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Summary: For full-year courses in organic chemistry taken by science and pre-health professions majors.
This innovative text from acclaimed educator Paula Bruice is organized in a way that discourages rote memorization. It highlights mechanistic similarities and ties synthesis and reactivity together--teaching the reactivity of a functional group and the synthesis of compounds obtained as a result of that reactivity. Bruice's writing has been praised for anticipati ...show moreng students' questions and appeals to their need to learn visually and by solving problems. Emphasizing that students should reason their way to solutions rather than memorize facts, Bruice encourages students to think about what they have learned previously and apply that knowledge in a new setting. The text balances coverage of traditional topics with bioorganic chemistry, recognizing the importance of bioorganic topics to today's students.
ISSUE: Students need pedagogy created by an experienced instructor who understands where they need help.
PROBE: Will your students benefit from a text written by an instructor familiar with their struggles?
PROBE: Do your students have trouble visualizing abstract chemical concepts and processes?
PROBE: Would your students benefit from a text particularly rich in problems and problem-solving pedagogy?
PROBE: Would integrated media resources, which expand the book's effectiveness improve your students' understanding of organic chemistry?
TO THE INSTRUCTOR
The guiding principle in writing this book was to create a text for students--a text that presents the material in a way that encourages students to think about what they have already learned and then apply this knowledge in a new setting. I want students to reason their way to a solution rather than memorize a multitude of facts, hoping they don't run out of memory before the course ends. I am convinced that the what of organic chemistry is much easier to grasp and retain if the why is understood.
Comments I have received from both colleagues and students on the second edition indicate the book is working in the way I had hoped. As much as I cherish having faculty tell me that their students are scoring higher than ever before on tests, nothing is more gratifying than hearing from the students themselves--a wonderful advantage of being the author of a textbook during the email age. (Even my dog has received e-mail from students.) Many students have generously accredited their success in organic chemistry to the book--not giving themselves nearly enough credit for how hard they studied to achieve that success. And they always seem surprised that they have come to love ''orgo'' (on the East Coast) or ''o-them'' (on the West Coast). I also hear from many pre-meds who say that the book gave them such a permanent understanding of organic chemistry that they found it to be the easiest part of that dreaded test, the MCAT.
As I strove to make this book even more useful to the student, I have relied on constructive critical comments from many of you. For these I am very grateful. I also kept a journal of questions students had when they came to my office hours. These questions let me know what sections in the book needed clarifying and what answers in the Study Guide/Solutions Manual needed more in-depth explanations. Most importantly, this analysis showed me where new problems needed to be created so that these same questions had less of a chance of being asked by students using the third edition. Because I teach a class of more than 400 students, I clearly have a vested interest in minimizing their confusion! In this edition, many sections have been rewritten to optimize readability and comprehension, and there are many new in-chapter problems, new end-of-chapter problems, and more solved problems to help students master organic chemistry by solving problems. There are also new interest boxes to show students the applications of organic chemistry, and additional margin notes to remind students of important concepts and principles.
I hope you find the third edition even more appealing to your students than the second. As always, I am eager to hear your comments--positive comments are the most fun, but critical comments are the most useful.
I would also like to draw your attention to the following features of the text:
A Functional Group Approach with a Mechanistic Organization That Ties Together Synthesis and Reactivity
This book is organized to discourage the student from rote memorization. The functional groups have been organized around mechanistic similarities--electrophilic additions, radical substitutions, nucleophilic substitutions, eliminations, electrophilic aromatic substitutions, nucleophilic acyl substitutions, and nucleophilic additions. This organization allows a lot of material to be understood based on unifying principles of reactivity.
In addition, instead of discussing the synthesis of a functional group when its reactivity is discussed--reactions that generally have little to do with each other--I discuss the synthesis of the compounds that are formed as a result of the functional group's reactivity. In the alkene chapter, for example, students learn about the reactions of alkenes but they do not learn at this point about the synthesis of alkenes. Instead, they learn about the synthesis of alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, and alkanes--the compounds formed when alkenes react. Because alkenes are synthesized from the reactions of alkyl halides and alcohols, the synthesis of alkenes is covered when the reactions of alkyl halides and alcohols are discussed. Tying together the reactivity of a functional group and the synthesis of compounds resulting from its reactivity prevents the student from having to memorize lists of unrelated reactions. Understanding different ways functional groups can be prepared is useful in designing syntheses, however, so the different reactions that yield a particular functional group are compiled in Appendix IV As students learn how to design syntheses, they appreciate the importance of reactions that change the carbon skeleton of a molecule; these reactions are compiled in Appendix V.
A Detailed Look at the Organization of the Text
The book has been divided into eight sections. Each section starts with a one-page overview so students can understand where they are ''going:'' Chapter 1 provides a summary of the material that students need to recall from General Chemistry. The sections on acids and bases were rewritten to emphasize the relationship between acidity and stability of the conjugate base. (Acids and bases are covered even more extensively in the Study Guide/Solutions Manual.) In Chapter 2, students learn how to name five classes of organic compounds--those that will be the products of the reactions in the chapters that immediately follow. Chapter 2 also covers topics that are necessary before the study of reactions can begin--structures, conformations, and physical properties of organic compounds. Chapter 3 discusses the reactions of alkenes. In this chapter, students are first introduced to the concept of ''curved arrows.'' (The Study Guide/Solutions Manual contains an extensive exercise on ''electron pushing:'' I have found this exercise to be very successful in making my students comfortable with a topic that should be easy,
but somehow perplexes even the best of them unless they have sufficient practice.) Chapter 3 also contains a discussion of thermodynamics and kinetics. This section was rewritten to make it even easier for students to understand. Rate equations are derived in an appendix for those who wish to give their students a more mathematical treatment, and the Study Guide/Solutions Manual contains a section on calculating kinetic parameters.
I chose to lead off with the reactions of alkenes because of their simplicity. Chapter 3 covers a wide variety of reactions but they all have similar mechanisms--an electrophile adds to the least substituted sp2 carbon and a nucleophile adds to the other sp2 carbon. The many reactions differ only in the nature of the electrophile and the nucleophile. Because organic chemistry is all about the interactions of electrophiles and nucleophiles, starting the study of organic reactions in a way that familiarizes students
with a wide variety of electrophiles and nucleophiles makes sense. The reactions in Chapter 3 are discussed without regard to stereochemistry because I have found that students do well as long as only one new concept is introduced at a time. Chapter 4 reviews the isomers introduced in Chapters 2 and 3 (conformers and cis-trans isomers) and then discusses isomers that result from having a chirality center (the most recent IUPAC-approved term for a carbon bonded to four different groups). There is an extensive model-building exercise in the Study Guide/Solutions Manual to help the students get used to building molecular models, and the book's Companion Website gives students the opportunity to manipulate many molecules in three dimensions. Now that the students are comfortable with both isomers and electrophilic addition reactions, the two topics are considered together at the end of Chapter 4, where the stereochemistry of the addition reactions covered in Chapter 3 is presented.
Chapter 5 covers alkynes. This chapter should build the students' confidence because of the similarity of the material to what was presented in Chapter 3.
Understanding electron delocalization is vitally important in organic chemistry, so it is covered in its own chapter (Chapter 6). This chapter is a continuation of the introduction to this topic in Chapter 1. Chapter 7 covers the reactions of dimes, allowing students to apply the concept of electron delocalization just studied to the electrophilic addition reactions that were mastered in Chapters 3 and 5. Chapter 8 covers the reactions of alkanes. The lack of a functional group in alkanes further emphasizes the importance of a functional group to chemical reactivity.
The next three chapters deal with substitution and elimination reactions at an sp3 hybridized carbon. Chapter 9 covers substitution reactions of alkyl halides. Chapter 10 covers elimination reactions of alkyl halides and then goes on to consider competition between substitution and elimination. Chapter 11 covers substitution and elimination reactions at an sp3 hybridized carbon when a group other than a halogen is the leaving group--reactions of alcohols, ethers, epoxides, thiols, sulfides, and quaternary ammonium ions.
Next are two spectroscopy chapters (mass spectrometry, IR spectroscopy, and UV/Vis spectroscopy in Chapter 12, followed by NMR spectroscopy in Chapter 13). Each spectral technique is written as a ''stand-alone topic'' so it can be covered independently at any time during the course. Chapter 12 opens with a table of functional groups for those who want to cover spectroscopy before students have been introduced to all the functional groups.
Chapter 14 covers aromaticity and the reactions of benzene. Chapter 15 discusses the reactions of substituted benzenes. Because not all organic courses cover the same amount of material in a semester, Chapters 12-15 have been strategically placed to come near the end of the first semester. Ending a semester before Chapter 12, Chapter 13, or Chapter 14, or after Chapter 15 won't interfere with the flow of information.
The order of the topics dealing with the chemistry of carbonyl compounds in Chapters 16 and 17, where carboxylic acid derivatives are discussed before aldehydes and ketones, was initially met with skepticism by many considering using the book. However, when the opinions of those who had used the two editions of the book were sought, there was strong agreement that this is a preferred order of treatment. Chapter 16 discusses the reactions of carboxylic acids and their derivatives with oxygen
and nitrogen nucleophiles. Thus, the students are introduced to carbonyl chemistry by learning how tetrahedral intermediates partition. Chapter 17 starts by discussing the reactions of aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acid derivatives with strong (carbon and hydrogen) nucleophiles. By studying these compounds as a group, students see how the reactions of aldehydes and ketones differ from those of carboxylic acid derivatives. Then when they move on to study the formation and hydrolysis of imines, enamines, and acetals, they can easily understand these mechanisms because they are well versed in how tetrahedral intermediates partition. Over the years I have experimented with my classes and I believe this to be the most effective and easiest way to teach carbonyl chemistry. That being said, these chapters can easily be switched so long as Section 17.6 is skipped and then covered with Chapter 16.
Chapter 18 revisits reduction reactions, and discusses oxidation reactions, which my students tend to find troubling. I have found it helps to cover them all together as a unit. Because the reduction reactions appear in earlier chapters, this is an opportunity for students to extend their knowledge within the framework of what they already know. Chapter 19 deals with reactions at the carbon of a-carbonyl compounds.
One special note about amines. There is no question that amines are exceedingly important in organic chemistry. (In Chapter 30, The Organic Chemistry of Drugs, Table 30.1 lists the names, structures, and uses of the most widely prescribed drugs, and a majority of them are amines.) So then, why is there no separate chapter on amines?
My aim again is to organize organic chemistry in a way that allows students to understand and predict rather than memorize. This book covers the functional groups from the point of how they react rather than what they are called. Amines don't undergo additions, substitutions, or eliminations. Their reactivity lies in how they react with other organic compounds. Thus, all the chemistry that would be found in a typical chapter called Amines is in this book, but it is found when that reactivity with other compounds is discussed (for example, acid/base properties of aliphatic and aromatic amines--Chapters 1, 6, 15, and 27; amines as nucleophiles in substitution reactions--Chapters 9 and 16; amines as nucleophiles in addition reactions--Chapter 17; and elimination reactions of quarternary ammonium ions and amine oxides--Chapter 11). Amine synthesis is covered in those sections where amines are the products of the reactions being discussed (for example, the Gabriel synthesis of amines results from imide hydrolysis; amines are synthesized as the result of SN2 reactions; and anilines are synthesized as a result of
electrophilic aromatic substitution followed by reduction or as a result of nucleophilic aromatic substitution).
A Modular Organization in the Last Third of the Book
I anticipate that the first 21 chapters will be covered by most instructors during a year-long course. An instructor can then choose among the remaining chapters depending w his or her preference and the interests of the majority of the students enrolled in the course. Those teaching students whose interests are primarily in the biological and health sciences might be more inclined to cover Chapter 22 (Catalysis), Chapter 23 (The Organic Mechanisms of the Coenzymes. Metabolism), Chapter 24
(Lipids), and Chapter 25 (Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids). Those teaching courses designed for chemistry or engineering majors may decide to include Chapter 26 (Synthetic Polymers), Chapter 27 (Heterocyclic Compounds), Chapter 28 (Pericyclic Reactions), and Chapter 29 (More About Multistep Organic Synthesis). The book ends with a chapter on drug discovery and design-a topic that in my experience interests students enough that they will choose to read it on their own, even if
it is not covered in the course.
Changes to This Edition--Organization
In response to reviewer comments, electron delocalization and resonance are now introduced in Chapter 1. The number and kinds of Kekulé structures students see at the beginning of their study has been increased. Chapter 2 now covers the conformations of both mono- and disubstituted cyclohexanes. Material on aromaticity that appeared in Chapter 6 of the second edition has been expanded and moved to a new Chapter 14. In Chapter 12, the treatment of mass spectrum fragmentation patterns has been reworked to emphasize the common behavior of a variety of compounds when they fragment. The treatment of IR spectroscopy has been reorganized and expanded and includes many additional FT-IR spectra. Because the NMR spectra in the book are FT-NMR spectra and because FT-NMR spectra are what most students see in their laboratory courses, the discussion of the theory of NMR spectroscopy in Chapter 13 describes Fourier transform spectrometers, a theory easier for students to understand than the traditional description of continuous wave spectrometers. In response to user feedback, more problems that involve interpreting spectra have been added to this edition. To help students analyze these specta, more signals have been enlarged. As in the last edition, most of the H NMR spectra shown are 300 MHz FT NMR spectra, which are more like the NMR spectra students are likely to see in their undergraduate laboratories and after they graduate. More spectroscopy problems have also been added to subsequent chapters to enhance the integration of spectroscopy throughout the course. In Chapter 19, the sections on enolate chemistry have been expanded and clarified.
Organic Chemistry with a Bioorganic Flavor
Bioorganic material is introduced throughout this text to encourage students to recognize that organic chemistry and biochemistry are not separate entities, but two parts of a continuum of knowledge. For example, students learn not just how carboxylic acids are activated for reaction in the laboratory, but also how they are activated for reaction in biological systems and why the mode of activation differs in the two situations. Once students learn how such things as electron delocalization, leaving-group tendency, electrophilicity, and nucleophilicity affect the reactions of simple organic compounds, they can appreciate how these same factors are involved in the reactions of more complicated organic molecules such as enzymes, nucleic acids, and vitamins.
In the first part of the book, the bioorganic material is limited primarily to interest boxes and the last sections of the chapters, so the material is available to the curious student but the instructor is not compelled to introduce bioorganic topics into the course. Later in the book there are several chapters that focus heavily on bioorganic topics, including the mechanisms of coenzymes, the chemistry of drug design, and the chemistry of biological macromolecules. Each instructor may choose which, if any, of these chapters to cover.
The chapters on bioorganic chemistry (Chapters 20-25) emphasize the chemistry associated with the topic. They contain more chemistry than one would expect to find in a biochemistry text. In the lipids chapter, for example, the mechanisms of prostaglandin formation (allowing students to understand how aspirin works), fat breakdown (allowing students to understand the odor associated with rancidity), and terpene biosynthesis are covered. The chapter on coenzymes emphasizes the role of vitamin B1 as an electron delocalizer, vitamin K as a strong base, vitamin B12 as a radical initiator, biotin as a compound that can transfer a carboxyl group, and how the many different reactions of vitamin B6 are controlled by the overlap of p orbitals. The chapter on nucleic acids explains mechanistically such things as the function of ATP, why DNA contains thymine instead of uracil, and how DNA strands are synthesized in the laboratory. The chapter on catalysis explains the various modes of catalysis that occur in organic reactions and then shows that these are identical to the modes of catalysis that occur in enzymatic
reactions--all presented in a way that allows students to understand the lightening-fast rates of enzymatic reactions. Thus, these chapters are not a repetition of what will be covered in a biochemistry course, but are designed to serve as a bridge between the two disciplines.
An Early and Consistent Emphasis on Organic Synthesis
Students are introduced to synthetic chemistry and retrosynthetic analysis early in this book (Chapters 3 and 5, respectively), so they can use this technique throughout the course as they design multistep syntheses. In addition, there are six special sections spread throughout the book on synthesis design, each with a different focus. For example, one emphasizes the proper choice of reagents and reaction conditions to maximize the yield of the target molecule (Chapter 10), and another focuses on the synthesis of cyclic compounds (Chapter 17). Moreover, Chapter 29 (More About Multistep Organic Synthesis) discusses such things as protecting groups, control of stereochemistry during synthesis, and retrosynthetic analysis at a more advanced level. The use of combinatorial methods in organic synthesis is described in Chapter 30, which focuses on drug design.
Changes to This Edition--Synthesis
In this edition I have added more synthetic problems, in particular new multistep (road-map) problems. I also added more problems that involve the synthesis of compounds that students will recognize (like ketoprofen, Novocain, and Valium).
Margin Notes and Boxed Material to Engage the Student
Margin notes and biographical sketches appear throughout the text. The margin notes remind students of important principles, and the biographical sketches give students some appreciation of the history of chemistry and the people who contributed to that history. Interest Boxes have been included to bring life to the topic being discussed (e.g., Alkyl Halides as Survival Compounds, Chimney Sweeps and Cancer, Ultravolet Light and Sunscreens, and Penicillin and Drug Resistance) or to give the student extra help (e.g., Calculating Kinetic Parameters, A Few Words About Curved Arrows, and Incipient Primary
Changes to This Edition--Interest Boxes
There are a dozen new boxes in this edition, including one on the pericyclic reaction r that makes fireflies glow and one on how the popular new OTC antidepressant SAMe methylates neurotransmitters. I also extensively updated the boxes that remain from previous editions (for example, I mention the recent synthesis of octanitrocubane in the box on strained carbon compounds in Chapter 1).
My students really liked the margin notes in the second edition, so I added more of these in this edition. These emphasize core points and offer pedagogical advice.
Problems, Solved Problems, and Problem-Solving Strategies
The book contains more than 1500 problems. The problems within each chapter are primarily drill problems. They are designed so students can test themselves on the material just covered before they go on to the next section. Solutions to selected problems are shown to give the student an understanding of how to solve a problem, and short answers are provided in the Appendix for problems marked with a diamond so students can quickly test their understanding. Most chapters also contain at least one Problem-Solving Strategy that teaches students how to approach certain kinds of problems. For example, the Problem-Solving Strategy in Chapter 9 teaches students how to determine whether a reaction will be more apt to take place by an SN1 or an SN2 pathway. Each Problem-Solving Strategy is followed by an exercise that gives the student an opportunity to use the problem-solving skill just learned.
The end-of-chapter problems are of varying difficulty. The initial problems are drill problems that integrate material from the entire chapter. This provides a greater challenge by requiring the student to think about all the material in the chapter rather than individual sections. The end-of-chapter problems are purposefully not labeled to indicate the sections the material comes from. The problems become more challenging as the student proceeds through them, and material from more than one chapter is often integrated into later problems. I suspect the problems will not appear more difficult to the student, however, because as the student works through the problems, his or her ability increases and so does his or her confidence (that is why the more difficult problems are not marked as such). I made a concerted effort to make none of the problems so difficult that the student loses confidence. A few problems contain references to the journal in which the original work was published, enabling the curious
student to find out more about the work that led to the conclusion shown in the problem.
Changes to This Edition--Problems
Much of the focus of this revision was on the problems, both in-chapter and end-of-chapter. There are 10% more problems in this edition, and there are more Solved Problems and more Problem-Solving Strategy essays. As mentioned previously, many of the new problems are multistep synthetic problems, designed to help students practice their synthetic reasoning skills.
Rich in Three-Dimensional, Computer-Generated Structures
The second edition was widely praised for its effective and useful art program. This edition continues to present energy-minimized, three-dimensional structures throughout the text to give the students an appreciation of the three-dimensional shapes of organic molecules.
Pedagogical, Efficient Use of Color
Organic chemistry is sufficiently challenging without forcing students to use a road map to understand the use of color in a textbook. Therefore, this book does not have such things as blue incoming groups and green leaving groups. Students will not find themselves asking ''Why did the nucleophile change its color?'' Color is used to make the book visually more appealing and to make learning easier by highlighting points of focus. An attempt has been made to make the color consistent (mechanism arrows are always red, for example), but there is no need in this text for a student to memorize a color palette.
Changes to This Edition--Art Program
Electrostatic potential maps have been added throughout this edition to allow students to visualize molecules in ways not possible before. With them, students can now see things like electron delocalization, how a formal positive charge is not always on the region in a molecule with the least electron density, the effect of electronegativity on pKa, which atom of a cyclic bromonium ion is most susceptible to nucleophilic attack, the difference in the reactivity of substituted benzenes, the electrophilicity of the methyl group of an alkyl halide, and the nucleophilicity of the methyl group of an organometallic compound. There are hundreds of these new illustrations throughout the book.
The publisher offers a number of products for students and faculty that are designed to complete this learning package:
FOR THE STUDENT
Study Guide/Solutions Manual (ISBN 0-13-017859-4): The Study Guide/ Solutions Manual contains not just answers to the problems, but complete explanations of how the answers were obtained. The Study Guide/Solutions Manual also contains:
--a section on acid/base chemistry at a more advanced level than what is covered in the text, with a set of problems
--an 18-page exercise on ''pushing electrons''
--an exercise on building molecular modelsan exercise on calculating kinetic parameters
--21 practice tests
For the sake of making the path to mastery of the subject as smooth as possible, I thought it was important that I also write the Study Guide/Solutions Manual.
Bruice 3/e Companion Website (http://www.prenhall.com/bruice). This Companion Website for students features about 100 additional interactive, computer-graded problems for each chapter, regular updates of articles in the popular and lay scientific press that relate to organic chemistry, and a gallery of organic molecules that students can manipulate in real-time on their computers. And for students who are not familiar with the world wide web, we have:
Organic Media Companion for CW (ISBN 0-13-017863-2). This supplement comes FREE with each new copy of the text and is also available for separate purchase for students who buy used textbooks. It includes the web-enabled Organic Chemestry Student CD that accompanies the text as well as a brief, easy-to-understand book that describes the CD, how to use it, and how to use the Internet, world wide web, and Companion Website (CW) for the text. The CD is populated with multimedia elements and interactive exercises and offers students a one-click link to the Companion Website for the text.
Prentice Hall Molecular Model Kit (ISBN 0-205-508136-3). This best-selling model kit allows students to build space-filling and ball-and-stick models of common organic molecules. It allows accurate depiction of double and triple bonds, including heteroatomic molecules (which some model kits cannot handle well).
Prentice Hall Framework Molecular Model Kit (ISBN 0-13-330076-5). This model kit allows students to build scale models that show the mutual relations of atoms in organic molecules, including precise interatomic distances and bond angles. This is the most accurate model kit available.
Chemistry: Themes of the Times. This mini-newspaper is produced by The New York Times for students of chemistry. It features selected articles related to chemistry from the pages of The New York Times and is available free to adopters of the text.
If you wish, students' copies of the text may be accompanied by one of two molecular modeling tools:
Molecular Modeling Workbook, featuring SpartanView and SpartanBuild software (ISBN 0-13-032026-9). This workbook includes a software tutorial and numerous challenging exercises students can tackle to solve problems involving structure building and analysis using the tools included in the two pieces of Spartan software. Available free when packaged with the text; please ask your Prentice Hall representative for details or e-mail email@example.com.
ChemOffice Ltd software, including ChemDraw LTD and Chem3D LTD. A free workbook is available on the Companion Website that includes a software tutorial and numerous exercises for each chapter of the text. The software is available at a substantial discount if purchased with the textbook; please ask your Prentice Hall representative for details or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
FOR THE INSTRUCTOR
Organic Matter: A Presentational CD-ROM (ISBN 0-13-017861-6). This Instructor CD includes almost all images from the book, hundreds of 3-D images of molecules, animations of selected organic reactions, and videos of selected organic laboratory demonstrations. It also includes an easy-to-use interface that allows instructors to review material from the CD. Finally, it includes prebuilt Microsoft PowerPoint slides for those instructors who prefer to use that software for their presentations. Works with both Windows and Macintosh.
Transparency package (ISBN 0-13-017850-0). This set features 250 full-color images from the text, a 50% increase over the last edition.
Test Item File (ISBN 0-13-031012-3). Written by Gary Hollis of Roanoke College, this test bank features over 2000 questions. For instructors who prefer to customize their own tests, we also feature the complete test item file electronically along with the new, easy-to-use TestManager software. This software also includes tools for course management and offering tests over a local area network. Available for Windows (ISBN 0-13-017865-9) and Macintosh (0-13-017866-7).
BlackBoard and WebCT Course Management. The BlackBoard and WebCT course management systems equip faculty members with easy-to-use tools for creating sophisticated web-based educational programs. Prentice Hall provides robust content that is tailored specifically to the Bruice text. This content includes over 6000 prebuilt test questions, animations, 3-D (Chime) models, web links, and more. Using either of these course management systems, you can enhance an on-campus course or construct an entirely online course for distributed learning. Instructors with little or no technical experience can use a point-and-click navigation system to design their own on-line course components, including setting up course calendars, quizzes, assignments, lectures, and self-paced study help. Prebuilt courses in both BlackBoard and WebCT are available. These courses are available for a nominal fee over the price of the text (this fee includes software license fees). Please ask your Prentice Hall
representative for details or e-mail email@example.com.
To The Student
Welcome to organic chemistry. This book has been written for you, one who is encountering the subject for the first time. The first thing you should do is familiarize yourself with the book. The material on the inside of the front and back covers is information that you may want to refer to many times during the course. The Key Terms and Summaries of Reactions at the end of the chapters, and the Glossary at the end of the book, can be useful study aids. Also look at the Appendices to see what kind of information is provided there. The electrostatic potential maps and the molecular models throughout the book are there to give you an appreciation of what molecules look like in three dimensions and how electronic charge is distributed within the molecule. Look at the margin notes as you read a chapter--they emphasize important points.
Be sure to work all the problems within each chapter. These are drill problems that will enable you to check whether or not you have mastered the material. Some of them are solved for you in the text. Others--those marked with a diamond--have short answers provided in the Appendix. You will also find Problem-Solving Strategies sprinkled throughout the text. These features provide detailed suggestions for how best to approach important problem types. Please read these Problem-Solving Strategies carefully, and don't be afraid to refer back to them when you're working the end-of-chapter problems.
Work as many end-of-chapter problems as you can. The more problems you work, the more comfortable you will be with the subject and the more prepared you will be for the material in subsequent chapters. Do not let any problem frustrate you. If you cannot figure out the answer in a reasonable amount of time, turn to the Study Guide/Solutions Manual to learn how you should
have approached the problem. Later on go back and try to work the problem again without consulting the Study Guide/Solutions Manual.
The most important thing for you to remember in organic chemistry is DO NOT GET BEHIND. Organic chemistry consists of a lot of simple steps, so it is not a difficult subject. But the subject can become overwhelming if you don't keep up.
Before many of the theories and mechanisms were worked out, organic chemistry was a discipline that could be mastered only through memorization. Fortunately, that is no longer true. You will find many common threads that will allow you to use what you have learned in one situation to predict what will happen in other situations. So, as you read the book and study your notes, always try to understand why each thing happens. If the reasons behind the behavior are understood, most reactions can be
predicted. If you approach the class with the misconception that you must memorize hundreds of unrelated reactions, it could be your downfall. There is simply too much material to memorize, and if all your knowledge is based on memorization, you won't have the necessary foundation on which to lay subsequent material. From time to time, some memorization will be required. Some fundamental rules have to be memorized, and you will have to memorize the common names of some organic compounds. But the latter should not be a problem. After all, your friends have common names and you've been able to learn them.
Students who take organic chemistry to gain entrance into medical school sometimes wonder why medical schools pay so much attention to how they do in organic chemistry. The importance of organic chemistry is not in the subject matter alone. Mastering organic chemistry requires a thorough understanding of fundamentals and the ability to use these fundamentals to analyze, classify, and predict. This parallels the study of medicine; a physician uses an understanding of fundamentals to analyze, classify, and diagnose.
Good luck in your study. I hope you will enjoy your course in organic chemistry and learn to appreciate the logic of the discipline. If you have any comments about the book or any suggestions about how it can be improved for the students who will follow you, I would love to hear from you. Positive comments are the most fun, but critical comments are the most useful.
Paula Yurkanis Bruice
Bruice, Paula Yurkanis : University of California-Santa Barbara
(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Key Terms and Problems. Chapters 3, 7-11, 14-20, and 27 conclude with a Summary of Reactions.)
I. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
1. Electronic Structures and Bonding. Acids and Bases.
The Structure of an Atom. Distribution of Electrons in an Atom. Ionic, Covalent, and Polar Bonds. Lewis Structures. Atomic Orbitals. Molecular Orbitals and Bonding. Bonding in Methane and Ethane. Single Bonds. Bonding in Ethane. Double Bonds. Bonding in the Ethyne. Bonding in the Methyl Cation, the Methyl Radical, and the Methyl Anion. Bonding in Water. Bonding in Ammonia and in the Ammonium Ion. Bonding in the Hydrogen Halides. Summary of Orbital Hybridization, Bond Lengths, Bond Strengths, and Bond Angles. Dipole Moments of Molecules. An Introduction to Acids and Bases. Organic Acids and Bases: pK
2. An Introduction to Organic Compounds: Nomenclature, Physical Properties, and Representation of Structure.
Nomenclature of Alkyl Substituents. Nomenclature of Alkanes. Nomenclature of Cycloalkanes. Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides. Nomenclature of Ethers. Nomenclature of Alcohols. Nomenclature of Amines. Structure of Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines. Physical Properties of Alkanes, Alkyl Halides, Alcohols. Ethers, and Amines. Conformations of Alkanes: Rotation about Carbon--Carbon Bonds. Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain. Conformations of Cyclohexane. Conformations of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes. Conformations of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes. Conformations of Fused Rings.
II. HYDROCARBONS, STEREOCHEMISTRY, AND RESONANCE.
3. Reactions of Alkenes. Thermodynamics and Kinetics.
General Molecular Formula for a Hydrocarbon. Nomenclature of Alkenes. The Structure of Alkenes. Cis-Trans Isomerism. The E,Z System of Nomenclature. Reactivity Considerations. Thermodynamics and Kinetics. General Mechanism for Electrophilic Addition Reactions. Addition of Hydrogen Halides. Carbocation Stability. The Structure of the Transition State. Regioselectivity of Electrophilic Addition Reactions: Markovnikov's Rule. Addition of Water and Alcohols. Rearrangement of Carbocations. Addition of Halogens. Oxymercuration-Demercuration. Addition of Borane: Hydroboration-Oxidation. Addition of Radicals. The Relative Stabilities of Radicals. Addition of Hydrogen. The Relative Stabilities of Alkenes. Reactions and Synthesis.
4. Stereochemistry: The Arrangement of Atoms in Space; The Stereochemistry of Addition Reactions.
Conformational Isomers. Configurational Isomers: Cis-Trans Isomers. Configurational Isomers: Isomers with One Chirality Center. Drawing Enantiomers. Naming Enantiomers: The R, S System of Nomenclature. Optical Rotation. Optical Purity. Isomers with More Than One Chirality Center. Meso Compounds. The R, S System of Nomenclature for Isomers with More Than One Chirality Center. Reactions of Compounds That Contain a Chirality Center. Determining the Configuration. Separation of Enantiomers. Enantiotopic Hydrogens. Diastereotopic Hydrogens. and Prochirality Centers. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Chirality Centers. Stereochemistry of Reactions: Regioselective, Stereoselective, and Stereospecific Reactions. Stereochemistry of Alkene Addition Reactions. Stereochemistry of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions.
5. Reactions of Alkynes. Introduction to Multistep Synthesis.
Nomenclature of Alkynes. Physical Properties of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. The Structure of Alkynes. Reactivity Considerations. Addition of Hydrogen Halides and Addition of Halogens. Addition of Water. Addition of Borane: Hydroboration-Oxidation. Addition of Hydrogen. Acidity of a Hydrogen Bonded to an sp Hybridized Carbon. Synthesis Using Acetylide Ions. Designing a Synthesis I: An Introduction to Multistep Synthesis. Commercial Use of Ethyne.
6. Electron Delocalization and Resonance.
Delocalized Electrons: The Structure of Benzene. Bonding in Benzene. Delocalized Electrons and Resonance. How to Draw Resonance Contributors. The Resonance Hybrid. Resonance Energy. Stability of Allylic and Benzylic Cations. Stability of Allylic and Benzylic Radicals. Some Chemical Consequences of Electron Delocalization. Effect of Delocalized Electrons on pK
7. Reactions of Dienes.
Nomenclature of Alkenes with More Than One Functional Group. Configurational Isomers of Dienes. Relative Stabilities of Dienes. A Molecular Orbital Description of 1,3-Butadiene. Reactivity Considerations. Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Isolated Dienes. Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Conjugated Dienes. Thermodynamic versus Kinetic Control of Reactions. Addition of a Dienophile to a Conjugated Diene: The Diels-Alder Reaction. Nomenclature of Bicyclic Compounds.
8. Reactions of Alkanes: Radicals.
Reactivity Considerations. Chlorination and Bromination of Alkanes. Factors That Determine Product Distribution. The Reactivity-Selectivity Principle. Radical Substitution of Benzylic and Allylic Hydrogens. Stereochemistry of Radical Substitution Reactions. Reaction of Cyclic Compounds. Radical Reactions in Biological Systems. Radicals and Stratospheric Ozone.
III. SUBSTITUTION AND ELIMINATION REACTIONS.
9. Reactions at an sp
Reactivity Considerations. The Mechanism of S
10. Reactions at an sp
The E2 Reaction. Zaitsev's Rule. The E1 Reaction. Competition between E2 and E1 Reactions. Stereochemistry of E2 and E1 Reactions. Elimination from Cyclic Compounds. A Kinetic Isotope Effect. Competition between Substitution and Elimination. Substitution and Elimination Reactions in Synthesis. Consecutive E2 Elimination Reactions. Intermolecular versus Intramolecular Reactions. Designing a Synthesis II: Approaching the Problem.
11. Reactions at sp
Substitution Reactions of Alcohols. Additional Methods for Converting Alcohols into Alkyl Halides. Conversion of Alcohols into Sulfonate Esters. Dehydration of Alcohols. Substitution Reactions of Ethers. Reactions of Epoxides. Arene Oxides. Organometallic Compounds. Crown Ethers. Thiols, Sulfides, and Sulfonium Salts. Reactions of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. Phase Transfer Catalysis.
IV. IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.
12. Mass Spectrometry, Infrared Spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy.
Mass Spectrometry. The Mass Spectrum. Fragmentation. Isotopes in Mass Spectrometry. Determination of Molecular Formulas: High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Fragmentation at Functional Groups. Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum. Infrared Spectroscopy. Infrared Absorption Bands. Intensity of Absorption Bands. Position of Absorption Bands. C--H Absorption Bands. Shape of Absorption Bands. Absence of Absorption Bands. Infrared Inactive Vibrations. Identifying Infrared Spectra. Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy. The Beer-Lambert Law. Effect of Conjugation of ...lmax. The Visible Spectrum and Color. Uses of UV/Vis Spectroscopy.
13. NMR Spectroscopy.
Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy. Fourier Transform NMR. Shielding. The Number of Signals in the
V. AROMATIC COMPOUNDS.
14. Aromaticity. Reactions of Benzene.
Criteria for Aromaticity. Aromatic and Nonaromatic Cyclic Hydrocarbons. Aromatic and Nonaromatic Heterocyclic Compounds. Some Chemical Consequences of Aromaticity. Antiaromaticity. A Molecular Orbital Description of Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity. Reactivity Considerations. General Mechanism for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions. Halogenation of Benzene. Nitration of Benzene. Sulfonation of Benzene. Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Banzene. Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Benene. Alkylation of Benzene by Acylation-Reduction.
15. Reactions of Substituted Benzenes.
Nomenclature of Subsitituted Benzenes. Reactions of Substituents on Benzene. The Effect of Substituents on Reactivity. The Effect of Substituents on Orientaiton. The Effect of Substituents on pK
VI. CARBONYL COMPOUNDS.
16. Carbonyl Compounds I: Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives with Oxygen and Nitrogen Nucleophiles.
Nomenclature. Structures of Carboxylic Acids and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives. Physical Properties of Carbonyl Compounds. Reactivity Considerations. Relative Reactivities of Carboxylic Acids, Acyl Halids. Acid Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides. General Mechanism for Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions. Reactions of Acyl Halids. Reactions of Acid Anhydrides. Reactions of Esters. Acid-Catalyzed Ester Hydrolysis. Hydroxide-Ion-Promoted Ester Hydrolysis. Reactions of Carboxylic Acids. Reactions of Amides. Hydrolysis of Amides: Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis and Hydroxide-Ion-Promoted Hydrolysis. The Gabriel Synthesis of Primary Amines. Hydrolysis of Nitriles. Soaps, Detergents, and Micelles. Synthesis of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives. Dicarboxylic Acid Derivatives.
17. Carbonyl Compounds II: Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds with Carbon and Hydrogen Nucleophiles; Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones with Oxygen and Nitrogen Nucleophiles; Reactions of
Nomenclature. Relative Reactivities of Carbonyl Compounds. Reactivity Considerations. Addition of Carbon Nucleophiles. Addition of Hydride Ion. Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds That Have Leaving Groups with Grignard Reagents and Hydride Ion Donors. Addition of Nitrogen Nucleophiles. Addition of Oxygen Nucleophiles. Protecting Groups. Addition of Sulfur Nucleophiles. The Wittig Reaction. Stereochemistry of Nucleophilic Addition Reactions: Re and Si Faces. Designing a Synthesis IV: The Synthesis of Cyclic Compounds. Nucleophilic Addition to ...a, ...b-Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones: Direct Addition Versus Conjugate Addition. Nucleophilic Addition to ...a, ...b-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acid Derivatives. Enzyme-Catalyzed Additions to ...a, ...b-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds.
18. More about Oxidation-Reduction Reactions.
Reduction Reactions. Oxidation of Alcohols. Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones. Oxidation of Alkenes with Peroxyacids. Hydroxylation of Alkenes. Oxidative Cleavage of 1,2-Diols. Oxidative Cleavage of Alkenes: Ozonolysis. Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes. Designing a Synthesis V: Functional Group Interconversion. Biological Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation of Hydroquinones/Reduction of Quinones.
19. Carbonyl Compounds III: Reactions at the ...a-Carbon.
Acidity of ...a-Hydrogens. Keto-Enol Tautomerism. Reactivity Considerations. Halogenation of the ...a-Carbon of Aldehydes and Ketones. Halogenation of the ...a-Carbon of Carboxylic Acids: The Hell-Volhard-Zelinski Reaction. ...a-Halogenated Carbonyl Compounds in Synthesis. Using Lithium Diisopropylamide (LDA) to Form an Enolate. Alkylation of the ...a-Carbon of Carbonyl Compounds. Alkylation and Acylation of the ...a-Carbon via an Enamine Intermediate. Alkylation of the ...b-Carbon: The Michael Reaction. The Aldol Addition. Dehydration of Aldol Addition Products: Formation of ...ab-Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones. The Mixed Aldol Addition. The Claisen Condensation. The Mixed Claisen Condensation. Intramolecular Condensation and Addition Reactions. Decarboxylation of 3-Oxocarboxylic Acids. The Malonic Ester Synthesis: Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids. The Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis: Synthesis of Methyl Ketones. Designing a Synthesis VI: Making New Carbon-Carbon Bonds. Reactions at the ...a-Carbon in Biological Systems.
VII. BIOORGANIC COMPOUNDS.
Classification of Carbohydrates. The D and L Notation. Configuration of the Aldoses. Configurations of the Ketoses. Redox Reactions of Monosaccharides. Osazone Formation. Chain Elongation: The Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis. Chain Shortening: The Ruff Degradation. Stereochemistry of Glucose: The Fischer Proof. Cyclic Structure of Monosaccharides: Hemiactetal Formation. Stability of Glucose. Acylation and Alkylation of Monosaccharides. Formation of Glycosides. The Anomeric Effect. Reducing and Nonreducing Sugars. Determination of Ring Size. Disaccharides. Polysaccharides. Some Naturally Occurring Products Derived from Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates on Cell Surfaces. Synthetic Sweeteners.
21. Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins.
Classification and Nomenclature of Amino Acids. Configuration of Amino Acids. Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids. The Isoelectric Point. Separation of Amino Acids. Resolution of Racemic Mixtures of Amino Acids. Peptide Bonds and Disulfide Bonds. Some Interesting Peptides. Strategy of Peptide Bond Synthesis: N-Protection and C-Activation. Automated Peptide Synthesis. Protein Structure. Determining the Primary Structure of a Protein. Secondary Structure of Proteins. Tertiary Structure of Proteins. Quaternary Structure of Proteins. Protein Denaturation.
Catalysis in Organic Reactions. Nucleophilic Catalysis. Acid Catalysis. Base Catalysis. Metal-Ion Catalysis. Intramolecular Reactions. Intramolecular Catalysis. Catalysis in Biological Reactions. Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions. Catalytic Antibodies and Artificial Enzymes.
23. The Organic Mechanisms of the Coenzymes. Metabolism.
Overall View of Metabolism. Niacin: The Vitamin Needed for Many Redox Reactions. Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide and Flavin Mononucleotide: Vitamin B
Fatty Acids. Waxes. Fats and Oils. Membranes. Prostaglandins. Terpenes. Vitamin A. Biosynthesis of Terpenes. Steroids. Biosynthesis of Cholesterol. Synthetic Steroids.
25. Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids.
Nucleosides and Nucleotides. ATP: The Carrier of Chemical Energy. Three Mechanisms for Phosphoryl Transfer Reactions. The ''High-Energy'' Character of Phosphoanhydride Bonds. Kinetic Stability of ATP in the Cell. Other Important Nucleotides. The Nucleic Acids. Helical Forms of DNA. Biosynthesis of DNA: Replication. Biosynthesis of Messenger RNA: Transcription. Ribosomal RNA. Transfer RNA. Biosynthesis of Proteins: Translation. Why DNA Contains Thymine Instead of Uracil. Determining the Base Sequence of DNA. Laboratory Synthesis of DAN Strands. Rational Drug Design.
VIII. SPECIAL TOPICS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
26. Synthetic Polymers.
General Classes of Synthetic Polymers. Chain-Growth Polymers. Stereochemistry of Polymerization. Ziegler-Natta Catalysts. Polymerization of Dienes. The Manufacture of Rubber. Copolymers. Step-Growth Polymers. Physical Properties of Polymers. Biodegradable Polymers.
27. Heterocyclic Compounds.
Saturated Heterocycles. Unsaturated Five-Membered-Ring Heterocycles. Unsaturated Six-Membered Ring Heterocycles. Biologically Important Heterocycles.
28. Pericyclic Reactions.
Three Kinds of Pericyclic Reactions. Molecular Orbitals and Orbital Symmetry. Electrocyclic Reactions. Cycloaddition Reactions. Sigmatropic Rearrangements. Pericyclic Reactions in Biological Systems. Summary of the Selection Rules for Pericyclic Reactions.
29. More about Multistep Organic Synthesis.
Functional Group Introduction, Removal. and Interconversion. More about Retrosynthetic Analysis: Disconnections. Retrosynthetic Analysis of Dioxygenated Compounds. More about Protecting Groups. Control of Stereochemistry. Selected Examples of Syntheses.
30. The Organic Chemistry of Drugs: Discovery and Design.
Naming Drugs. Lead Compounds. Molecular Modification. Random Screening. Serendipity in Drug Development. Receptors. Drugs and Enzyme Inhibitors. Designing a Suicide Substrate. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR). Molecular Modeling. Combinatorial Organic Sysnthsis. Antiviral Drugs. Economics of Drugs. Governmental Regulations.
Physical Properties of Organic Compounds. PK
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