1. What Is Literature: What Is Argument? How Have People Defined Literature? Why Read Literature? What is Argument? SUMMING UP
2. Developing Arguments about Literature Responding to Four Poems about Work William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper Stephen Dunn, Hard Work Dorianne Laux, What I Wouldn't Do Maura Stanton, Shoplifters The Elements of Argument Issues / Claims / Persuasion /Audience / Evidence / Warrants Literature as Argument John Milton, When I Consider How My Light Is Spent Investigating Topics of Literary Criticism Lynda Hull, Night Waitress SUMMING UP
3. Writing an Argument William Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper Exploring Planning Composing Title / Style / Introduction / Development / Emphasis / Conclusion / Further Suggestions for Developing an Argument about a Work of Literature Sample Student Paper: First Draft Abby Hazelton, The Passage of Time in "The Solitary Reaper" Revising Recognizing and Avoiding Fallacies / Logic / Organization / Clarity / Emphasis / Style / Grammar / Physical Appearance Sample Student Paper: Revised Draft Abby Hazelton, The Passage of Time in "The Solitary Reaper" Writing a Comparative Paper Ted Kooser, Four Secretaries Sample Comparative Paper Marla Tracy, When Singing Is Not Singing SUMMING UP
4. Making Arguments about Stories Eudora Welty, A Visit of Charity William Carlos Williams, The Use of Force Rebecca Brown, The Gift of Sweat Students' Personal Responses to the Stories The Elements of Short Fiction Plot and Structure / Point of View / Characters / Setting / Imagery / Language / Theme Sample Student Paper: Final Draft Alison Caldwell, Forms of Blindness in "The Use of Force" SUMMING UP
5. Making Arguments about Poems Rosanna Warren, In Creve Couer, Missouri Charles Fort, We Did Not Fear the Father Philip Levine, What Work Is Edwin Arlington Robinson, The Mill Yusef Komunyakaa, Blackberries Mary Oliver, Singapore A Student's Personal Responses to the Poems Sample Student Paper: First Draft Michaela Fiorruci, Boundaries in Robinson, Komunyakaa, and Oliver The Elements of Poetry Speaker and Tone / Diction and Syntax / Figures of Speech / Sound/ /Rhythm and Meter / Theme Revised Student Draft Michaela Fiorruci, Negotiating Boundaries SUMMING UP
6. Making Arguments about Plays August Strindberg, The Stronger Susan Glaspell, Trifles A Student's Personal Response to the Plays The Elements of Drama Plot and Structure/ Characters/ Stage Directions and Setting/ Imagery / Language / Theme Writing Sample Student Paper Trish Carlisle, "Which Is the Stronger Actress in Strindberg's Play?" SUMMING UP
7. Making Arguments about Essays June Jordan, Many Rivers to Cross Alice Walker, In Search of Our Mother's Gardens A Student's Personal Response The Elements of Essays Voice / Style / Structure / Ideas / Sample Student Paper Isla Bravo, Resisting Women's Roles SUMMING UP
8. Writing a Research Paper Identifying an Issue and a Tentative Claim Finding and Using Secondary Sources Finding Sources in the Library Evaluating Sources Finding Sources with a Computer Taking Notes: Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Avoiding Plagiarism Writing the Paper: Integrating Sources Documenting Sources: MLA Format MLA In-Text Citation MLA Works Cited Books / Short Works from Collections and Anthologies/ Works in Periodicals / CD-ROMs / The Internet / Personal Communication / Multiple Works by the Same Author Sample Student Research Paper Rebecca Stanley, Racial Disharmony and "Désirée's Baby" Using a Literary Work as a Springboard for Examining Social Issues Sample Student Research Paper Jason Fisk, "Effectively 'Managing' Grief" SUMMING UP
PART II. THEMATIC CLUSTERS OF LITERATURE
Story Clusters Mothers and Daughters Tillie Olsen, I Stand Here Ironing Amy Tan, Two Kinds Alice Walker, Everyday Use Romantic Dreams Leslie Marmon Silko, Yellow Woman James Joyce, Araby John Updike, A & P Revenge Edgar Allan Poe, The Cask of Amontillado Louise Erdrich, Fleur Andre Dubus, Killings Losing Innocence: Re-Visions of Little Red Riding Hood Charles Perrault, Little Red Riding Hood Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Little Red Cap Angela Carter, The Company of Wolves
Poetry Clusters Reconciling with Fathers Lucille Clifton, forgiving my father Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Father from Asia Responding to Teachers Langston Hughes, Theme for English B Linda Pastan, Ethics Henry Reed, Naming of Parts Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer Rosemary Catacalos, David Talamantez on the Last Day of Second Grade Gays and Lesbians in Families Essex Hemphill, Commitments Kitty Tsui, A Chinese Banquet Minnie Bruce Pratt, Two Small-Sized Girls True Love William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband e. e. cummings, somewhere i have never travelled Edna St. Vincent Millay, Love Is Not All Poetry of the Holocaust Pastor Martin Niemoller, "First They Came for the Jews" Nelly Sachs, "A Dead Child Speaks" Yevgeny Yevtuchenko, "Babii Yar" Karen Gershon, "Race" Anne Sexton, "After Auschwitz" Imagining the End: A Collection of Writings by Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson, I like a look of Agony I've seen a Dying Eye I heard a Fly buzz -- when I died -- Because I could not stop for Death-- Disrespecting Death John Donne, Death Be Not Proud Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night Wyslawa Szymborska, On Death, without Exaggeration
A Drama Cluster A Family's Dreams: Cultural Contexts for Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun Cultural Contexts: The Crisis, The Hansberrys of Chicago: They Join Business Acumen with Social Vision Lorraine Hansberry, April 23, 1964, Letter to the New York Times Alan Ehrenhalt, From The Lost City: Discovering the Forgotten Virtues of Community in the Chicago of the 1950s Sidney Poitier, From The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography
Essay Clusters Community Justice Scott Russell Sanders, Doing Time in the Thirteenth Chair Joyce Carol Oates, I, the Juror Maxine Hong Kingston, No Name Woman Reflecting on Killing Animals George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant Annie Dillard, The Deer at Providencia Bruce Weigl, Spike Comparing School Culture with the Culture of Home: Critical Commentaries on Richard Rodriguez's "Aria" Richard Rodriguez, Aria Critical Commentaries: Ramón Saldívar, From Chicano Narrative Tomás Rivera, From "Richard Rodriguez's Hunger of Memory as Humanistic Antithesis" Victor Villanueva Jr., From "Whose Voice Is It Anyway?"
PART III. A GALLERY OF LITERATURE
A Gallery of Stories James Baldwin, Sonny's Blues Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson Raymond Carver, What We Talk About When We Talk about Love Kate Chopin, Desiree's Baby Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour Willliam Faulkner, A Rose for Emily Gabriel Garcia Marquez, The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown Pam Houston, How to Talk to a Hunter Jamaica Kincaid, Girl Bharati Mukherjee, The Management of Grief Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find
A Gallery of Poems Sherman Alexie, Capital Punishment Julia Alvarez, How I Learned to Sweep Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach Elizabeth Bishop, One Art Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish Gwendolyn Brooks, The Mother Robert Browning, My Last Duchess Countee Cullen, Incident Toi Derricotte, Fears of Eighth Grade Mark Doty, Night Ferry Cornelius Eady, Who Am I? T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock Carolyn Forche, The Colonel Robert Frost, After Apple-Picking Mending Wall Nikki Giovanni, Legacies Louise Gluck, The School Children Seamus Heaney, Punishment Linda Hogan, Heritage Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall A. E. Housman, Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn Maxine Kumin, Woodchucks D. H. Lawrence, Snake Denise Levertov, The Ache of Marriage Philip Levine, Among Children Robert Lowell, To Speak of the Woe That Is Marriage Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress Marge Piercy, To Be of Use Sylvia Plath, Daddy Walter Raleigh, The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd Alberto Rios, Mi Abuelo Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory Anne Sexton, The Farmer's Wife Percy Shelley, Ozymandias Stevie Smith, Not Waving But Drowning Cathy Song, The Grammar of Silk Gary Soto, Behind Grandma's House William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark Wislawa Szymborska, True Love William Carlos Williams, The Last Words of My English Grandmother James Wright, Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy's Farm in Pine Island, Minnesota William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming Adam Zagajewski, Try to Praise the Mutilated World
A Gallery of Plays Sophocles, Antigone William Shakespeare, Hamlet
A Gallery of Essays Diane Ackerman, The Perfect Union bell hooks, Inspired Eccentricity Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail N. Scott Momaday, The Way to Rainy Mountain Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
Appendix: Making Arguments Using Critical Approaches Contemporary Schools of Criticism New Criticism; Feminist Criticism; Psychoanalytic Criticism; Marxist Criticism; Deconstruction; @b=Reader-Response Criticism; Postcolonial Criticism; New Historicism Working with the Critical Approaches James Joyce, Counterparts Ann Petry, Like a Winding Sheet Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines Index of Key Terms (inside back cover)
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