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by Cohen I. Bernard and RIchard S. Westfall

Cover type: PaperbackEdition: 95

Copyright: 1995

Publisher: W.W. Norton & Co.

Published: 1995

International: No

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At last--an illuminating and accessible edition of Isaac Newton's writings, intended for nonspecialist readers. I. Bernard Cohen and Richard S. Westfall have meticulously collected representative works from every major aspect of Newton's intellectual life.

The book is divided into nine parts--Natural Philosophy, Scientific Method, Experimental Procedure, Optics, Rational Mechanics, Systems of the World, Alchemy and Theory of Matter, Theology, and Mathematics. Text and commentary are woven together, enabling readers to concentrate on the aspects of Newton's astoundingly diverse career they prefer.

For each part, the editors provide an introductory essay and textual annotation. In addition, the text is amply illustrated.

The General Introduction to the book sketches Newton's life and offers an interpretation of his scientific achievements.

The Biographical Register identifies the many people Newton cites in his writings.

The Glossary and Glossary of Chemical Terms explicate scientific terms and concepts.

Finally, the Selected Bibliography offers suggestions for further readings of and about Newton.

Preface

General Introduction

**Part 1: Natural Philosophy**

Introduction

From "Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae"

Conjunction of Bodies

Of the Celestial Matter and Orbs

Of the Sun, Stars, Planets, and Comets

Of Gravity and Levity

Of Light

Of Sensation

Of the Flux and Reflux of the Sea

Hypothesis of Light

De Aere et Aethere

Queries 1-7 and 31

Queries 18-22

Alexandre Koyré · The Significance of the Newtonian Synthesis

A. Rupert Hall and Marie Boas Hall · Newton and the Theory of Matter

Arnold Thackray · Matter in a Nut-Shell: Newton's Opticks and

Eighteenth-Century Chemistry

J. E. McGuire and P. M. Rattansi · Newton and the 'Pipes of Pan'

**Part 2: Scientific Method**

Introduction

A Note by David Gregory

From Query 31

Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy

From the General Scholium

From Newton to Cotes, March 28, 1713

From Newton to Oldenburg, February 6, 1672

From Newton to Oldenburg, June 10, 1672

From Newton to Oldenburg, July 6, 1672

Colin Maclaurin · From An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical

Discoveries

I. Bernard Cohen · Newton's Method and Newton's Style

**Part 3: Experimental Procedure**

Introduction

From "Of Colours"

From Newton to Oldenburg, June 11, 1672

From Proposition 6, Book 3 of the Principia

From the General Scholium to Section 6, Book 2 of the Principia

From "An Account of the Book entituled Commercium Epistolicum"

**Part 4: Optics**

Introduction

Newton to Oldenburg, February 6, 1672

From a Paper on Rings

Queries 28 and 29

Alan E. Shapiro · Experiment and Mathematics in Newton's Theory

of Color

Simon Schaffer · Glass works

**Part 5: Rational Mechanics**

Introduction

Newton's "Author's Preface to the Reader" of the Principia

Paper of Directions Given by Newton to Bentley Respecting the Books to

Be Read before Endeavoring to Understand the Principia

Definitions

Laws of Motion

Selected Propositions from the Principia, Book 1

Proposition 1

Proposition 2

Proposition 3

Proposition 4

Scholium

Proposition 6

Proposition 11

Proposition 41

Introduction, Section 11

Proposition 57

Proposition 63

Proposition 66

Concluding Scholium to Section 11

Proposition 70

Proposition 71

Scholium to Section 9, Book 2 of the Principia

Alfred North Whitehead · From Science and the Modern World

**Part 6: System of the World**

Introduction

Book 3: On the System of the World

From The System of the World

Colin Maclaurin: From An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical

Discoveries

David Kubrin · Newton and the Cyclical Cosmos: Providence and the

Mechanical Philosophy

**Part 7: Alchemy and Theory of Matter**

Introduction

From "Of Natures Obvious Laws and Processes in Vegetation"

Chapter 5 of Praxis

"De Natura Acidorum"

John Maynard Keynes · From "Newton, the Man"

Betty Jo Teeter Dobbs · From "Newton's Alchemy an His Theory

of Matter"

**Part 8: Theology**

Introduction

From a Memorandum by David Gregory

Four Letters to Richard Bentley

General Scholium

An Early Theological Manuscript

A Short Schem of the True Religion

Twelve Articles

Introduction to a Treatise on Revolution

Richard S. Westfall · Newton and Christianity

**Part 9: Mathematics**

Introduction

The Tract of October 1666

Section 1, Book 1 of the Principia

Lemma 2, Book 2 of the Principia

Leibniz's Judgment of Newton as a Mathematician

Colson's Account of the Method of Fluxions

George Berkeley · From The Analyst

D. T. Whiteside · Newton the Mathematician

Postscript: Albert Einstein on Newton's Opticks

Biographical Register

Glossary

Glossary of Chemical Terms

Isaac Newton: A Chronology

Selected Bibliography

Summary

At last--an illuminating and accessible edition of Isaac Newton's writings, intended for nonspecialist readers. I. Bernard Cohen and Richard S. Westfall have meticulously collected representative works from every major aspect of Newton's intellectual life.

The book is divided into nine parts--Natural Philosophy, Scientific Method, Experimental Procedure, Optics, Rational Mechanics, Systems of the World, Alchemy and Theory of Matter, Theology, and Mathematics. Text and commentary are woven together, enabling readers to concentrate on the aspects of Newton's astoundingly diverse career they prefer.

For each part, the editors provide an introductory essay and textual annotation. In addition, the text is amply illustrated.

The General Introduction to the book sketches Newton's life and offers an interpretation of his scientific achievements.

The Biographical Register identifies the many people Newton cites in his writings.

The Glossary and Glossary of Chemical Terms explicate scientific terms and concepts.

Finally, the Selected Bibliography offers suggestions for further readings of and about Newton.

Table of Contents

Preface

General Introduction

**Part 1: Natural Philosophy**

Introduction

From "Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae"

Conjunction of Bodies

Of the Celestial Matter and Orbs

Of the Sun, Stars, Planets, and Comets

Of Gravity and Levity

Of Light

Of Sensation

Of the Flux and Reflux of the Sea

Hypothesis of Light

De Aere et Aethere

Queries 1-7 and 31

Queries 18-22

Alexandre Koyré · The Significance of the Newtonian Synthesis

A. Rupert Hall and Marie Boas Hall · Newton and the Theory of Matter

Arnold Thackray · Matter in a Nut-Shell: Newton's Opticks and

Eighteenth-Century Chemistry

J. E. McGuire and P. M. Rattansi · Newton and the 'Pipes of Pan'

**Part 2: Scientific Method**

Introduction

A Note by David Gregory

From Query 31

Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy

From the General Scholium

From Newton to Cotes, March 28, 1713

From Newton to Oldenburg, February 6, 1672

From Newton to Oldenburg, June 10, 1672

From Newton to Oldenburg, July 6, 1672

Colin Maclaurin · From An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical

Discoveries

I. Bernard Cohen · Newton's Method and Newton's Style

**Part 3: Experimental Procedure**

Introduction

From "Of Colours"

From Newton to Oldenburg, June 11, 1672

From Proposition 6, Book 3 of the Principia

From the General Scholium to Section 6, Book 2 of the Principia

From "An Account of the Book entituled Commercium Epistolicum"

**Part 4: Optics**

Introduction

Newton to Oldenburg, February 6, 1672

From a Paper on Rings

Queries 28 and 29

Alan E. Shapiro · Experiment and Mathematics in Newton's Theory

of Color

Simon Schaffer · Glass works

**Part 5: Rational Mechanics**

Introduction

Newton's "Author's Preface to the Reader" of the Principia

Paper of Directions Given by Newton to Bentley Respecting the Books to

Be Read before Endeavoring to Understand the Principia

Definitions

Laws of Motion

Selected Propositions from the Principia, Book 1

Proposition 1

Proposition 2

Proposition 3

Proposition 4

Scholium

Proposition 6

Proposition 11

Proposition 41

Introduction, Section 11

Proposition 57

Proposition 63

Proposition 66

Concluding Scholium to Section 11

Proposition 70

Proposition 71

Scholium to Section 9, Book 2 of the Principia

Alfred North Whitehead · From Science and the Modern World

**Part 6: System of the World**

Introduction

Book 3: On the System of the World

From The System of the World

Colin Maclaurin: From An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical

Discoveries

David Kubrin · Newton and the Cyclical Cosmos: Providence and the

Mechanical Philosophy

**Part 7: Alchemy and Theory of Matter**

Introduction

From "Of Natures Obvious Laws and Processes in Vegetation"

Chapter 5 of Praxis

"De Natura Acidorum"

John Maynard Keynes · From "Newton, the Man"

Betty Jo Teeter Dobbs · From "Newton's Alchemy an His Theory

of Matter"

**Part 8: Theology**

Introduction

From a Memorandum by David Gregory

Four Letters to Richard Bentley

General Scholium

An Early Theological Manuscript

A Short Schem of the True Religion

Twelve Articles

Introduction to a Treatise on Revolution

Richard S. Westfall · Newton and Christianity

**Part 9: Mathematics**

Introduction

The Tract of October 1666

Section 1, Book 1 of the Principia

Lemma 2, Book 2 of the Principia

Leibniz's Judgment of Newton as a Mathematician

Colson's Account of the Method of Fluxions

George Berkeley · From The Analyst

D. T. Whiteside · Newton the Mathematician

Postscript: Albert Einstein on Newton's Opticks

Biographical Register

Glossary

Glossary of Chemical Terms

Isaac Newton: A Chronology

Selected Bibliography

Publisher Info

Publisher: W.W. Norton & Co.

Published: 1995

International: No

Published: 1995

International: No

The book is divided into nine parts--Natural Philosophy, Scientific Method, Experimental Procedure, Optics, Rational Mechanics, Systems of the World, Alchemy and Theory of Matter, Theology, and Mathematics. Text and commentary are woven together, enabling readers to concentrate on the aspects of Newton's astoundingly diverse career they prefer.

For each part, the editors provide an introductory essay and textual annotation. In addition, the text is amply illustrated.

The General Introduction to the book sketches Newton's life and offers an interpretation of his scientific achievements.

The Biographical Register identifies the many people Newton cites in his writings.

The Glossary and Glossary of Chemical Terms explicate scientific terms and concepts.

Finally, the Selected Bibliography offers suggestions for further readings of and about Newton.

Preface

General Introduction

**Part 1: Natural Philosophy**

Introduction

From "Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae"

Conjunction of Bodies

Of the Celestial Matter and Orbs

Of the Sun, Stars, Planets, and Comets

Of Gravity and Levity

Of Light

Of Sensation

Of the Flux and Reflux of the Sea

Hypothesis of Light

De Aere et Aethere

Queries 1-7 and 31

Queries 18-22

Alexandre Koyré · The Significance of the Newtonian Synthesis

A. Rupert Hall and Marie Boas Hall · Newton and the Theory of Matter

Arnold Thackray · Matter in a Nut-Shell: Newton's Opticks and

Eighteenth-Century Chemistry

J. E. McGuire and P. M. Rattansi · Newton and the 'Pipes of Pan'

**Part 2: Scientific Method**

Introduction

A Note by David Gregory

From Query 31

Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy

From the General Scholium

From Newton to Cotes, March 28, 1713

From Newton to Oldenburg, February 6, 1672

From Newton to Oldenburg, June 10, 1672

From Newton to Oldenburg, July 6, 1672

Colin Maclaurin · From An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical

Discoveries

I. Bernard Cohen · Newton's Method and Newton's Style

**Part 3: Experimental Procedure**

Introduction

From "Of Colours"

From Newton to Oldenburg, June 11, 1672

From Proposition 6, Book 3 of the Principia

From the General Scholium to Section 6, Book 2 of the Principia

From "An Account of the Book entituled Commercium Epistolicum"

**Part 4: Optics**

Introduction

Newton to Oldenburg, February 6, 1672

From a Paper on Rings

Queries 28 and 29

Alan E. Shapiro · Experiment and Mathematics in Newton's Theory

of Color

Simon Schaffer · Glass works

**Part 5: Rational Mechanics**

Introduction

Newton's "Author's Preface to the Reader" of the Principia

Paper of Directions Given by Newton to Bentley Respecting the Books to

Be Read before Endeavoring to Understand the Principia

Definitions

Laws of Motion

Selected Propositions from the Principia, Book 1

Proposition 1

Proposition 2

Proposition 3

Proposition 4

Scholium

Proposition 6

Proposition 11

Proposition 41

Introduction, Section 11

Proposition 57

Proposition 63

Proposition 66

Concluding Scholium to Section 11

Proposition 70

Proposition 71

Scholium to Section 9, Book 2 of the Principia

Alfred North Whitehead · From Science and the Modern World

**Part 6: System of the World**

Introduction

Book 3: On the System of the World

From The System of the World

Colin Maclaurin: From An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical

Discoveries

David Kubrin · Newton and the Cyclical Cosmos: Providence and the

Mechanical Philosophy

**Part 7: Alchemy and Theory of Matter**

Introduction

From "Of Natures Obvious Laws and Processes in Vegetation"

Chapter 5 of Praxis

"De Natura Acidorum"

John Maynard Keynes · From "Newton, the Man"

Betty Jo Teeter Dobbs · From "Newton's Alchemy an His Theory

of Matter"

**Part 8: Theology**

Introduction

From a Memorandum by David Gregory

Four Letters to Richard Bentley

General Scholium

An Early Theological Manuscript

A Short Schem of the True Religion

Twelve Articles

Introduction to a Treatise on Revolution

Richard S. Westfall · Newton and Christianity

**Part 9: Mathematics**

Introduction

The Tract of October 1666

Section 1, Book 1 of the Principia

Lemma 2, Book 2 of the Principia

Leibniz's Judgment of Newton as a Mathematician

Colson's Account of the Method of Fluxions

George Berkeley · From The Analyst

D. T. Whiteside · Newton the Mathematician

Postscript: Albert Einstein on Newton's Opticks

Biographical Register

Glossary

Glossary of Chemical Terms

Isaac Newton: A Chronology

Selected Bibliography