gram—Schmidt Process

6.5 Least-Squares Problems

6.6 Applications to Linear Models

6.7 Inner Product Spaces

6.8 Applications of Inner Product Spaces

Supplementary Exercises

7. Symmetric Matrices and Quadratic Forms

Introductory Example: Multichannel Image Processing

7.1 Diagonalization of Symmetric Matrices

7.2 Quadratic Forms

7.3 Constrained Optimization

7.4 The Singular Value Decomposition

7.5 Applications to Image Processing and Statistics

Supplementary Exercises

8. The Geometry of Vector Spaces

Introductory Example: The Platonic Solids

8.1 Affine Combinations

8.2 Affine Independence

8.3 Convex Combinations

8.4 Hyperplanes

8.5 Polytopes

8.6 Curves and Surfaces

9. Optimization (Online Only)

Introductory Example: The Berlin Airlift

9.1 Matrix Games

9.2 Linear Programming–Geometric Method

9.3 Linear Programming–Simplex Method

9.4 Duality

10. Finite-State Markov Chains (Online Only)

Introductory Example: Google and Markov Chains

10.1 Introduction and Examples

10.2 The Steady-State Vector and Google's PageRank

10.3 Finite-State Markov Chains

10.4 Classification of States and Periodicity

10.5 The Fundamental Matrix

10.6 Markov Chains and Baseball Statistics

Appendices

A. Uniqueness of the Reduced Echelon Form

B. Complex Numbers

1. Linear Equations in Linear Algebra

Introductory Example: Linear Models in Economics and Engineering

1.1 Systems of Linear Equations

1.2 Row Reduction and Echelon Forms

1.3 Vector Equations

1.4 The Matrix Equation Ax = b

1.5 Solution Sets of Linear Systems

1.6 Applications of Linear Systems

1.7 Linear Independence

1.8 Introduction to Linear Transformations

1.9 The Matrix of a Linear Transformation

1.10 Linear Models in Business, Science, and Engineering

Supplementary Exercises

2. Matrix Algebra

Introductory Example: Computer Models in Aircraft Design

2.1 Matrix Operations

2.2 The Inverse of a Matrix

2.3 Characterizations of Invertible Matrices

2.4 Partitioned Matrices

2.5 Matrix Factorizations

2.6 The Leontief Input—Output Model

2.7 Applications to Computer Graphics

2.8 Subspaces of Rn

2.9 Dimension and Rank

Supplementary Exercises

3. Determinants

Introductory Example: Random Paths and Distortion

3.1 Introduction to Determinants

3.2 Properties of Determinants

3.3 Cramer’s Rule, Volume, and Linear Transformations

Supplementary Exercises

4. Vector Spaces

Introductory Example: Space Flight and Control Systems

4.1 Vector Spaces and Subspaces

4.2 Null Spaces, Column Spaces, and Linear Transformations

4.3 Linearly Independent Sets; Bases

4.4 Coordinate Systems

4.5 The Dimension of a Vector Space

4.6 Rank

4.7 Change of Basis

4.8 Applications to Difference Equations

4.9 Applications to Markov Chains

Supplementary Exercises

5. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

Introductory Example: Dynamical Systems and Spotted Owls

5.1 Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues

5.2 The Characteristic Equation

5.3 Diagonalization

5.4 Eigenvectors and Linear Transformations

5.5 Complex Eigenvalues

5.6 Discrete Dynamical Systems

5.7 Applications to Differential Equations

5.8 Iterative Estimates for Eigenvalues

Supplementary Exercises

6. Orthogonality and Least Squares

Introductory Example: Readjusting the North American Datum

6.1 Inner Product, Length, and Orthogonality

6.2 Orthogonal Sets

6.3 Orthogonal Projections

6.4 The Gram—Schmidt Process

6.5 Least-Squares Problems

6.6 Applications to Linear Models

6.7 Inner Product Spaces

6.8 Applications of Inner Product Spaces

Supplementary Exercises

7. Symmetric Matrices and Quadratic Forms

Introductory Example: Multichannel Image Processing

7.1 Diagonalization of Symmetric Matrices

7.2 Quadratic Forms

7.3 Constrained Optimization

7.4 The Singular Value Decomposition

7.5 Applications to Image Processing and Statistics

Supplementary Exercises

8. The Geometry of Vector Spaces

Introductory Example: The Platonic Solids

8.1 Affine Combinations

8.2 Affine Independence

8.3 Convex Combinations

8.4 Hyperplanes

8.5 Polytopes

8.6 Curves and Surfaces

9. Optimization (Online Only)

Introductory Example: The Berlin Airlift

9.1 Matrix Games

9.2 Linear Programming–Geometric Method

9.3 Linear Programming–Simplex Method

9.4 Duality

10. Finite-State Markov Chains (Online Only)

Introductory Example: Google and Markov Chains

10.1 Introduction and Examples

10.2 The Steady-State Vector and Google's PageRank

10.3 Finite-State Markov Chains

10.4 Classification of States and Periodicity

10.5 The Fundamental Matrix

10.6 Markov Chains and Baseball Statistics

Appendices

A. Uniqueness of the Reduced Echelon Form

B. Complex Numbers

Digital Rights
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Being online is not required for reading an eTextbook after successfully downloading it. You must only be connected to the Internet during the download process.

Click Here to access the VitalSource Bookshelf FAQ

VitalSource

**Copying:** Allowed, 2 selections may be copied every 365 days

**Printing:** Allowed, 2 prints for 365 days

**Expires:** Yes, may be used for 365 days after activation

**Reading Aloud:** Allowed

**Sharing:** Not Allowed

**Min. Software Version:** Online: No additional software required

Offline: VitalSource Bookshelf

**Suitable Devices:** PCs, Tablet PCs, Macs, Laptops

**Copying** - Books that cannot be copied will show "Not Allowed." Otherwise, this will detail the number of times it can be copied, or "Allowed with no limits."

Offline: VitalSource Bookshelf

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**Printing** - Books that cannot be printed will show "Not Allowed." Otherwise, this will detail the number of times it can be printed, or "Allowed with no limits."

**Expires** - Books that have no expiration (the date upon which you will no longer be able to access your eBook) will read "No Expiration." Otherwise it will state the number of days from activation (the first time you actually read it).

**Reading Aloud** - Books enabled with the "text-to-speech" feature so that they can be read aloud will show "Allowed."

**Sharing** - Books that cannot be shared with other computers will show "Not Allowed."

**Min. Software Version** - This is the minimum software version needed to read this book.

**Suitable Devices** - Hardware known to be compatible with this book. Note: Reader software still needs to be installed.

Publisher Info

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc.

Published: 2012

International: No

Published: 2012

International: No

1. Linear Equations in Linear Algebra

Introductory Example: Linear Models in Economics and Engineering

1.1 Systems of Linear Equations

1.2 Row Reduction and Echelon Forms

1.3 Vector Equations

1.4 The Matrix Equation Ax = b

1.5 Solution Sets of Linear Systems

1.6 Applications of Linear Systems

1.7 Linear Independence

1.8 Introduction to Linear Transformations

1.9 The Matrix of a Linear Transformation

1.10 Linear Models in Business, Science, and Engineering

Supplementary Exercises

2. Matrix Algebra

Introductory Example: Computer Models in Aircraft Design

2.1 Matrix Operations

2.2 The Inverse of a Matrix

2.3 Characterizations of Invertible Matrices

2.4 Partitioned Matrices

2.5 Matrix Factorizations

2.6 The Leontief Input—Output Model

2.7 Applications to Computer Graphics

2.8 Subspaces of Rn

2.9 Dimension and Rank

Supplementary Exercises

3. Determinants

Introductory Example: Random Paths and Distortion

3.1 Introduction to Determinants

3.2 Properties of Determinants

3.3 Cramer’s Rule, Volume, and Linear Transformations

Supplementary Exercises

4. Vector Spaces

Introductory Example: Space Flight and Control Systems

4.1 Vector Spaces and Subspaces

4.2 Null Spaces, Column Spaces, and Linear Transformations

4.3 Linearly Independent Sets; Bases

4.4 Coordinate Systems

4.5 The Dimension of a Vector Space

4.6 Rank

4.7 Change of Basis

4.8 Applications to Difference Equations

4.9 Applications to Markov Chains

Supplementary Exercises

5. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

Introductory Example: Dynamical Systems and Spotted Owls

5.1 Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues

5.2 The Characteristic Equation

5.3 Diagonalization

5.4 Eigenvectors and Linear Transformations

5.5 Complex Eigenvalues

5.6 Discrete Dynamical Systems

5.7 Applications to Differential Equations

5.8 Iterative Estimates for Eigenvalues

Supplementary Exercises

6. Orthogonality and Least Squares

Introductory Example: Readjusting the North American Datum

6.1 Inner Product, Length, and Orthogonality

6.2 Orthogonal Sets

6.3 Orthogonal Projections

6.4 The Gram—Schmidt Process

6.5 Least-Squares Problems

6.6 Applications to Linear Models

6.7 Inner Product Spaces

6.8 Applications of Inner Product Spaces

Supplementary Exercises

7. Symmetric Matrices and Quadratic Forms

Introductory Example: Multichannel Image Processing

7.1 Diagonalization of Symmetric Matrices

7.2 Quadratic Forms

7.3 Constrained Optimization

7.4 The Singular Value Decomposition

7.5 Applications to Image Processing and Statistics

Supplementary Exercises

8. The Geometry of Vector Spaces

Introductory Example: The Platonic Solids

8.1 Affine Combinations

8.2 Affine Independence

8.3 Convex Combinations

8.4 Hyperplanes

8.5 Polytopes

8.6 Curves and Surfaces

9. Optimization (Online Only)

Introductory Example: The Berlin Airlift

9.1 Matrix Games

9.2 Linear Programming–Geometric Method

9.3 Linear Programming–Simplex Method

9.4 Duality

10. Finite-State Markov Chains (Online Only)

Introductory Example: Google and Markov Chains

10.1 Introduction and Examples

10.2 The Steady-State Vector and Google's PageRank

10.3 Finite-State Markov Chains

10.4 Classification of States and Periodicity

10.5 The Fundamental Matrix

10.6 Markov Chains and Baseball Statistics

Appendices

A. Uniqueness of the Reduced Echelon Form

B. Complex Numbers

- Windows 7/8, or Mac OS X 10.6 or above

eTextbooks and eChapters can be viewed by using the free reader listed below.

Be sure to check the format of the eTextbook/eChapter you purchase to know which reader you will need. After purchasing your eTextbook or eChapter, you will be emailed instructions on where and how to download your free reader.

Due to the size of eTextbooks, a high-speed Internet connection (cable modem, DSL, LAN) is required for download stability and speed. Your connection can be wired or wireless.

Being online is not required for reading an eTextbook after successfully downloading it. You must only be connected to the Internet during the download process.

Click Here to access the VitalSource Bookshelf FAQ

VitalSource

**Copying:** Allowed, 2 selections may be copied every 365 days

**Printing:** Allowed, 2 prints for 365 days

**Expires:** Yes, may be used for 365 days after activation

**Reading Aloud:** Allowed

**Sharing:** Not Allowed

**Min. Software Version:** Online: No additional software required

Offline: VitalSource Bookshelf

**Suitable Devices:** PCs, Tablet PCs, Macs, Laptops

**Copying** - Books that cannot be copied will show "Not Allowed." Otherwise, this will detail the number of times it can be copied, or "Allowed with no limits."

Offline: VitalSource Bookshelf

**Digital Rights Management (DRM) Key**

**Printing** - Books that cannot be printed will show "Not Allowed." Otherwise, this will detail the number of times it can be printed, or "Allowed with no limits."

**Expires** - Books that have no expiration (the date upon which you will no longer be able to access your eBook) will read "No Expiration." Otherwise it will state the number of days from activation (the first time you actually read it).

**Reading Aloud** - Books enabled with the "text-to-speech" feature so that they can be read aloud will show "Allowed."

**Sharing** - Books that cannot be shared with other computers will show "Not Allowed."

**Min. Software Version** - This is the minimum software version needed to read this book.

**Suitable Devices** - Hardware known to be compatible with this book. Note: Reader software still needs to be installed.