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Personality : Theory and Research

Personality : Theory and Research - 9th edition

ISBN13: 978-0471149941

Cover of Personality : Theory and Research 9TH 05 (ISBN 978-0471149941)
ISBN13: 978-0471149941
ISBN10: 0471149942
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Edition/Copyright: 9TH 05
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Published: 2005
International: No

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Personality : Theory and Research - 9TH 05 edition

ISBN13: 978-0471149941

Lawrence A. Pervin, Daniel Cervone and Oliver P. John

ISBN13: 978-0471149941
ISBN10: 0471149942
Cover type:
Edition/Copyright: 9TH 05
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Published: 2005
International: No
Summary

Personality: Theory and Research, 9th Edition introduces the primary theoretical perspectives that guide contemporary research on personality and individual differences, while also reviewing a wide range of contemporary scientific findings on personality. Throughout the text, emphasis is placed on how theory and research inform one another. Rich case material shows how the theoretical conceptions yield insight into the lives of individual persons. In keeping with the long tradition of this text, the new edition treats each theoretical approach objectively and even-handedly, encouraging readers to weigh the evidence and to formulate their own conclusions. Revisions in the new edition are designed to presents this complex scientific field in an highly engaging, accessible, and readable manner.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1.

PERSONALITY THEORY: FROM EVERYDAY OBSERVATIONS TO SYSTEMATIC THEORIES.

WHY STUDY PERSONALITY?

DEFINING PERSONALITY.

PERSONALITY THEORY AS AN ANSWER TO THE QUESTIONS OF WHAT, HOW, AND WHY.

Structure.

Units of Analysis.

Hierarchy.

Process.

Growth and Development.

Genetic Determinants.

Environmental Determinants.

Psychopathology and Behavior Change.

IMPORTANT ISSUES IN PERSONALITY THEORY.

Philosophical View of the Person.

Internal and External Determinants of Behavior.

Consistency Across Situations and Over Time.

The Unity of Experience and Action and the Concept of Self.

Varying States of Awareness and the Concept of the Unconscious.

The Influence of the Past, Present, and Future on Behavior, 25

Can We Have a Science of Personality? What Kind of a Science Can It Be?

Important Issues: Summary.

EVALUATION OF THEORIES.

The Function of a Personality Theory.

Comprehensiveness, Parsim ony, and Research Relevance.

Comprehensiveness.

Parsimony.

Research Relevance.

Evaluation of Theories: Summary.

THE PERSONALITY THEORIES: AN INTRODUCTION.

The Challenge of Constructing a Personality Theory.

The Personality Theories: A Preliminary Sketch.

Differences among the Theories.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 2.

THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF PEOPLE.

THE DATA OF PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY.

LOTS of Data.

How Do Data from Different Sources Relate to One Another?

Fixed versus Flexible Measures.

Personality Theory and Assessment. 

Goals of Research: RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, ETHICAL BEHAVIOR.

Reliability.

Validity.

The Ethics of Research and Public Policy.

THREE GENERAL APPROACHES TO RESEARCH.

Case Studies and Clinical Research.

Case Studies: An Example.

Case Studies: Limitations.

Personality Questionnaires and Correlational Research.

Correlational Research: An Example.

Correlational Research: Limitations.

Laboratory Studies and Experimental Research.

Experimental Research: An Example.

Evaluating Alternative Research Approaches.

Case Studies and Clinical Research: Strengths and Limitations.

Correlational Research: Strengths and Limitations.

Laboratory, Experimental Research: Strengths and Limitations.

Summary of Strengths and Limitations.

The Use of Verbal Reports.

PERSONALITY THEORY AND PERSONALITY RESEARCH.

PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT AND THE CASE OF JIM.

Autobiographical Sketch of Jim.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 3.

A PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY: FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF PERSONALITY,

WHY STUDY FREUD?

SIGMUND FREUD (1856–1939): A VIEW OF THE THEORIST.

FREUD’S VIEW OF THE PERSON AND SOCIETY.

FREUD’S VIEW OF THE SCIENCE OF PERSONALITY.

PSYCHOANALYSIS: A THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

Structure.

The Concept of the Unconscious and Levels of Consciousness.

Process.

Life and Death Instincts.

The Dynamics of Functioning.

Anxiety, Mechanisms of Defense, and Contemporary Research on Defensive Processes. Growth and Development.

The Development of Thinking Processes.

The Development of the Instincts.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 4.

A PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY: APPLICATIONS AND EVALUATION OF FREUD’S THEORY.

CLINICAL APPLICATIONS.

Assessment: Projective Tests.

The Rorschach Inkblot Test.

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).

Illustrative Research Use and Evaluation.

Projective Tests—Do They Work?

PSYCHOPATHOLOGY.

Personality Types.

The Oral Personality.

The Anal Personality.

The Phallic Character.

Conflict and Defense.

BEHAVIOR CHANGE.

Insights into the Unconscious: Free Association and Dream Interpretation.

The Therapeutic Process: Transference.

A CASE EXAMPLE: LITTLE HANS.

Description of the Problem.

Events Leading Up to Development of the Phobia.

Interpretation of the Symptom.

The Solution to the Oedipal Conflict.

Overall Evaluation.

THE CASE OF JIM.

Rorschach and TAT: Psychoanalytic Theory.

Comments on the Data.

RELATED POINTS OF VIEW.

Two Early Challenges to Freud.

Alfred Adler (1870–1937).

Carl G. Jung (1875–1961).

The Cultural and Interpersonal Emphasis.

Karen Horney (1885–1952).

Harry Stack Sullivan (1892–1949).

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PSYCHODYNAMIC TRADITION.

Object Relations Theory.

Narcissism and the Narcissistic Personality.

Attachment Theory and Adult Personal Relationships.

Attachment Styles in Adulthood.

Attachment Types or Dimensions?

CRITICAL EVALUATION.

Major Contributions.

Limitations of the Theory.

The Scientific Status of Psychoanalytic Theory.

The Psychoanalytic View of the Person.

Summary Evaluation.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 5.

A PHENOMENOLOGICAL THEORY: CARL ROGERS’S PERSON-CENTERED THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

CARL R. ROGERS (1902–1987):

A VIEW OF THE THEORIST.

ROGERS’S VIEW OF THE PERSON.

ROGERS’S VIEW OF SCIENCE, THEORY, AND RESEARCH.

THE PERSONALITY THEORY OF CARL ROGERS.

Structure.

The Self.

Measures of the Self-Concept.

Process.

Self-Actualization.

Self-Consistency and Congruence.

The Need for Positive Regard.

Growth and Development.

Self-Actualization and Healthy Psychological Development.

Research on Parent-Child Relationships.

Social Relations, Self-Actualization, and Well-Being Later in Life.

Conclusion, 185

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 6.

A PHENOMENOLOGICAL THEORY: APPLICATIONS AND EVALUATION OF ROGERS’S THEORY.

CLINICAL APPLICATIONS.

Psychopathology.

Self-Experience Discrepancy.

Discrepancies among Parts of the Self.

Change.

Therapeutic Conditions Necessary for Change.

Outcomes of Client-Centered Therapy.

A CASE EXAMPLE: MRS. OAK.

Description of the Client and Problem.

Description of the Therapy.

Description of the Outcome.

THE CASE OF JIM.

Semantic Differential: Phenomenological Theory.

Comments on the Data.

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THEORY AND RESEARCH.

Rogers’s Shift in Emphasis: From Individuals to Groups and Society.

Fluctuations in Self-Esteem and Contingencies of Worth.

Internally Motivated Goals and Authenticity.

Cross-Cultural Research on the Self.

Is Positive Self-Regard a Human Universal?

Regional Variations in Well-Being.

RELATED POINTS OF VIEW.

The Human Potential Movement.

Kurt Goldstein (1878–1965).

Abraham H. Maslow (1908–1970).

Existentialism.

CRITICAL EVALUATION.

Phenomenology.

The Concept of Self.

Conflict, Anxiety, and Defense.

Summary Evaluation.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 7.

TRAIT APPROACHES TO PERSONALITY: ALLPORT, EYSENCK, AND CATTELL.

THE TRAIT CONCEPT.

What Is a Trait?

Basic Views Shared by Trait Theorists.

THE TRAIT THEORY OF GORDON W. ALLPORT

(1897–1967).

Traits and Distinctions among Kinds of Traits.

Functional Autonomy.

Idiographic Research.

Comment on Allport.

THE THREE-FACTOR THEORY OF HANS J. EYSENCK

(1916–1997).

Trait Measurement: Factor Analysis.

Factor Analysis and Identifying the Structure of Individual Differences.

Basic Dimensions of Personality.

Questionnaire Measures.

Research Findings.

Biological Bases of Personality Traits in Eysenckian Theory.

Psychopathology and Behavior Change.

Comment on Eysenck.

THE FACTOR-ANALYTIC TRAIT APPROACH OF

RAYMOND B. CATTELL (1905–1998).

Cattell’s View of Personality Science.

Kinds of Traits.

Sources of Data: L-Data, Q-Data, OT-Data.

Stability and Variability in Behavior.

Comment on Cattell.

TRAIT THEORY: ALLPORT, EYSENCK, AND CATTELL.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 8.

TRAIT THEORY: THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL; APPLICATIONS AND

EVALUATION OF TRAIT APPROACHES TO PERSONALITY.

THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY: RESEARCH EVIDENCE.

Analysis of Trait Terms in Natural Language and in Questionnaires.

The Fundamental Lexical Hypothesis.

Cross-Cultural Research: Are the Big Five Universal Dimensions?

The Big Five in Personality Questionnaires.

The NEO-PI-R and Its Hierarchical Structure: Facets.

Integration of Eysenck’s and Cattell’s Factors within the Big Five.

PROPOSED THEORETICAL MODEL FOR THE BIG FIVE.

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT.

Age Differences Throughout Adulthood.

Initial Findings from Childhood and Adolescence.

Stability and Change in Personality.

APPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL.

Vocational Interests.

Health and Longevity.

Clinical Psychology: Diagnosis and Treatment.

THE CASE OF JIM.

The 16 P.F. Questionnaire: Trait, Factor-Analytic Theory.

Comments on the Data.

The Stability of Personality: Jim 5 and 20 Years Later.

Five-Factor Model: Self-ratings and Ratings by Wife on the NEO-PI.

EVALUATION: THE PERSON-SITUATION CONTROVERSY.

Longitudinal Stability.

Cross-Situational Stability.

Conclusion.

OVERALL EVALUATION OF TRAIT APPROACHES.

Strengths of the Approaches.

Active Research Effort.

Interesting Hypotheses.

Potential Ties to Biology.

Limitations of the Approaches.

Problems with the Method: Factor Analysis.

Problems with the Trait Concept.

What Is Left Out or Neglected?

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 9.

BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONALITY.

TEMPERAMENT: VIEWS OF MIND-BODY RELATIONSHIPS FROM THE PAST TO THE PRESENT.

Constitution and Temperament: Early Views.

Constitution and Temperament: Longitudinal Studies.

Constitution and Temperament: Kagan’s Research on Inhibited and Uninhibited Children.

EVOLUTIONARY THEORY AND PERSONALITY: THE MODERN SYNTHESIS, PART I.

Social Exchange and the Detection of Cheating.

Sex Differences: Evolutionary Origins?

Male-Female Mate Preferences.

Causes of Jealousy.

Evolutionary Origins of Sex Differences: How Strong Are the data?

Evolutionary Theory and the Big Five Personality Dimensions.

Evolutionary Explanations: Comment.

GENES AND PERSONALITY: THE MODERN SYNTHESIS, PART II.

Behavioral Genetics.

Selective Breeding Studies.

Twin Studies.

Adoption Studies.

Heritability Coefficient.

Heritability of Personality: Findings.

Some Important Caveats.

Molecular Genetic Paradigms.

Environments and Gene-Environment Interactions.

Shared and Nonshared Environment.

Understanding Nonshared Environment Effects.

Three Kinds of Nature-Nurture Interactions.

Summary and Caveats.

NEUROSCIENCE AND PERSONALITY.

Localizing Brain Functions: Amygdala.

Left and Right Hemispheric Dominance.

Neurotransmitter Functioning: Dopamine and Serotonin.

Neurobiology and the Three Major Temperament Dimensions.

Three Dimensions of Temperament: PE, NE, and DvC.

Emotional and Lifestyle Correlates of PE, NE, and DvC.

Biological Correlates of PE, NE, and DvC.

Biology and Personality Traits: Some Limitations.

Plasticity: Biological Processes Are Both Cause and Effect.

Summary.

NEUROSCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS OF “HIGHER-LEVEL”

PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS.

Brain and Self.

Brain and Moral Judgment.

BIOLOGY AND SOCIOPOLITICAL ISSUES.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 10.

BEHAVIORISM AND THE LEARNING APPROACHES TO PERSONALITY.

THE BEHAVIORISTIC VIEW OF THE SCIENCE OF PERSONALITY.

Environmental Determinism and Its Implications for the Concept of Personality.

Experimental Rigor, Observable Variables, and the Study of Simple Systems.

WATSON, PAVLOV, AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING.

Watson’s Behaviorism.

Pavlov’s Theory of Classical Conditioning.

Principles of Classical Conditioning.

Psychopathology and Change.

Conditioned Emotional Reactions.

The “Unconditioning” of Fear of a Rabbit.

Additional Applications of Classical Conditioning.

Systematic Desensitization.

A Reinterpretation of the Case of Little Hans.

Further Developments.

SKINNER’S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING.

A View of the Theorist.

Skinner’s Theory of Personality.

Structure.

Process: Operant Conditioning.

Growth and Development.

Psychopathology.

Behavioral Assessment.

Behavior Change.

Free Will?

A COMPARISON OF LEARNING APPROACHES WITH EARLIER VIEWS.

CRITICAL EVALUATION.

Strengths of Learning Approaches.

Limitations of Learning Approaches.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 11.

A COGNITIVE THEORY OF PERSONALITY:

GEORGE A. KELLY’S PERSONAL CONSTRUCT THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

GEORGE A. KELLY (1905–1966): A VIEW OF THE THEORIST.

KELLY’S VIEW OF THE SCIENCE OF PERSONALITY.

KELLY’S VIEW OF THE PERSON.

THE PERSONALITY THEORY OF GEORGE A. KELLY.

Structure.

Constructs and Their Interpersonal Consequences.

Types of Constructs and the Construct System.

The Role Construct Repertory (Rep) Test.

Unique Information Revealed by Personal Construct Testing.

Cognitive Complexity/Simplicity.

Process.

Anticipating Events.

Anxiety, Fear, and Threat.   

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT.

CLINICAL APPLICATIONS.

Psychopathology.

Change and Fixed-Role Therapy.

THE CASE OF JIM.

Rep Test: Personal Construct Theory.

Comments on the Data.

RELATED POINTS OF VIEW AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS.

Contemporary Analyses of Person-Situation/Beliefs.

CRITICAL EVALUATION: STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF

PERSONAL CONSTRUCT THEORY.

SUMMARY.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 12.

SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY: BANDURA AND MISCHEL.

RELATING SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY TO THEPREVIOUS THEORIES.

A VIEW OF THE THEORISTS.

Albert Bandura (1925– ).

Walter Mischel (1930– ).

Impact of the Theorists.

VIEW OF THE PERSON.

VIEW OF THE SCIENCE OF PERSONALITY.

SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY OF PERSONALITY: STRUCTURE.

Competencies and Skills.

Beliefs and Expectancies.

The Self and Self-Efficacy Beliefs.

Self-Efficacy and Performance.

Goals.

Evaluative Standards.

The Nature of Social-Cognitive Personality Structures.

SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY OF PERSONALITY: PROCESS.

Reciprocal Determinism.

Personality as a Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS).

Observational Learning.

Acquisition versus Performance.

Vicarious Conditioning.

Self-Regulation and Motivation.

Self-Efficacy, Goals, and Self-Evaluative Reaction.

Self-Control and Delay of Gratification.

Learning Delay of Gratification Skills.

Mischel’s Delay of Gratification Paradigm.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 13.

SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY: EXTENSIONS, APPLICATIONS, AND EVALUATION.

COGNITIVE COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY: BELIEFS, GOALS, AND EVALUATIVE STANDARDS.

Beliefs about the Self and Self-Schemas.

Self-Schemas and Reaction-Time Methods.

Self-Based Motives and Motivated Information Processing.

Learning versus Performance Goals.

Causes of Learning versus Performance Goals: Implicit Theories.

Standards of Evaluation.

Self-Standards and Self-Discrepancies.

A “General Principles” Approach to Personality.

CAUSAL EXPLANATIONS AND ATTRIBUTIONS.

Consequences of Causal Attributions.

CLINICAL APPLICATIONS.

Stress and Coping.

Pathology and Change.

Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy.

Beck’s Cognitive Therapy for Depression.

The Cognitive Triad of Depression.

Research on Faulty Cognitions.

Cognitive Therapy.

Psychopathology: Modeling, Self-Conceptions, and Perceived Self-Efficacy.

Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Depression.

Self-Efficacy and Health.

Therapeutic Change: Modeling and Guided Mastery.

THE CASE OF JIM.

Social-Cognitive Theory: Goals, Reinforcers, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs.

Comment.

Additional Assessments.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS: RELATING SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY TO THE PREVIOUS APPROACHES.

CRITICAL EVALUATION.

Strengths.

Systematic Research on Important Phenomena and Evidence.

A Theory Open to Change.

View of the Person and Social Concern.

Limitations.

Not Yet a Systematic, Unified Theory.

Relative Neglect of Important Areas.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 14.

PERSONALITY IN CONTEXT: INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS,

CULTURE, AND DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE COURSE OF LIFE.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS.

Rejection Sensitivity.

“Hot” and “Cool” Focus.

Transference in Interpersonal Relationships.

STRATEGIES FOR MEETING ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES:

OPTIMISTIC STRATEGIES AND DEFENSIVE PESSIMISM.

KNOWLEDGE, APPRAISAL, AND CROSS-SITUATIONAL COHERENCE.

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN SOCIOECONOMIC CONTEXT.

Causes and Effects of Personality Attributes.

Personality, Gender, and Historical Context.

PERSONALITY FUNCTIONING ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN.

Psychological Resilience in the Later Years.

Emotional Life in Older Adulthood: Socioemotional Selectivity.

PERSONS IN CULTURES.

Two Strategies for Thinking about Personality and Culture.

Strategy #1: Personality…and Culture?

Strategy #2: Culture and Personality.

Personality and Self as Socially Constructed within Culture.

Independent and Interdependent Views of Self.

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND SOCIAL CHANGE.

Media Modeling of Prosocial Behavior.

Literacy.

HIV/AIDS Prevention.

SUMMARY.

MAJOR CONCEPTS.

REVIEW.

CHAPTER 15.

AN OVERVIEW OF PERSONALITY THEORY, ASSESSMENT, AND RESEARCH.

COMMON GROUND AND REMAINING CHALLENGES.

Philosophical View of the Person.

Internal and External Causes of Behavior.

The Unity of Behavior and the Concept of the Self.

Varying States of Awareness and the Concept of the Unconscious.

Relationships among Cognition, Affect, and Overt Behavior.

Influences of the Past, Present, and Future on Behavior.

PERSONALITY THEORY AS AN ANSWER TO THE QUESTIONS OF WHAT, HOW, AND WHY.

Personality Structure.

Process.

Growth and Development.

Psychopathology.

Change.

Biological Foundations and Levels of Explanation.

Relationships among Theory, Assessment, and Research.

THE CASE OF JIM.

Comparison of the Assessment Data on Different Theories.

Stability and Change Over Time.

Jim’s Reflections on the Data.

OVERVIEW AND A FINAL SUMMING UP.

REVIEW.

GLOSSARY.

REFERENCES. 

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